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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
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1.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
2.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
3.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
4.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
5.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
6.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
7.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
8.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
9.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
10.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
11.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
12.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
13.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
14.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
15.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
16.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
17.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
18.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
19.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
20.  Three examples of chemical signals
21.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
22.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
23.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
24.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
25.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
26.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
27.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
28.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
29.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
30.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
33.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
34.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
35.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
36.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
37.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
38.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
39.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
40.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
41.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
42.  Name three types of immortal cell line
43.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
44.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
45.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
46.  Flagella are ____microns long
47.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
48.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
49.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
50.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
51.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
52.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
53.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
54.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
55.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
56.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
57.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
58.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
59.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
60.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
61.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
62.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
63.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
64.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
65.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
66.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
67.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
68.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
69.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
70.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
71.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
72.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
73.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
74.  FACS Machine stands for:
75.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
76.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
77.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
78.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
79.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
80.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
81.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
82.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
83.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
84.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
86.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
87.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
88.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
89.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
90.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
91.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
92.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
93.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
94.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
95.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
96.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
97.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
98.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
99.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
100.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
101.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
102.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
104.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
105.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
106.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
107.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
108.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
109.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
110.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
111.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
112.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
113.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
114.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
115.  What do amyloplasts store?
116.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
117.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
118.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
119.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
120.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
121.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
122.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
123.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
124.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
125.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
126.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
127.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
128.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
129.  Three examples of physical signals
130.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
131.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
132.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
133.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
134.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
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