Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]

  
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1.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
2.  Name three types of immortal cell line
3.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
4.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
5.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
6.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
7.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
8.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
9.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
10.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
11.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
12.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
13.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
14.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
15.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
16.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
17.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
18.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
19.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
21.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
22.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
23.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
24.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
25.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
26.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
27.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
28.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
29.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
30.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
31.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
32.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
33.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
34.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
35.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
36.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
37.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
38.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
39.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
40.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
41.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
42.  What do amyloplasts store?
43.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
44.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
45.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
46.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
47.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
48.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
49.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
50.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
51.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
52.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
53.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
54.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
55.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
56.  Three examples of chemical signals
57.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
58.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
59.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
60.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
61.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
62.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
63.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
65.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
66.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
67.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
68.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
69.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
70.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
71.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
72.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
74.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
75.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
76.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
77.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
78.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
79.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
80.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
81.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
82.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
83.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
84.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
85.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
86.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
87.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
88.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
89.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
90.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
91.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
92.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
93.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
94.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
95.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
96.  Flagella are ____microns long
97.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
98.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
99.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
100.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
101.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
102.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
103.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
104.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
105.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
106.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
107.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
108.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
109.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
110.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
111.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
112.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
114.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
115.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
116.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
117.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
118.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
119.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
120.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
121.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
122.  FACS Machine stands for:
123.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
124.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
125.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
126.  Three examples of physical signals
127.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
128.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
129.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
130.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
131.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
132.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
133.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
134.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
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