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How bacteria multiply
How microorganisms mutate to become pathogens
How an infection affects the immune system
How infections can be prevented
How pathogenic microorganisms are transmitted from one person to another
Portal of entry
Mode of transmission
Personal protective device
Portal of exit
Portal of entry
Mode of transmission
To be applied only for patients at high risk of infection
May be ignored without concern that a health care worker or patient may develop an infection
Are the name of current CDC recommendations for infection control and prevention
Mandatory regulations enforced by OSHA in all health care settings as part of its Blood borne Pathogens Standard
Are required by HIPPA
Healthcare personnel caring for patients wear a gown and gloves for all interactions that may involve contact with the patient or potentially contaminated areas in the patient's environment.
Standard Precautions involve hand hygiene; use of gloves, gown, mask, eye protection, or face shield, depending on the anticipated exposure; and safe injection practices.
Implementation of Standard Precautions constitutes the primary strategy for the prevention of healthcare-associated transmission of infectious agents among patients and healthcare personnel.
Standard Precautions are intended to protect patients by ensuring that healthcare personnel do not carry infectious agents to patients on their hands or via equipment used during patient care.
Standard Precautions include a group of infection prevention practices that apply to all patients, regardless of suspected or confirmed infection status, in any setting in which healthcare is delivered.
Education of healthcare facility staff, patients, and visitors
Posted signs, in language(s) appropriate to the population served, with instructions to patients and accompanying family members or friends
Covering the mouth/nose with a tissue when coughing and prompt disposal of used tissues, using surgical masks on the coughing person when tolerated an appropriate
Spatial separation, ideally >3 feet, of persons with respiratory infections in common waiting areas
Healthcare workers wear a gown and gloves for all interactions that may involve contact with the patient
Use of single-dose vials is preferred over multiple-dose vials, especially when medications will be administered to multiple patients.
Outbreaks related to unsafe injection practices indicate that some healthcare personnel are unaware of, do not understand, or do not adhere to basic principles of infection control and aseptic technique.
Among the deficiencies identified in recent outbreaks were a lack of oversight of personnel and failure to follow-up on reported breaches in infection control practices in ambulatory settings. equipment and medication
Infection control and aseptic technique need to be reinforced in training programs and incorporated into institutional polices that are monitored for adherence.
Reinsertion of used needles into a multiple-dose vial or solution container is acceptable as long as the needle is disinfected after each administration.
Contact Precautions also apply where the presence of excessive wound drainage, fecal incontinence, or other discharges from the body suggest an increased potential for extensive environmental contamination and risk of transmission.
Healthcare personnel caring for patients on Contact Precautions wear a gown, gloves, and mask for all interactions that may involve contact with the patient or potentially contaminated areas in the patient's environment.
Droplet Precautions are intended to prevent transmission of pathogens spread through close respiratory or mucous membrane contact with respiratory secretions.
In settings where Airborne Precautions cannot be implemented due to limited engineering resources (e.g., physician offices), masking the patient, placing the patient in a private room (e.g., office examination room) with the door closed, and providing intravenous antibiotics will reduce the likelihood of airborne transmission until the patient is no longer in the facility.
Healthcare personnel caring for patients on Airborne Precautions wear a mask that is donned prior to room entry.
An expectation that infection prevention and control measures will be applied consistently by all healthcare workers, 100% of the time
Performing annual reviews of surgical site infections to determine the post common type of pathogen accountable for infection prevention
Transparency and continuous learning where mistakes and/or poor systems and processes can be openly discussed without fear of penalty
Prompt investigation of healthcare associated infections of greatest concern to the organization and/or community
A safe environment for healthcare workers to pursue 100% adherence, where they are empowered to hold each other