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The cardiac reserve
The Cardiac output
The stroke volume
Dupp (S2); ventricles relax
Dupp (S2); atria relax
Lubb (S1); atria contract
Lubb (s1); ventricles relax
Lubb (S1); ventricles contract
They have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers.
They depend almost exclusively on aerobic respiration
They are very rich in myoglobin.
They are rich in glycogen
They have huge mitochondria
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
Autonomic nervous system
Sympatheic division of nervous system
Atrioventricular (AV) node
Cardiac conducation system
Ventricular filling → ventricular ejection→ isovolumetric contraction → isovolumetric rekaxation.
Ventricular filling → isovolumetric relaxtion Ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection.
Ventricular filling → isovolumetric relaxation → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric contraction.
Ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → isovolumetric relaxtion → ventricular ejection.
Ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric relaxation.
The visceral pericardium and the epicardium
The visceral pericardium and the myocardium
Myocardium and endocardium
Epicardium and myocardium
The parietal and visceral membranes
Cardiac muscle fibers communicate by electrical (gap) junctions
Some cardiac muscle fibers are autorhythmic
Cardiac muscle fibers have striations
All cardiac muscle fibers depend on nervous stimulation
Cardiac muscle fibers are joined end to end by intercalated discs
Thalamus; chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata.
Pons; baroreceptors in the internal carotid
Cortex; proprioceptors in the muscles
Hypothalamus; propriocepters in the joints
Medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the pernicious anemia.
The individual is lethargic
More fluid transfers from the bloodstream to the intercellular space
Blood viscosity is increased
Blood osmolarity is reduced
Blood resistance to flow is reduced
AV valve closing
Both aortic and AV valves opening
Aortic valve closing
AV valve opening
Aortic valve opening
The aortic Valve in open
The AV valve is open
The ventricles have reached end-diastolic volume
The ventricles are in systole
The ventricles are in the isovolumetric phase
During atrial diastole.
During atrial systole
During ventricular systole
During isovolumetric contraction
When the AV valve is closed
Anti-D antibodies in the donor will agglutinate RBC of the recipient
Anto-B antibodies in rhw donor ill agglutinate RBCs of the recipient
Anti-A antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor.
Anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor.
Anti-B antibodies in the donor will agglutinate RBCs of the recipient
D;A and B
A and D;B
B and D; A
B; A and D
A; B and D
The tendinous cords (TC)
The Purjinje fiber
The sinoatrial (SA) node
The atrioventicular (AV) bundle (bubdle of His)
The atrioventicular (AV) node
The T wave
The first heart sound
The QRS complex
The P wave
Sinoatrial (SA) node - atrioventricular (AV) bundle - atrioventricular (AV)node - Purjinje fibers - cardiocyte in LV
Sinoatrial (SA) node - atrioventricular (AV)node - atrioventricular (AV)bundle- purjinje fiber - cardiocyte in LV
Atrioventricular (AV) node - purjinje fiber- atrioventricular (AV) bubdle - sinoatrial (SA) node- Cardiocyte in LV
Sinoatrial (SA) node - atrioventricular (AV)node - purjinje fiber- atrioventricular (AV)bundle[ cardiocyte in LV
Atrioventricular (AV) node - sinoatrial (SA) node - atrioventricular (AV) bundle - purjinje finer cardiocyte in LV
Fast CO2+ channels
Slow Ca2+ channels
Anti-A and anti-B
A and B
Platelet plug formation
The end-systolic volume
The heart rate
The end-diastolic volume
A cascade effect
A negative feedback loop
An enzymatic amplification
A positive feedback loop
A self- ampylifying mechanism
Pulmonary veins and vena cavae
Venae cavae and pulmonary veins
Pulmonary veins and pulmonary arteries
Aorta and vena cavae
Aorta and pulmonary veins
SV=30 mL/beat, HR=80bpm.
SV=40 mL/beat, HR= 60bpm.
SV=150 mL/beat, HR= 16bpm.
SV=80 mL/beat, HR= 30bpm.
SV=16 mL/beat, HR= 150bpm.
Makes the heart prone to arrhythmias
Prevents the occurrence of ectopic focuses
Ensures a short twitch
Causes the pacemkaer potential
1 and 2
2 and 3