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Cell Biology Revision

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1.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
2.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
3.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
4.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
5.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
6.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
7.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
8.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
9.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
10.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
11.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
12.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
13.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
14.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
15.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
16.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
17.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
18.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
19.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
20.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
21.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
22.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
23.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
24.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
25.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
26.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
27.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
28.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
29.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
30.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
31.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
32.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
33.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
34.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
35.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
36.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
37.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
38.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
39.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
40.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
41.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
42.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
43.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
44.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
45.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
46.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
47.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
48.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
49.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
50.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
51.  Name three types of immortal cell line
52.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
53.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
54.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
55.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
56.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
57.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
58.  FACS Machine stands for:
59.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
60.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
61.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
62.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
63.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
64.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
65.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
66.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
67.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
68.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
69.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
70.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
71.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
72.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
73.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
74.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
75.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
76.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
77.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
78.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
79.  Dynein motors:
80.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
81.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
82.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
83.  What do amyloplasts store?
84.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
85.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
86.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
87.  Flagella are found in:
88.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
89.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
90.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
91.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
92.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
93.  Flagella are ____microns long
94.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
95.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
96.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
97.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
98.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
99.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
100.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
101.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
102.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
103.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
104.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
105.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
106.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
107.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
108.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
109.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
110.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
111.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
112.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
113.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
114.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
115.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
116.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
117.  Three examples of physical signals
118.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
119.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
120.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
121.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
122.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
123.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
124.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
125.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
126.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
127.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
128.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
129.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
130.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
131.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
132.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
133.  Three examples of chemical signals
134.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
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