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Complementary base pairs.
Watson and Crick.
Beadle and Tatum.
The endoplasmic reticulum.
DNA polymerase molecules.
DNA ligase molecules.
Complementary base pairing.
Production of all three kinds of RNA molecules.
Production of a lipid bilayer.
Production of DNA copies.
Production of many proteins and polypeptides.
Production of all of the codons.
The plasma membrane.
RNA and DNA.
RNA and large proteins.
RNA and sugars.
DNA and proteins.
Nucleosomes and RNA.
Small ribosomal subunit.
Large ribosomal subunit.
DNA (the gene itself.)
Transcription and replication
Replication and repression
Protein synthesis and replication
Mutation and cell division
Transcription and translation
Breaking the code.
A variable number.
All four of the nucleotide bases must be used.
Each combination of any three nucleotides can act as a codon.
The first nucleotide in every codon is always the same.
A particular codon always specifies the same amino acid.
Each codon specified a different amino acid.
The code of all DNA molecules is the same.
The proteins made from the coded information are always the same.
The reading of the code occurs without any punctuation.
The genetic code is the same in all organisms with no exceptions.
A release factor.
An initiation factor.
Alternating between many chains.
Moving three nucleotides at a time on the mRNA.
Attaching amino acids in a random fashion.
Selecting the tRNA molecule that fits.
Attaching amino acids to the growing chain without charged tRNAs.
Amino acid codons.
A small ribosomal subunit.
TRNA with methionine.
A release factor.
An initiation factor.
Elongation of the transcript.
Addition of a 5' cap.
Addition of a poly A to the 3' end.
Association with the spliceosome.
Proteins --> RNA --> DNA.
RNA --> DNA --> proteins.
DNA --> proteins --> RNA.
DNA --> RNA --> proteins.
The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria.
The human insulin gene is a mutated form of a bacterial gene for bacterial insulin.
The human insulin gene was inserted into a bacterium's genome, and since the genetic code is nearly universal, the bacterium is able to produce human insulin.
The human insulin gene appears in bacteria that have been exposed to radiation treatments for diabetes.
The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria that is an inhabitant of the GI tract of diabetic patients.
The reason is that the third base pair on the tRNA allows some flexibility (wobble); thus, some tRNA anticodons can recognize more than one mRNA codon.
The reason is that some tRNA anticodons can misread some of the mRNA codons, which creates a "wobble" in the tRNA anticodons that can be repaired by RNA repair enzymes.
The reason is that the third base pair on the mRNA codon allows some flexibility (wobble); thus, some tRNA anticodons can recognize more than one mRNA codon.
The reason is that the tRNA has the flexibility to choose which mRNA codons are necessary for building the polypeptide chain.
Prokaryote genes are transcribed into mRNA, which is translated immediately. Eukaryote genes contain long sequences of nucleotides that do not code for amino acids and have to be removed from the primary transcript.
Prokaryote genes are transcribed directly into a polypeptide, while eukaryote genes have mRNA and tRNA involved in polypeptide assembly.
Prokaryote genes are translated before being transcribed into mRNA. Eukaryotic genes are transcribed into mRNA and then translated.
Prokaryote genes are edited of all introns before being transcribed into mRNA, while eukaryotic genes are edited after mRNA formation.
DNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
RNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
MRNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
TRNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
GTP or ATP.
A DNA template strand.
In the cytoplasm.
At the ribosome.
In the nucleus.
At the Golgi complex.
At the initiation of transcription.
The Poly-A polymerase enzyme.
The coding strand of the DNA molecule.
The template strand of the DNA molecule.
That the product of translation, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature mRNA transcript.
That the product of transcription, called the secondary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature tRNA transcript.
That the product of translation, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature tRNA transcript.
That the product of transcription, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature mRNA transcript.