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Cell Biology Revision

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1.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
2.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
3.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
4.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
5.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
6.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
7.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
8.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
9.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
10.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
11.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
12.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
13.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
14.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
15.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
16.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
17.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
18.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
19.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
20.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
21.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
22.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
23.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
24.  Name three types of immortal cell line
25.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
26.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
27.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
28.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
29.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
30.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
31.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
32.  Dynein motors:
33.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
34.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
35.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
36.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
37.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
38.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
39.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
40.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
41.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
42.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
43.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
44.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
45.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
46.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
47.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
48.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
49.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
50.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
51.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
52.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
53.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
54.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
55.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
56.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
57.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
58.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
59.  Flagella are found in:
60.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
61.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
62.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
63.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
64.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
65.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
66.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
67.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
68.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
69.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
70.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
71.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
72.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
73.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
74.  What do amyloplasts store?
75.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
76.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
77.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
78.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
79.  Three examples of chemical signals
80.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
81.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
82.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
83.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
84.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
85.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
86.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
87.  FACS Machine stands for:
88.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
89.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
90.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
91.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
92.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
93.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
94.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
95.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
96.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
97.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
98.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
99.  Three examples of physical signals
100.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
101.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
102.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
103.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
104.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
105.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
106.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
107.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
108.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
109.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
110.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
111.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
112.  Flagella are ____microns long
113.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
114.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
115.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
116.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
117.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
118.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
119.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
120.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
121.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
122.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
123.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
124.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
125.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
126.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
127.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
128.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
129.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
130.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
131.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
132.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
133.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
134.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
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