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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
Cell Biology Revision

  
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1.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
2.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
3.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
4.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
5.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
6.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
7.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
8.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
9.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
10.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
11.  What do amyloplasts store?
12.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
13.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
14.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
15.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
16.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
17.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
18.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Three examples of chemical signals
20.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
21.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
22.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
23.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
24.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
25.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
26.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
27.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
28.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
29.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
30.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
31.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
32.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
33.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Three examples of physical signals
35.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
36.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
37.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
38.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
39.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
40.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
41.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
42.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
43.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
44.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
45.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
46.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
47.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
48.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
49.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
50.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
51.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
52.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
53.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
54.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
55.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
56.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
57.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
58.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
59.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
60.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
61.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
62.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
63.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
64.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
65.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
66.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
67.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
68.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
69.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
70.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
71.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
72.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
73.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
74.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
75.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
76.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
77.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
79.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
80.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
81.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
82.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
83.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
84.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
85.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
86.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
87.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
88.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
90.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
91.  FACS Machine stands for:
92.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
93.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
94.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
95.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
96.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
97.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
98.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
99.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
100.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
101.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
102.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
103.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
104.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
105.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
106.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
107.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
108.  Flagella are ____microns long
109.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
110.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
111.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
112.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
113.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
114.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
115.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
116.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
117.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
118.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
119.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
120.  Name three types of immortal cell line
121.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
122.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
123.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
124.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
125.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
126.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
127.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
128.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
129.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
130.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
131.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
132.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
133.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
134.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
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