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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
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1.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
2.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
3.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
4.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
6.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
7.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
8.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
9.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
10.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
11.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
12.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
13.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
14.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
15.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
16.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
17.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
18.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
19.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
20.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
21.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
22.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
23.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
24.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
25.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
26.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
27.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
28.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
29.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
30.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
31.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
32.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
33.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
34.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
35.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
36.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
37.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
38.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
39.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
40.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
41.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
42.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
43.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
44.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
45.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
46.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
47.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
48.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
49.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
50.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
51.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
52.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
53.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
54.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
55.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
56.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
57.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
58.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
59.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
60.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
62.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
63.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
64.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
65.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
66.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
67.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
68.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
69.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
70.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
71.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
72.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
73.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
74.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
75.  Three examples of physical signals
76.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
77.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
78.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
79.  Name three types of immortal cell line
80.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
81.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
82.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
83.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
84.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
85.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
86.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
87.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
88.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
89.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
90.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
91.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
92.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  What do amyloplasts store?
94.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
95.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
96.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
97.  FACS Machine stands for:
98.  Flagella are ____microns long
99.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
100.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
101.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
102.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
104.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
105.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
106.  Three examples of chemical signals
107.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
108.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
109.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
110.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
111.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
112.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
113.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
114.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
115.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
116.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
117.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
118.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
119.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
120.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
121.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
122.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
123.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
124.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
125.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
126.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
127.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
128.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
129.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
130.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
131.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
132.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
133.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
134.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
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