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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
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1.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
2.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
3.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
4.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
5.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
6.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
7.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
8.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
9.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
10.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
11.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
12.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
13.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
14.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
15.  Three examples of physical signals
16.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
17.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
18.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
19.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
20.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
21.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
23.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
25.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
26.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
27.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
28.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
29.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
30.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
31.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
32.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
33.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
34.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
35.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
36.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
37.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
38.  Name three types of immortal cell line
39.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
40.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
41.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
42.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
43.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
44.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
45.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
46.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
47.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
48.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
49.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
50.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
51.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
52.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
53.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
54.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
55.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
56.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
57.  Three examples of chemical signals
58.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
59.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
60.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
61.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
62.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
63.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
64.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
65.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
66.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
67.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
68.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
69.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
70.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
71.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
72.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
73.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
74.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
75.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
76.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
77.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
79.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
80.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
81.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
82.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
83.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
84.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
85.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
86.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
87.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
88.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
89.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
90.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
91.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
92.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
93.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
94.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
95.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
96.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
97.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
98.  Flagella are ____microns long
99.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
100.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
101.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
102.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
104.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
105.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
106.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
107.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
108.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
109.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
110.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
111.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
112.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
113.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
114.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
115.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
116.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
117.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
118.  FACS Machine stands for:
119.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
120.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
121.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
122.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
123.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
124.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
125.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
126.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
127.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
128.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
129.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
130.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
131.  What do amyloplasts store?
132.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
133.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
134.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
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