Cell Biology Revision

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1.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
2.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
3.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
4.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
5.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
6.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
7.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
8.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
9.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
10.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
11.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
12.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
13.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
14.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
15.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
16.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
17.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
18.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
19.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
20.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
21.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
22.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
23.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
24.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
25.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
26.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
27.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
28.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
29.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
30.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
31.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
32.  Flagella are ____microns long
33.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
34.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
35.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
36.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
37.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
38.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
39.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
40.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
41.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
42.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
43.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
44.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
45.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
46.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
47.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
48.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
49.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
50.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
51.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
52.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
53.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
54.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
55.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
56.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
57.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
58.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
59.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
60.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
61.  Dynein motors:
62.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
63.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
64.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
65.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
66.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
67.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
68.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
69.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
70.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
71.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
72.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
73.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
74.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
75.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
76.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
77.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
78.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
79.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
80.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
81.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
82.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
83.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
84.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
85.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
86.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
87.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
88.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
89.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
90.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
91.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
92.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
93.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
94.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
95.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
96.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
97.  Flagella are found in:
98.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
99.  Three examples of chemical signals
100.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
101.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
102.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
103.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
104.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
105.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
106.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
107.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
108.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
109.  FACS Machine stands for:
110.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
111.  Three examples of physical signals
112.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
113.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
114.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
115.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
116.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
117.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
118.  Name three types of immortal cell line
119.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
120.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
121.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
122.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
123.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
124.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
125.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
126.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
127.  What do amyloplasts store?
128.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
129.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
130.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
131.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
132.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
133.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
134.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
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