Cell Biology Revision

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1.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
2.  Name three types of immortal cell line
3.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
4.  FACS Machine stands for:
5.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
6.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
7.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
8.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
9.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
10.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
11.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
12.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
13.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
14.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
15.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
16.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
17.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
18.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
19.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
20.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
21.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
22.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
23.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
24.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
25.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
26.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
27.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
28.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
29.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
30.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
31.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
32.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
33.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
34.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
35.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
36.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
37.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
38.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
39.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
40.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
41.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
42.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
43.  Dynein motors:
44.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
45.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
46.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
47.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
48.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
49.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
50.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
51.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
52.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
53.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
54.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
55.  Flagella are ____microns long
56.  Flagella are found in:
57.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
58.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
59.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
60.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
61.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
62.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
63.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
64.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
65.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
66.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
67.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
68.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
69.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
70.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
71.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
72.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
73.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
74.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
75.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
76.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
77.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
78.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
79.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
80.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
81.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
82.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
83.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
84.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
85.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
86.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
87.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
88.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
89.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
90.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
91.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
92.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
93.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
94.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
95.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
96.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
97.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
98.  What do amyloplasts store?
99.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
100.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
101.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
102.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
103.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
104.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
105.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
106.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
107.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
108.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
109.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
110.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
111.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
112.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
113.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
114.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
115.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
116.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
117.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
118.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
119.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
120.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
121.  Three examples of physical signals
122.  Three examples of chemical signals
123.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
124.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
125.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
126.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
127.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
128.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
129.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
130.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
131.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
132.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
133.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
134.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
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