Cell Biology Revision

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1.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
2.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
3.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
4.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
5.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
6.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
7.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
8.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
9.  Name three types of immortal cell line
10.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
11.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
12.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
13.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
14.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
15.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
16.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
17.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
18.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
19.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
20.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
21.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
22.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
23.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
24.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
25.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
26.  Three examples of chemical signals
27.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
28.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
29.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
30.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
31.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
32.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
33.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
34.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
35.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
36.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
37.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
38.  Flagella are ____microns long
39.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
40.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
41.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
42.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
43.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
44.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
45.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
46.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
47.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
48.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
49.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
50.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
51.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
52.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
53.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
54.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
55.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
56.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
57.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
58.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
59.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
60.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
61.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
62.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
63.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
64.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
65.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
66.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
67.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
68.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
69.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
70.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
71.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
72.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
73.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
74.  What do amyloplasts store?
75.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
76.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
77.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
78.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
79.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
80.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
81.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
84.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
85.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
86.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
87.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
88.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
89.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
90.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
91.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
92.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
93.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
94.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
95.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
96.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
98.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
99.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
100.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
101.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
102.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
103.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
104.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
105.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
106.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
107.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
108.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
109.  FACS Machine stands for:
110.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
111.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
112.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
113.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
114.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
115.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
116.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
117.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
118.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
119.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
120.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
121.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
122.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
123.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
124.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
125.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
126.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
127.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
128.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
129.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
131.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
132.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
133.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
134.  Three examples of physical signals
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