Chapter 12

60 Questions  I  By Jp629
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Sexual Health Quizzes & Trivia
Personality

  
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  • 1. 
    The majority view among psychologists today is that most aspects of personality are derived from _________ basic traits.
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      16

    • C. 

      Approximately 50

    • D. 

      Over 4500


  • 2. 
    Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality focuses on all the following except
    • A. 

      Methods used to cope with sexual and aggressive urges

    • B. 

      The potential for personal growth

    • C. 

      The influence of childhood experiences

    • D. 

      Unconscious motives and conflicts


  • 3. 
    The id can be best described as having which of the following statements as its motto?
    • A. 

      Mom always liked you best

    • B. 

      Do the right thing

    • C. 

      We can work it out

    • D. 

      If it feels good, do it


  • 4. 
    The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the
    • A. 

      Conscious

    • B. 

      Superego

    • C. 

      Ego

    • D. 

      Id


  • 5. 
    The superego is Freud's term for
    • A. 

      The moral component of personality

    • B. 

      The biological impulses that drive our behavior

    • C. 

      The mediating agent between the other two components of personality

    • D. 

      The unconscious aspect of personality


  • 6. 
    Hopefully, right now the words in this exam question are in your _________ awareness.
    • A. 

      Conscious

    • B. 

      Preconscious

    • C. 

      Unconscious

    • D. 

      Subconscious


  • 7. 
    The thoughts, memories, and desires you have that you do not realize you have are in your__________ awareness.
    • A. 

      Superego

    • B. 

      Preconscious

    • C. 

      Unconscious

    • D. 

      Conscious


  • 8. 
    According to Feud, which of the following is entirely unconscious?
    • A. 

      The self

    • B. 

      The id

    • C. 

      The superego

    • D. 

      The ego


  • 9. 
    Freud believed that conflicts involving which two areas are especially important and often have far-reaching consequences?
    • A. 

      Sexual and aggressive

    • B. 

      Sexual and self-actualization

    • C. 

      Aggressive and security

    • D. 

      Self-actualization and security


  • 10. 
    According to Freud, unresolved unconscious conflicts often produce
    • A. 

      Pleasure

    • B. 

      Fixation

    • C. 

      Archetypes

    • D. 

      Anxiety


  • 11. 
    When people give a false, but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are just using
    • A. 

      Reaction formation

    • B. 

      Displacement

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Projection


  • 12. 
    While cleaning up after her party last night, Angela forgot to put the leftover crab dip in the refrigerator. When she discovered the now spoiled dip in the morning, Angela said she didn't mind having to throw it out because it wasn't that good anyway. Most likely Angela is using
    • A. 

      Reaction formation

    • B. 

      Repression

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Regression


  • 13. 
    According to Freud, a basic defense mechanism that protects a person from anxiety by keeping distressing thoughts and feelings out of the conscious mind is
    • A. 

      Repression

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Displacement

    • D. 

      Projection


  • 14. 
    By attributing our own unacceptable feelings to others and saying others have the feelings and not us, we are using
    • A. 

      Repression

    • B. 

      Reaction formation

    • C. 

      Displacement

    • D. 

      Projection


  • 15. 
    Under stress, a college student cries and throws things. The behavior of the student is an example of
    • A. 

      Regression

    • B. 

      Reaction formation

    • C. 

      Displacement

    • D. 

      Immaturity


  • 16. 
    When people attempt to bolster their self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group, they are using
    • A. 

      Regression

    • B. 

      Displacement

    • C. 

      Identification

    • D. 

      Rationalization


  • 17. 
    According to Freud's theory, the developmental periods that leave their mark on adult personality are
    • A. 

      Defense mechanism stages

    • B. 

      Fixation stages

    • C. 

      Psychological stages

    • D. 

      Psychosexual stages


  • 18. 
    According to Freud's theory, either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs may result in
    • A. 

      Overcompensation

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Fixation

    • D. 

      Defense mechanisms


  • 19. 
    The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is
    • A. 

      Anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital

    • B. 

      Anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency

    • C. 

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

    • D. 

      Oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic


  • 20. 
    Freud believed that smoking, overeating, and habitual gum chewing could result from fixation in the _______ stage.
    • A. 

      Genital

    • B. 

      Oral

    • C. 

      Anal

    • D. 

      Phallic


  • 21. 
    The crucial development task associated with the anal stage is
    • A. 

      The Oedipal complex

    • B. 

      Gaining superiority

    • C. 

      Weaning from the breast or bottle

    • D. 

      Toilet training


  • 22. 
    Freud believed that during the phallic stage, children develop erotically tinged desires for
    • A. 

      The parent of the opposite sex

    • B. 

      The parent of the same sex

    • C. 

      Playmates

    • D. 

      Siblings


  • 23. 
    Four-year old Sam has erotically tinged desires for his mother and also feels hostility to his father. Freud would conclude that Sam is experiencing the
    • A. 

      Oedipal complex

    • B. 

      Phallic complex

    • C. 

      Identification complex

    • D. 

      Genital complex


  • 24. 
    A child's sexuality is largely suppressed during the
    • A. 

      Genital stage

    • B. 

      Latency stage

    • C. 

      Phallic stage

    • D. 

      Anal stage


  • 25. 
    During the genital stage sexual energy is primarily
    • A. 

      Suppressed

    • B. 

      Exhibited through self-stimulation

    • C. 

      Focused toward the parent of the opposite sex

    • D. 

      Focused toward peers of the opposite sex


  • 26. 
    The major theoretical disagreement Jung and Alder had with Freud concerned Freud's emphasis on
    • A. 

      Childhood experiences

    • B. 

      The unconscious

    • C. 

      Sexuality

    • D. 

      Conflict


  • 27. 
    The personal unconscious and collective unconscious are associated with
    • A. 

      Alder's theory

    • B. 

      Maslow's theory

    • C. 

      Freud's theory

    • D. 

      Jung's theory


  • 28. 
    According to Jung, the _______ is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.
    • A. 

      Unconscious

    • B. 

      Collective unconscious

    • C. 

      Universal unconscious

    • D. 

      Personal unconscious


  • 29. 
    Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures
    • A. 

      Archetypes

    • B. 

      Hierarchy fixtures

    • C. 

      Phallic symbols

    • D. 

      Subjective symbols


  • 30. 
    Individuals who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and experiences are described as
    • A. 

      Fixated

    • B. 

      Compensators

    • C. 

      Introverts

    • D. 

      Extraverts


  • 31. 
    Since John is very friendly and outgoing, consistent with
    • A. 

      Alder's theory, John is an extravert

    • B. 

      Jung's theory, John is an extravert

    • C. 

      Alder's theory, John is an introvert

    • D. 

      Jung's theory, John is an introvert


  • 32. 
    The personality theorist who believed man's primary motivation is striving for superiority was
    • A. 

      Carl Jung

    • B. 

      Albert Bandura

    • C. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • D. 

      Alfred Alder


  • 33. 
    Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life's challenges; according to Alder's theory Mark may exhibit
    • A. 

      An archetype

    • B. 

      An Oedipal complex

    • C. 

      A superiority complex

    • D. 

      An inferiority complex


  • 34. 
    Behavioral personality theories focus on
    • A. 

      An individual's freedom and potential for growth

    • B. 

      Genetic factors

    • C. 

      Unconscious mental forces

    • D. 

      Learning


  • 35. 
    Which psychologist defines personality as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations?
    • A. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • B. 

      Alfred Alder

    • C. 

      Albert Bandura

    • D. 

      Walter Mischel


  • 36. 
    Skinner would explain why one student responds positively to receiving a B on a test while another student responds negatively to a B by noting that
    • A. 

      One student has a stronger superego than the other

    • B. 

      One student has more self-efficacy than the other

    • C. 

      The students have different personality traits

    • D. 

      The students have different histories of reinforcement and punishment


  • 37. 
    The idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behaviors all influence one another is termed
    • A. 

      Archetypes

    • B. 

      Self-efficacy

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism

    • D. 

      Introversion-extraversion


  • 38. 
    Observational learning and self-efficacy are associated with
    • A. 

      Roger's person-centered theory

    • B. 

      Bandura's social cognitive theory

    • C. 

      Jung's analytical theory

    • D. 

      Mischel's person-situation approach


  • 39. 
    The belief a person has about his ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is termed
    • A. 

      Self-appraisal

    • B. 

      Self-esteem

    • C. 

      Self-efficacy

    • D. 

      Self-concept


  • 40. 
    Which of the following is a personality theorist from the behavioral perspective?
    • A. 

      Hans Eysenck

    • B. 

      Walter Mischel

    • C. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • D. 

      Alfred Alder


  • 41. 
    Mischel would explain an individual's behavior by focusing on
    • A. 

      Observational learning

    • B. 

      Personality traits

    • C. 

      The individual's self-concept

    • D. 

      Situational factors


  • 42. 
    A strength of the behavioral perspectives theories of personality is that the theories
    • A. 

      Generalize from animal to human behavior

    • B. 

      Focus on the importance of childhood experiences

    • C. 

      Are based on extensive empirical research

    • D. 

      Emphasize an individual's subjective view


  • 43. 
    One primary criticism of behavioral theories of personality is that the theories
    • A. 

      Are unrealistically optimistic about human nature

    • B. 

      Overgeneralize from animal behavior to human behavior

    • C. 

      Generally lack scientific or empirical support

    • D. 

      Suggest that unconscious forces influence behavior


  • 44. 
    Humanistic personality theories focus on
    • A. 

      An individual's freedom and potential for growth

    • B. 

      Genetic factors

    • C. 

      Unconscious mental forces

    • D. 

      Learning


  • 45. 
    The major criticism humanistic theorists have concerning both psychodynamic and behavioral theories of personality is that those theories
    • A. 

      Are not supported by scientific or empirical evidence

    • B. 

      Are dehumanizing and deterministic

    • C. 

      Are unrealistically optimistic about human behavior

    • D. 

      Focus on the unconscious


  • 46. 
    The self or self-concept is the central focus of
    • A. 

      Roger's person-centered theory

    • B. 

      Maslow's theory of self-actualization

    • C. 

      Alder's individual psychology

    • D. 

      Bandura's social cognitive theory


  • 47. 
    According to Rogers, the degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience is termed
    • A. 

      Inconsistency

    • B. 

      Consistency

    • C. 

      Incongruence

    • D. 

      Congruence


  • 48. 
    According to Rogers, parents who give their children affection both when the children meet, and also when they fail to meet expectations, provides their children with
    • A. 

      Conditional love or affection

    • B. 

      Unconditional love or affection

    • C. 

      Continual love or affection

    • D. 

      Generalized love or affection


  • 49. 
    According to Rogers, experiences that threaten a person's self-concept often result in the person experiencing
    • A. 

      A reevaluation of their self-concept

    • B. 

      Self-actualization

    • C. 

      Depression

    • D. 

      Anxiety


  • 50. 
    A strength of humanistic theories of personality is that the theories
    • A. 

      Emphasize the unique aspects of human genetic inheritance

    • B. 

      Are supported by extensive empirical research

    • C. 

      Emphasize a person's subjective view rather than objective reality

    • D. 

      Suggest internal conflict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress


  • 51. 
    One criticism of humanistic theories of personality is that the theories
    • A. 

      Overgeneralize from animal behavior to human behavior

    • B. 

      Are unrealistically optimistic about human nature

    • C. 

      Lack a strong theoretical framework

    • D. 

      Have a sexist bias


  • 52. 
    Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck's theory all approach the study of personality from the
    • A. 

      Scientific perspective

    • B. 

      Psychodynamic perspective

    • C. 

      Biological perspective

    • D. 

      Behavioral perspective


  • 53. 
    Eysenck's theory of personality is based on all of the following except
    • A. 

      Basic personality traits

    • B. 

      Differences in psychological functioning

    • C. 

      Differences in basic needs

    • D. 

      Differences in ease of conditioning


  • 54. 
    Research in behavioral genetics has shown the family environment shared by children growing up together has _______ impact on personality.
    • A. 

      No

    • B. 

      Little

    • C. 

      A moderately large

    • D. 

      A large


  • 55. 
    One criticism of the biological perspective of personality is that the perspective
    • A. 

      Is unrealistically optimistic about human nature

    • B. 

      Is unrealistically pessimistic about human nature

    • C. 

      Overgeneralizes from animal behavior to human behavior

    • D. 

      Has no comprehensive theoretical framework


  • 56. 
    Which of the following personality theorists, perspective pairings is not correct?
    • A. 

      Bandura- behavioral

    • B. 

      Eysenck- biological

    • C. 

      Alder- humanistic

    • D. 

      Freud- psychodynamic


  • 57. 
    Which of the following personality theorists did not emphasize the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality?
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • C. 

      Carl Rogers

    • D. 

      Alfred Alder


  • 58. 
    The humanistic perspective's emphasis on man's potential for personal growth is most similar to which other personality theorist's belief concerning man's primary motivation?
    • A. 

      Hans Eysenck

    • B. 

      Carl Jung

    • C. 

      Alfred Alder

    • D. 

      B.F. Skinner


  • 59. 
    One of the chief goals of terror management theory is to explain why people
    • A. 

      Experience anxiety, alarm, and terror

    • B. 

      Need self-esteem

    • C. 

      Have an awareness of the inevitability of their death

    • D. 

      Have an instinctive drive for self-preservation


  • 60. 
    Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs
    • A. 

      To defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem

    • B. 

      To defend our worldview and reduce mortality salience

    • C. 

      For self-preservation and to preserve our self-esteem

    • D. 

      For self-preservation and to reduce mortality salience


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