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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
Cell Biology Revision

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1.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
2.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
3.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
4.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
5.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
6.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
7.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
8.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
9.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
10.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
11.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
12.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
13.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
14.  What do amyloplasts store?
15.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
16.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
17.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
18.  FACS Machine stands for:
19.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
20.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
21.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
22.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
23.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
24.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
25.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
26.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
27.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
28.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
29.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
30.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
31.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
32.  Three examples of physical signals
33.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
34.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
35.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
36.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
37.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
38.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
39.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
40.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
41.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
42.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
43.  Name three types of immortal cell line
44.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
45.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
46.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
47.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
48.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
49.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
50.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
51.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
52.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
53.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
54.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
55.  Flagella are ____microns long
56.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
57.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
58.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
59.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
60.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
61.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
62.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
63.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
64.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
65.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
66.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
67.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
68.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
69.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
70.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
71.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
72.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
73.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
74.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
75.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
76.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
77.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
78.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
79.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
80.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
81.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
82.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
83.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
84.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
85.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
86.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
87.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
88.  Flagella are found in:
89.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
90.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
91.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
92.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
93.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
94.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
95.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
96.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
97.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
98.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
99.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
100.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
101.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
102.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
103.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
104.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
105.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
106.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
107.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
108.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
109.  Dynein motors:
110.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
111.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
112.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
113.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
114.  Three examples of chemical signals
115.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
116.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
117.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
118.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
119.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
120.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
121.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
122.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
123.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
124.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
125.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
126.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
127.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
128.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
129.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
130.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
131.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
132.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
133.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
134.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
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