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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
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1.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
2.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
3.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
4.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
5.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
6.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
7.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
8.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
9.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
10.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
11.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
12.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
13.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
14.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
15.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
16.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
17.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
18.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
19.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
20.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
21.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
22.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
23.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
24.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
25.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
26.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
27.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
28.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
29.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
30.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
31.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
32.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
33.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
34.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
35.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
36.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
37.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
38.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
39.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
40.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
41.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
42.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
43.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
44.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
45.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
46.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
47.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
48.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
49.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
50.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
51.  Name three types of immortal cell line
52.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
53.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
54.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
55.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
56.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
57.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
58.  FACS Machine stands for:
59.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
60.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
62.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
63.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
64.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
65.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
66.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
67.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
68.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
69.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
70.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
71.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
72.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
73.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
74.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
75.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
76.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
77.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
78.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
79.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
81.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
82.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
83.  What do amyloplasts store?
84.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
85.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
86.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
87.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
89.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
90.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
91.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
92.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
93.  Flagella are ____microns long
94.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
95.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
96.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
97.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
98.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
99.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
101.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
102.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
103.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
104.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
105.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
106.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
107.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
108.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
109.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
110.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
111.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
112.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
113.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
114.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
115.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
116.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
117.  Three examples of physical signals
118.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
119.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
120.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
121.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
122.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
123.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
124.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
125.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
126.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
127.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
128.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
129.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
130.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
131.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
132.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
133.  Three examples of chemical signals
134.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
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