Chapter 16: Fluid And Chemical Balance

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Fluid and chemical balance

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  • 1. 
    A mixture of water, chemicals called electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and blood cells

  • 2. 
    Name four components of body fluid

  • 3. 
    The human body is made of of approx. how much water?

  • 4. 
    Fluid inside cells thay represents the greatest portion of water in the body

  • 5. 
    Remaining body fluid outside of the cell

  • 6. 
    Fluid in the tissue space between and around cells

  • 7. 
    Watery plasma, or serum, portion of the blood

  • 8. 
    Chemical compounds such as sodiuma and chloride, that are dissolved, absorbed, and distributed in body and possess an electrical charge

  • 9. 
    Where are electrolytes obtained from?

  • 10. 
    Substances that carry either a positive or negative charge

  • 11. 
    Electrolytes with a positive charge

  • 12. 
    Electrolytes with a negative charge

  • 13. 
    How are electrolytes measured?

  • 14. 
    Chemical compounds that remain bound together when dissolved in a solution and do not conduct electricity

  • 15. 
    Consists o 3 liters of plasma, or fluid, and 2 liters of red blood cells for a total circulating volume of 5 liters

  • 16. 
    Blood cells include;

  • 17. 
    For every 5oo rbcs, there are _____platelets and ___white blood cell

  • 18. 
    Helps to regulate distribution of water by controlling movement of fluid from one location to another

  • 19. 
    Undissolved protein substances such as albumin and blood cells within body fluids that do not readily pass through membranes

  • 20. 
    Force for contracting water

  • 21. 
    Regulates the movement of water and substances from a compartment where the pressure is higher to one where the pressure is lower

  • 22. 
    Force of filtration; pressure exerted against a membrane

  • 23. 
    The physiologic process in which dissolved substances, such as electrolytes and gases, move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane

  • 24. 
    What does passive diffusion facilitate?

  • 25. 
    Identical balance of cations with anions

  • 26. 
    The process in which certain dissolved substances require the assistance of a carrier molecule to pass from one side of a semipermeable membrane to the other

  • 27. 
    A process of chemica distribution that requires an energy source

  • 28. 
    What is an example of active transport?

  • 29. 
    What is the average fluid intake?

  • 30. 
    The sum of all fluid volume that a client consumes or is instilled into the clients body

  • 31. 
    How is fluid output determined?

  • 32. 
    A general term describing any several condition in which the bodys water is not in proper volume ot location within the body

  • 33. 
    A low volume of extracellular fluid compartments

  • 34. 
    If hypovolemia is untreated it can cause...

  • 35. 
    Fluid deficit in both extracellular and intracellular compartments

  • 36. 
    If patient is dehydrated the skin..

  • 37. 
    How is fluid balance restored?

  • 38. 
    Higher than normal volume of water in the intravascular fluid compartment and is another example of fluid imbalance

  • 39. 
    What can hypervolemia lead to?

  • 40. 
    Severely compromised heart function

  • 41. 
    The movement of intravascular fluid to nonvascular fluid compartments, where it becomes trapped and useless

  • 42. 
    Deficit in albumin in the blood

  • 43. 
    Fluids infused into a clients veins

  • 44. 
    What are the two types of intravenous solutions?

  • 45. 
    Made of water and other uniformly dissolved crystals such as salt and sugar

  • 46. 
    Made of water and molecules of suspended substances such as blood cells and blood products

  • 47. 
    What are crystalloid solutions classified as?

  • 48. 
    Contains the same concentration of dissolved substances normally found in plasma

  • 49. 
    This solution is given to clients who may not be able to eat or drink for short periods of time

  • 50. 
    Contains fewer dissolved substances than normally found in plasma

  • 51. 
    This solution is administered to clients with fluid loss in excess fluid intake, such as those with diarrhea and vomiting

  • 52. 
    More concentrated than body fluid and draws cellular and interstitial water into the intravascular compartment

  • 53. 
    This solution in not used frequently except in cases of severe edema or to expand the circulatory volume rapidly

  • 54. 
    This solution is used to replace circulating blood volume because the suspended molecules pull fluid in other departments

  • 55. 
    What are the most common types of colloid solutions?

  • 56. 
    What is used to treat a client with hypovolemic shock?

  • 57. 
    Escape of iv fluid into the tissue

  • 58. 
    Inflammation of a vein

  • 59. 
    Stationary blood clot

  • 60. 
    Blood clot that travels into the lung

  • 61. 
    Growth of microorganisms at the site or within the blood stream

  • 62. 
    Bubble of air traveling within the vascular system

  • 63. 
    Venipuncture is a type of ______?

  • 64. 
    How often should you change a venipuncture site?

  • 65. 
    When are IV's diffused?

  • 66. 
    Sealed chamber that provides a means of administering IV meds

  • 67. 
    How long can refrigerated blood be stored?

  • 68. 
    List 5 transport mechanisms

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