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Cell Biology Revision

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1.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
2.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
3.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
4.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
5.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
6.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
7.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
8.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
9.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
10.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
11.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
12.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
13.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
14.  Name three types of immortal cell line
15.  Three examples of physical signals
16.  Three examples of chemical signals
17.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
18.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
19.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
20.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
21.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
22.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
23.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
24.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
25.  What do amyloplasts store?
26.  Dynein motors:
27.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
28.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
29.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
30.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
31.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
32.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
33.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
34.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
35.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
36.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
37.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
38.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
39.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
40.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
41.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
42.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
43.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
44.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
45.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
46.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
47.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
48.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
49.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
50.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
51.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
52.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
53.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
54.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
55.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
56.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
57.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
58.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
59.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
60.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
61.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
62.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
63.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
64.  FACS Machine stands for:
65.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
66.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
67.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
68.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
69.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
70.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
71.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
72.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
73.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
74.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
75.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
76.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
77.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
78.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
79.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
80.  Flagella are ____microns long
81.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
82.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
83.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
84.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
85.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
86.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
87.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
88.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
89.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
90.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
91.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
92.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
93.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
94.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
95.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
96.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
97.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
98.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
99.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
100.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
101.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
102.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
103.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
104.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
105.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
106.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
107.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
108.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
109.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
110.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
111.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
112.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
113.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
114.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
115.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
116.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
117.  Flagella are found in:
118.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
119.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
120.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
121.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
122.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
123.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
124.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
125.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
126.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
127.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
128.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
129.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
130.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
131.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
132.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
133.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
134.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
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