Cell Biology Revision

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1.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
2.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
3.  Dynein motors:
4.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
5.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
6.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
7.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
8.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
9.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
10.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
11.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
12.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
13.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
14.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
15.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
16.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
17.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
18.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
19.  What do amyloplasts store?
20.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
21.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
22.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
23.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
24.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
25.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
26.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
27.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
28.  Flagella are ____microns long
29.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
30.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
31.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
32.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
33.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
34.  Three examples of physical signals
35.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
36.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
37.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
38.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
39.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
40.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
41.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
42.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
43.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
44.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
45.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
46.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
47.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
48.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
49.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
50.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
51.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
52.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
53.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
54.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
55.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
56.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
57.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
58.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
59.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
60.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
61.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
62.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
63.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
64.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
65.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
66.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
67.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
68.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
69.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
70.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
71.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
72.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
73.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
74.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
75.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
76.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
77.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
78.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
79.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
80.  Three examples of chemical signals
81.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
82.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
83.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
84.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
85.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
86.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
87.  Name three types of immortal cell line
88.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
89.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
90.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
91.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
92.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
93.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
94.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
95.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
96.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
97.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
98.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
99.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
100.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
101.  Flagella are found in:
102.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
103.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
104.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
105.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
106.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
107.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
108.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
109.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
110.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
111.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
112.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
113.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
114.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
115.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
116.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
117.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
118.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
119.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
120.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
121.  FACS Machine stands for:
122.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
123.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
124.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
125.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
126.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
127.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
128.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
129.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
130.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
131.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
132.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
133.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
134.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
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