Chapter 15: Genes And How They Work

51 Questions  I  By Aggiegal8
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  • 1. 
    The connection that exists between genes and hereditary traits requires the deciphering of the information encoded in genes into
    • A. 

      Amino acids.

    • B. 

      Nucleotides.

    • C. 

      Proteins.

    • D. 

      Histone molecules.

    • E. 

      Complementary bases.


  • 2. 
    Both DNA and RNA are made up of building blocks known as
    • A. 

      Nucleotides.

    • B. 

      Complementary base pairs.

    • C. 

      Amino acids.

    • D. 

      Genes.


  • 3. 
    The "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis was proposed by
    • A. 

      Watson and Crick.

    • B. 

      Griffith.

    • C. 

      Garrod.

    • D. 

      Franklin.

    • E. 

      Beadle and Tatum.


  • 4. 
    DNA and RNA nucleotides are composed of five carbon sugars, phosphate, and nitrogen bases. How many total nitrogen bases are there for use in the two nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5


  • 5. 
    The polypeptide-making organelles residing in the cytoplasm are large protein aggregates to which RNA is associated. They are called
    • A. 

      Ribosomes.

    • B. 

      Golgi bodies.

    • C. 

      Lysosomes.

    • D. 

      The endoplasmic reticulum.

    • E. 

      Mitochondria.


  • 6. 
    Amino acids are transported to the ribosome for use in building the polypeptide by
    • A. 

      MRNA molecules.

    • B. 

      TRNA molecules.

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase molecules.

    • D. 

      RRNA molecules.

    • E. 

      DNA ligase molecules.


  • 7. 
    The process in which an RNA polymerase molecule assembles an mRNA molecule whose nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence is called
    • A. 

      Gene amplification.

    • B. 

      Translation.

    • C. 

      Transcription.

    • D. 

      Polypeptide sequencing.

    • E. 

      Complementary base pairing.


  • 8. 
    Similar to the complementary purine-pyrimidine relationship observed in DNA, which of the following choices pairs with adenine in RNA?
    • A. 

      Thymine

    • B. 

      Cytosine

    • C. 

      Guanine

    • D. 

      Uracil


  • 9. 
    The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of how many bases?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      16

    • E. 

      64


  • 10. 
    The hereditary information in DNA is conveyed through the
    • A. 

      Production of all three kinds of RNA molecules.

    • B. 

      Production of a lipid bilayer.

    • C. 

      Production of DNA copies.

    • D. 

      Production of many proteins and polypeptides.

    • E. 

      Production of all of the codons.


  • 11. 
    Protein synthesis takes place on
    • A. 

      The plasma membrane.

    • B. 

      The nucleus.

    • C. 

      Ribosomes.

    • D. 

      Lysosomes.

    • E. 

      Microbodies.


  • 12. 
    Ribosomes are complex arrangements of
    • A. 

      RNA and DNA.

    • B. 

      RNA and large proteins.

    • C. 

      RNA and sugars.

    • D. 

      DNA and proteins.

    • E. 

      Nucleosomes and RNA.


  • 13. 
    The sites A, P, and E are progressively occupied by amino acids being assembled into a chain in protein synthesis. These sites are part of
    • A. 

      Small ribosomal subunit.

    • B. 

      Large ribosomal subunit.

    • C. 

      MRNA.

    • D. 

      TRNA.

    • E. 

      DNA (the gene itself.)


  • 14. 
    Each amino acid has a specific tRNA molecule that can transport it to the site of protein synthesis. Therefore, in humans the number of different tRNA molecules would be
    • A. 

      3.

    • B. 

      20.

    • C. 

      40.

    • D. 

      80.

    • E. 

      Thousands.


  • 15. 
    In eukaryotic cells, mRNA is made as a copy of the DNA coding information in the
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      Mitochondria.

    • C. 

      ER.

    • D. 

      Nucleus.

    • E. 

      Plasma membrane.


  • 16. 
    Gene expression includes which two of the following processes?
    • A. 

      Transcription and replication

    • B. 

      Replication and repression

    • C. 

      Protein synthesis and replication

    • D. 

      Mutation and cell division

    • E. 

      Transcription and translation


  • 17. 
    The enzyme that initiates transcription is
    • A. 

      RNA polymerase.

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • C. 

      Carbonic anhydrase.

    • D. 

      ATP synthetase.

    • E. 

      Transformation principle.


  • 18. 
    Because nucleic acid sequence information is changed into amino acid sequence information, polypeptide synthesis is known as
    • A. 

      Breaking the code.

    • B. 

      Decoding.

    • C. 

      Transcription.

    • D. 

      Translocation.

    • E. 

      Translation.


  • 19. 
    The number of nucleotides required to specify an amino acid is
    • A. 

      1.

    • B. 

      2.

    • C. 

      3.

    • D. 

      4.

    • E. 

      A variable number.


  • 20. 
    The genetic code operates on all the following principles except
    • A. 

      All four of the nucleotide bases must be used.

    • B. 

      Each combination of any three nucleotides can act as a codon.

    • C. 

      The first nucleotide in every codon is always the same.

    • D. 

      A particular codon always specifies the same amino acid.


  • 21. 
    How many unique mRNA codons can be constructed from the four different RNA nucleotides?
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      32

    • E. 

      64


  • 22. 
    The 3-nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is called the
    • A. 

      Codon.

    • B. 

      Anticodon.

    • C. 

      Amino acid.

    • D. 

      Transcript.

    • E. 

      Template.


  • 23. 
    Besides the triplet nature of the genetic code, the other major piece of information that was provided by Crick and his coworkers is that
    • A. 

      Each codon specified a different amino acid.

    • B. 

      The code of all DNA molecules is the same.

    • C. 

      The proteins made from the coded information are always the same.

    • D. 

      The reading of the code occurs without any punctuation.

    • E. 

      The genetic code is the same in all organisms with no exceptions.


  • 24. 
    The tRNA nucleotide sequence that lines up on the mRNA is
    • A. 

      An intron.

    • B. 

      An exon.

    • C. 

      A release factor.

    • D. 

      An initiation factor.

    • E. 

      An anticodon.


  • 25. 
    Protein synthesis proceeds by the ribosome
    • A. 

      Alternating between many chains.

    • B. 

      Moving three nucleotides at a time on the mRNA.

    • C. 

      Attaching amino acids in a random fashion.

    • D. 

      Selecting the tRNA molecule that fits.

    • E. 

      Attaching amino acids to the growing chain without charged tRNAs.


  • 26. 
    Specific amino acids are attached to tRNA molecules by
    • A. 

      Activation enzymes.

    • B. 

      Codons.

    • C. 

      Anticodons.

    • D. 

      Ribosomes.

    • E. 

      Initiation factors.


  • 27. 
    The codons that serve as "stop" signals for the protein synthesis are called
    • A. 

      Anticodons.

    • B. 

      Stop codons.

    • C. 

      Nonsense codons.

    • D. 

      Amino acid codons.

    • E. 

      TRNA codons.


  • 28. 
    The bond that forms between the newly added amino acid and the previous amino acid on the chain is called a
    • A. 

      Hydrogen bond.

    • B. 

      Hydrophobic bond.

    • C. 

      Hydrophilic bond.

    • D. 

      Phosphodiester bond.

    • E. 

      Peptide bond.


  • 29. 
    The initiation complex for protein synthesis contains all of the following except
    • A. 

      A small ribosomal subunit.

    • B. 

      MRNA.

    • C. 

      TRNA with methionine.

    • D. 

      A release factor.

    • E. 

      An initiation factor.


  • 30. 
    The different components of the protein synthesizing machinery include all of the following except
    • A. 

      MRNA.

    • B. 

      TRNA.

    • C. 

      Ribosomes.

    • D. 

      Amino acids.

    • E. 

      RNA polymerase.


  • 31. 
    Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are occasionally interspersed with non-coding sequences that must be removed before protein synthesis. These are called
    • A. 

      Anticodons.

    • B. 

      Introns.

    • C. 

      Exons.

    • D. 

      Nucleosomes.

    • E. 

      Chromomeres.


  • 32. 
    The location of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is the
    • A. 

      Nucleus.

    • B. 

      Cytoplasm.

    • C. 

      Plasma membrane.

    • D. 

      Golgi apparatus.

    • E. 

      Vacuole.


  • 33. 
    In eukaryotes, mRNA processing involves all of the following events except
    • A. 

      Elongation of the transcript.

    • B. 

      Addition of a 5' cap.

    • C. 

      Addition of a poly A to the 3' end.

    • D. 

      Pre-mRNA splicing.

    • E. 

      Association with the spliceosome.


  • 34. 
    In eukaryotes, the empty RNA molecules exit the ribosome from the
    • A. 

      E site.

    • B. 

      P site.

    • C. 

      A site.

    • D. 

      Active site.

    • E. 

      Allosteric site.


  • 35. 
    The Central Dogma of biology is stated as
    • A. 

      Proteins --> RNA --> DNA.

    • B. 

      RNA --> DNA --> proteins.

    • C. 

      DNA --> proteins --> RNA.

    • D. 

      DNA --> RNA --> proteins.


  • 36. 
    The transfer of information from DNA to mRNA is referred to as
    • A. 

      Transcription.

    • B. 

      Translation.

    • C. 

      Transformation.

    • D. 

      Transference.

    • E. 

      Translocation.


  • 37. 
    If the sequence of bases in a section of DNA is ATCGCTCC, what is the corresponding sequence of bases in mRNA?
    • A. 

      ATCCGATT

    • B. 

      TAGGCUGG

    • C. 

      UAGCGAGG

    • D. 

      TATCGGCC

    • E. 

      AUCCGAUU


  • 38. 
    If the DNA triplet code were ATG CGT, the tRNA anticodons would be
    • A. 

      AUG CGU.

    • B. 

      ATG CGT.

    • C. 

      UAC GCA.

    • D. 

      UAG CGU.


  • 39. 
    Humans and a bacterium make human insulin. How is this possible?
    • A. 

      The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria.

    • B. 

      The human insulin gene is a mutated form of a bacterial gene for bacterial insulin.

    • C. 

      The human insulin gene was inserted into a bacterium's genome, and since the genetic code is nearly universal, the bacterium is able to produce human insulin.

    • D. 

      The human insulin gene appears in bacteria that have been exposed to radiation treatments for diabetes.

    • E. 

      The human insulin gene appears naturally in the bacteria that is an inhabitant of the GI tract of diabetic patients.


  • 40. 
    There are 45 different kinds tRNA (anticodons) available to serve as amino acid carriers, but there are 64 mRNA codons. Why aren't the tRNA anticodons and mRNA codons equal in number?
    • A. 

      The reason is that the third base pair on the tRNA allows some flexibility (wobble); thus, some tRNA anticodons can recognize more than one mRNA codon.

    • B. 

      The reason is that some tRNA anticodons can misread some of the mRNA codons, which creates a "wobble" in the tRNA anticodons that can be repaired by RNA repair enzymes.

    • C. 

      The reason is that the third base pair on the mRNA codon allows some flexibility (wobble); thus, some tRNA anticodons can recognize more than one mRNA codon.

    • D. 

      The reason is that the tRNA has the flexibility to choose which mRNA codons are necessary for building the polypeptide chain.


  • 41. 
    Eukaryotic organisms and prokaryotic organisms differ in how gene information is processed. Select the statement that best explains this difference.
    • A. 

      Prokaryote genes are transcribed into mRNA, which is translated immediately. Eukaryote genes contain long sequences of nucleotides that do not code for amino acids and have to be removed from the primary transcript.

    • B. 

      Prokaryote genes are transcribed directly into a polypeptide, while eukaryote genes have mRNA and tRNA involved in polypeptide assembly.

    • C. 

      Prokaryote genes are translated before being transcribed into mRNA. Eukaryotic genes are transcribed into mRNA and then translated.

    • D. 

      Prokaryote genes are edited of all introns before being transcribed into mRNA, while eukaryotic genes are edited after mRNA formation.


  • 42. 
    Transcription is the first stage in the Central Dogma. Transcription is initiated by
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase binding to the promoter.

    • B. 

      RNA polymerase binding to the promoter.

    • C. 

      MRNA polymerase binding to the promoter.

    • D. 

      TRNA polymerase binding to the promoter.


  • 43. 
    Initiation of transcription differs from initiation of DNA replication in several ways. One such difference is that transcription does not require
    • A. 

      GTP or ATP.

    • B. 

      Any enzymes.

    • C. 

      A primer.

    • D. 

      A DNA template strand.


  • 44. 
    Transcription in prokaryotes is carried out by the enzyme _______, which unwinds and transcribes the gene.
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase

    • B. 

      DNA helicase

    • C. 

      DNA gyrase

    • D. 

      RNA ligase

    • E. 

      RNA polymerase


  • 45. 
    Prokaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have ____ types of RNA polymerase.
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      16

    • E. 

      64


  • 46. 
    Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are modified
    • A. 

      In the cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      At the ribosome.

    • C. 

      In the nucleus.

    • D. 

      At the Golgi complex.

    • E. 

      At the initiation of transcription.


  • 47. 
    The 3' Poly-A tail is attached to
    • A. 

      The Poly-A polymerase enzyme.

    • B. 

      The mRNA.

    • C. 

      The tRNA.

    • D. 

      The coding strand of the DNA molecule.

    • E. 

      The template strand of the DNA molecule.


  • 48. 
    RNA splicing in eukaryotic cell protein synthesis means
    • A. 

      That the product of translation, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature mRNA transcript.

    • B. 

      That the product of transcription, called the secondary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature tRNA transcript.

    • C. 

      That the product of translation, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature tRNA transcript.

    • D. 

      That the product of transcription, called the primary transcript is cut and put back together to produce the mature mRNA transcript.


  • 49. 
    Noncoding DNA that interrupt the nucleotide sequence of a gene are called
    • A. 

      Exons.

    • B. 

      Introns.

    • C. 

      Axons.

    • D. 

      AnRNPs (snurps.)

    • E. 

      Spliceosome.


  • 50. 
    Consider the following sequence: 5'AUGGCUACAGAUAGCUGGGGCUGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA3' Translated, the corresponding protein contains how many amino acids?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      8

    • D. 

      13


  • 51. 
    Consider the following sequence: 5'AUGGCUACAGAUAGCUGGGGCUGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA3' What is the anticodon for the codon GAU?
    • A. 

      AGC

    • B. 

      UCG

    • C. 

      GAU

    • D. 

      CUA


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