Cell Biology Revision

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1.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
2.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
3.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
4.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
5.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
6.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
7.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
8.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
9.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
10.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
11.  What do amyloplasts store?
12.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
13.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
14.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
15.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
16.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
17.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
18.  Name three types of immortal cell line
19.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
20.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
21.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
22.  Three examples of physical signals
23.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
24.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
25.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
26.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
27.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
29.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
30.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
31.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
32.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
33.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
34.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
35.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
36.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
37.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
38.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
39.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
40.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
41.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
42.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
43.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
44.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
45.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
46.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
47.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
48.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
49.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
50.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
51.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
52.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
53.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
54.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
55.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
56.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
57.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
58.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
59.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
60.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
61.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
62.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
63.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
64.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
65.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
66.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
67.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
68.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
69.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
70.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
71.  Flagella are ____microns long
72.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
73.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
75.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
76.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
77.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
78.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
79.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
80.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
81.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
82.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
83.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
85.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
86.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
87.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
88.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
89.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
90.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
91.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
92.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
93.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
94.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
95.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
96.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
97.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
98.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
99.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
100.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
101.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
102.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
103.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
104.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
105.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
106.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
107.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
108.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
109.  Three examples of chemical signals
110.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
111.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
112.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
113.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
114.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
115.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
116.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
117.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
118.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
119.  FACS Machine stands for:
120.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
121.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
122.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
123.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
124.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
125.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
126.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
127.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
129.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
130.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
131.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
132.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
133.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
134.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
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