Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]

  
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1.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
2.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
4.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
5.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
7.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
8.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
9.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
10.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
11.  Flagella are ____microns long
12.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
13.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
14.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
15.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
16.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
17.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
18.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
19.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
20.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
21.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
22.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
23.  Three examples of physical signals
24.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
25.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
26.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
27.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
28.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
29.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
30.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
31.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
32.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
33.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
34.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
35.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
36.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
37.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
38.  Three examples of chemical signals
39.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
40.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
41.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
42.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
43.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
44.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
45.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
46.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
47.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
48.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
49.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
50.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
51.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
52.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
53.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
54.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
55.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
56.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
57.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
58.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
59.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
60.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
61.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
62.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
63.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
64.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
65.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
66.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
67.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
68.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
70.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
71.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
73.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
74.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
75.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
76.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
77.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
78.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
79.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
80.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
81.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
82.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
83.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
84.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
85.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
86.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
87.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
88.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
89.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
90.  FACS Machine stands for:
91.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
92.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
93.  What do amyloplasts store?
94.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
95.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
96.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
97.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
98.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
99.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
100.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
101.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
102.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
103.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
104.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
105.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
106.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
107.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
108.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
109.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
110.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
111.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
112.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
113.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
114.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
115.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
116.  Name three types of immortal cell line
117.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
118.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
119.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
120.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
121.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
122.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
123.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
124.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
125.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
126.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
127.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
128.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
129.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
130.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
131.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
132.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
133.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
134.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
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