Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]

  
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1.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
2.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
3.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
4.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
5.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
6.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
7.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
8.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
9.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
10.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
11.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
12.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
13.  Name three types of immortal cell line
14.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
15.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
16.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
17.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
18.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
19.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
21.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
22.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
23.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
24.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
25.  Flagella are ____microns long
26.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
27.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
28.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
29.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
30.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
31.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
32.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
33.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
34.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
35.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
36.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
37.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
38.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
39.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
40.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
41.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
42.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
43.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
44.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
45.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
47.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
48.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
49.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
50.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
51.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
52.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
53.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
54.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
55.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
56.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
57.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
58.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
59.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
60.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
61.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
62.  FACS Machine stands for:
63.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
64.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
65.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
66.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
67.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
68.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
69.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
70.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
71.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
72.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
73.  Three examples of physical signals
74.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
75.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
76.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
77.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
78.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
79.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
80.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
81.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
82.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
83.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
84.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
85.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
86.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
87.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
88.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
89.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
90.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
92.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
93.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
94.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
95.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
96.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
97.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
98.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
99.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
100.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
101.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
102.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
103.  Three examples of chemical signals
104.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
105.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
106.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
107.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
108.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
109.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
110.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
111.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
112.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
113.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
114.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
115.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
116.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
117.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
118.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
119.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
120.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
121.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
122.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
123.  What do amyloplasts store?
124.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
125.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
126.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
127.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
128.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
129.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
130.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
131.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
132.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
134.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
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