Chapter 11 Muscular Tissue

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  • 1. 
    Which of the following is not a purpose of the excess post excercise oxygen consumption in muscle?
    • A. 

      To replenish the phosphagen system

    • B. 

      To oxidize lactic acid

    • C. 

      To neutralize carbon dioxide buildup

    • D. 

      To restore resting levels of ATP and CP

    • E. 

      To serve elevated metabolic rate


  • 2. 
    Which muscle(s) can contract without the need for the nervous stimulation?
    • A. 

      Smooth and cardiac muscle

    • B. 

      Skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      Cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      Smooth muscle

    • E. 

      Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle


  • 3. 
    Where is lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid?
    • A. 

      In the liver

    • B. 

      In the muscle tissue

    • C. 

      In the small intestine

    • D. 

      In the neuromuscular junction

    • E. 

      In the sarcoplasmic reticulum


  • 4. 
    During muscle contraction, a single myosin head consumes ATP at a rate of about
    • A. 

      9 ATP per second

    • B. 

      7 ATP per second

    • C. 

      5 ATP per second

    • D. 

      1 ATP per second

    • E. 

      3 ATP per second


  • 5. 
    The term for shortening of a muscle while maintaining constant tension is
    • A. 

      Isometric contraction

    • B. 

      Isotonic contraction

    • C. 

      Treppe

    • D. 

      Tetanus

    • E. 

      Isokinetic contraction


  • 6. 
    Which fibers are primarily responsible for producing lactic acid?
    • A. 

      Type I slow oxidative fibers

    • B. 

      Type IIA intermediate glycoytic fibers

    • C. 

      Type IIB fast glycolytic fibers

    • D. 

      Type I slow-twitch fibers

    • E. 

      Red fibers


  • 7. 
    Michael Jordan was arguably the best player in pofesional basketball history. Scientifically one would expect him to have highly developed
    • A. 

      Red fibers

    • B. 

      Intermediate fibers

    • C. 

      Fast-twitch fibers

    • D. 

      White fibers

    • E. 

      Slow oxidative fibers


  • 8. 
    Where would you expect to find numerous gap junctions in muscular tissue?
    • A. 

      Multiunit smooth muscle

    • B. 

      The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      The A bands of skeletal and cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      Intercalated discs of cardiac muscle

    • E. 

      The sarcolemma of skeletal muscle


  • 9. 
    The contraction strength of smooth muscle is relatively independent of its resting length partly because
    • A. 

      It does not have Z disc

    • B. 

      It gets nearly all of its Ca2+ from the extracellular fluid

    • C. 

      It does not have intercalated discs

    • D. 

      It is regulated by a length-tension relationship

    • E. 

      It is voluntary muscle


  • 10. 
    In comparison to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
    • A. 

      None of them

    • B. 

      contracts more slowly but relaxes more rapidly

    • C. 

      Contracts more rapidly but relaxes more slowly

    • D. 

      Contracts more slowly

    • E. 

      Contracts and relaxes more slowly


  • 11. 
    Which of the following is very important for muscle to continue contraction during anaerobic respiration?
    • A. 

      Protease

    • B. 

      Myokinase

    • C. 

      Cholinesterase

    • D. 

      Acetylvholinesterase

    • E. 

      Acid phosphatase


  • 12. 
    The minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction is called
    • A. 

      The latent period

    • B. 

      The threshold

    • C. 

      Twitch

    • D. 

      Recruitment

    • E. 

      Innervation


  • 13. 
    If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fibers has only partially relaxed from the previos twitvh, the most likely result will be
    • A. 

      Fatigue

    • B. 

      Treppe

    • C. 

      Complete tetanus

    • D. 

      Incomplete tetanus

    • E. 

      Flaccid paralysis


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is true concerning isotonic eccentric contraction?
    • A. 

      The muscle lengthens but tension remains constant

    • B. 

      The muscle shortens but tension remains constant

    • C. 

      The muscle tenses and shortens

    • D. 

      The muscle tenses but length remains unchanged

    • E. 

      The muscle lengthens and tension declines


  • 15. 
    Which of the following has the largest mitochondria?
    • A. 

      Intermediate fibers

    • B. 

      Smooth muscle

    • C. 

      Cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      Fast glycolytic fibers

    • E. 

      Slow oxidative fibers


  • 16. 
    One somatic motor neuron is stimulated by how many muscle fibers
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      2

    • E. 

      3


  • 17. 
    To stimulate muscle contraction, acetycholine is released from the                        into the synaptic cleft.
    • A. 

      Juctional folds

    • B. 

      Terminal cisterna

    • C. 

      Synaptic knob

    • D. 

      Sarcolemma

    • E. 

      Sarcoplasmic reticulum


  • 18. 
    The absence or inhibition of AChE at a synapse would lead to which of the following?
    • A. 

      Atrophy

    • B. 

      Tetanus

    • C. 

      Muscle wasting

    • D. 

      Numbness

    • E. 

      Flaccid paralysis


  • 19. 
    Which statement best describes the goal of medications used to treat myasthenia gravis?
    • A. 

      To inhibit Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

    • B. 

      To inhibit the function of cholinesterase

    • C. 

      To decrease the number of synaptic vesicles

    • D. 

      To increase the number of ACh receptors

    • E. 

      To promote multiple motor unit summation


  • 20. 
    A single high voltage stimulation of a muscle will result in
    • A. 

      Treppe

    • B. 

      Wave summation

    • C. 

      Recruitment

    • D. 

      Incomplete tetanus

    • E. 

      Complete tetanus


  • 21. 
    Aerobic respiration produces approximately                 more ATPs per glucose molecule than glycolysis does
    • A. 

      24

    • B. 

      48

    • C. 

      12

    • D. 

      36

    • E. 

      100


  • 22. 
    Athletes who train at high altitudes increase their red blood cell count and thus increase their oxygen supply during exercise. Increase oxygen supply results in
    • A. 

      Longer aerobic respiration

    • B. 

      Increased glycolysis

    • C. 

      Increased use of myokinase

    • D. 

      Longer anaerobic fermentation

    • E. 

      Reduced ATP consumption


  • 23. 
    Cardiac muscle has very little capacity for regeneration because it lacks
    • A. 

      Endomysium

    • B. 

      Sarcomeres

    • C. 

      Satellite cells

    • D. 

      Dense bodies

    • E. 

      Somatic nerve fibers


  • 24. 
    Which of the following would be caused by contraction of smooth muscle?
    • A. 

      Deep respiration

    • B. 

      Goose bumps

    • C. 

      Blood leaving the left ventricle of the heart

    • D. 

      Blinking of the eyelids

    • E. 

      Elevating the eyebrows


  • 25. 
    The triads of a muscle fiber consist of
    • A. 

      Two thin myofilaments and one thick myofilament

    • B. 

      Two terminal cisternae and one T tubule

    • C. 

      To thick myofilaments and one thin myofilament

    • D. 

      Two A bands and one I band

    • E. 

      Two T tubules and one terminal cisternae


  • 26. 
    As you are lifting a box someone places extra weight on top of it. For your muscle to continue contracting and lifting a box, the muscle must
    • A. 

      Recruit more muscle fibers

    • B. 

      Lower threshold

    • C. 

      Reduce its wave summation

    • D. 

      Shift from isometric to isotonic contraction

    • E. 

      Shift from slow-twitch to fast-twitch mde


  • 27. 
    The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal is
    • A. 

      F actin

    • B. 

      Tropomyosin

    • C. 

      Troponin

    • D. 

      Titin

    • E. 

      Dystrophin


  • 28. 
    Drugs called calcium channel blockers may be used to lower blood pressure by causing arteries to vasodilate. These drugs
    • A. 

      Prevent calcium from entering cardiac muscle, thus slowing down the heart rate.

    • B. 

      Prevent calcium from exiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      Prevent calcium from entering the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the smooth muscle.

    • D. 

      Prevent calcium from entering smooth muscle, thuse allowing the muscle to relax.

    • E. 

      Stimulate the calcium pump in smooth muscle, thus removing calcium from the calmodulin


  • 29. 
    Exposure to Clostridium tetani causes continuous release of ACh. What effect does this have on smooth muscle?
    • A. 

      No effect

    • B. 

      Myocardial atrophy

    • C. 

      Lockjaw

    • D. 

      Spastic paralysis

    • E. 

      Flaccid paralysis


  • 30. 
    Dystrophin, the protein that is defective in muscular dystrophy, is normally found
    • A. 

      Between the thin myofilaments and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber

    • B. 

      As a transmembrane protein of the sarcolemma

    • C. 

      In the Z discs of skeletal and cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      In the dense bodies of smooth muscle

    • E. 

      Bridging the gap between the sarcolemma and synaptic knob


  • 31. 
    A reason that muscle twitches become progressively stronger in treppe is
    • A. 

      ATP is regenerated faster than it is consumed

    • B. 

      Myosin heads show faster and faster power strokes

    • C. 

      Ca2+ accumulates in the sarcoplasm faster than the sarcoplasmic reticulum can reabsorb it.

    • D. 

      More and more ACh is released with each stimulus

    • E. 

      As the muscle warms up, aerobic respiration is accelerated


  • 32. 
    The purpose of varicosities in muscle physiology is
    • A. 

      To prevent single-unit smooth muscle cells from pulling apart

    • B. 

      To release norepinephrine

    • C. 

      To reabsorb the decomposition products of ACh after AChE breaks it down

    • D. 

      To link the thin filaments to the inside of the sarcolemma in smooth muscle

    • E. 

      To enable each cardiac myocyte to directly stimulate its neighbors


  • 33. 
    Creatine kinase
    • A. 

      Donates one of its phosphate groups to ADP

    • B. 

      Phosphorylates and activates certain enzymes in the sarcoplasm

    • C. 

      Catalyze the transfer of phosphate from CP to ADP

    • D. 

      Functions as a substitute for ATP during anaerobic fermentation

    • E. 

      Acts as a second messenger in muscle fibers.


  • 34. 
    Release of ACh
    • A. 

      Increases permability of the sarcolemma

    • B. 

      Lowers the threshold of the muscle fiber

    • C. 

      Overrides the inhibitory effect of AChE

    • D. 

      Decreases the positive charge on the sarcolemma

    • E. 

      Decreases the release of Ca2+ from the sarcolemma


  • 35. 
    Which of the following best describe the resting membrane potential (RMP)?
    • A. 

      The intracellular environment has more positively charged sodium

    • B. 

      It has a voltage of about +75 mV

    • C. 

      It depends on the muscle fiber absorbing potassium ions fro the ECF

    • D. 

      The intracellular environment is negatively charged

    • E. 

      The extracellular environment is negatively charged


  • 36. 
    The sarcolemma of a resting muscle fiber is most permeable to
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Calcium

    • C. 

      Sodium

    • D. 

      Magnesium

    • E. 

      Lithium


  • 37. 
    What is the purpose of a triad?
    • A. 

      The triad removes ACh from the synaptic cleft

    • B. 

      The triad allows for a Ca2+ release when a muscle fiber is excites

    • C. 

      The triad maintains the resting membrane potential

    • D. 

      The triad synthesizes ATP

    • E. 

      The triad stores sodium


  • 38. 
    Which of the following systems would improve energy for a racquetball player?
    • A. 

      The respiratory system

    • B. 

      The glycolysis system

    • C. 

      The anaerobic system

    • D. 

      Phosphagen system

    • E. 

      Glycogen-lactic acid system


  • 39. 
    Loss of muscle mass from lack of activity is termed
    • A. 

      Myopathy

    • B. 

      Dystrophy

    • C. 

      Atrophy

    • D. 

      Apathy

    • E. 

      Treppe


  • 40. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a muscle cell?
    • A. 

      Plasticity

    • B. 

      Contractility

    • C. 

      Conductivity

    • D. 

      Extensibility

    • E. 

      Excitability


  • 41. 
    Collagen is
    • A. 

      Excitable

    • B. 

      Impermeable

    • C. 

      Elastic

    • D. 

      Expendable

    • E. 

      Contractile


  • 42. 
    A myofilament that flanks a thick filament and anchors it to a Z disc is called
    • A. 

      A myofibril

    • B. 

      A thin filament

    • C. 

      A myoglobin

    • D. 

      An elastic filament

    • E. 

      a sarcoplasm


  • 43. 
    The bladder's ability to greatly distend and return to normal tension is due to the                           of the smooth muscles
    • A. 

      Longevity

    • B. 

      Plasticity

    • C. 

      Tone

    • D. 

      Tensile strength

    • E. 

      Elasticity


  • 44. 
    A skeletal muscle generates the greatest tension when it is
    • A. 

      Fully relaxed before being stimulated.

    • B. 

      In a state of treppe.

    • C. 

      Well-rested and low in creatine phosphate.

    • D. 

      Partially stretched before being stimulated.

    • E. 

      Greatly stretched before being stimulated.


  • 45. 
    A volleyball player depends on the gastrocnemius for plantar flexion, where as marathon runner depends more on the soleus muscles for the same action. This is because the soleus muscles
    • A. 

      have a smaller mitochondria

    • B. 

      Have more glycogen in them

    • C. 

      Make more use of aerobic respiration

    • D. 

      Do not have as many blood capillaries per gram of tissue

    • E. 

      Break ATP down to ADP and Pi faster


  • 46. 
    Ina  relaxed muscle fiber, the active sites of actin are blocked by
    • A. 

      Tropomyosin

    • B. 

      F actin

    • C. 

      Dystrophin

    • D. 

      G actin

    • E. 

      Myosin


  • 47. 
    In skeletal muscle, alternating light and dark bands are termed
    • A. 

      Treppe

    • B. 

      Striations

    • C. 

      Myofibrils

    • D. 

      Strabisums

    • E. 

      Myoblasts


  • 48. 
    The training regimen of a competitive weight lifter is designed partly to
    • A. 

      Convert certain parallel muscles into stronger pennate muscles

    • B. 

      Lower the threshold for muscle excitation

    • C. 

      Increase the size of his motor units

    • D. 

      Increase the average number of myofibrils per muscle fiber

    • E. 

      Convert white muscle tissue to red muscle


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