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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
Cell Biology Revision

  
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1.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
2.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
3.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
4.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
5.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
6.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
7.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
8.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
9.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
10.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
11.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
12.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
13.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
14.  What do amyloplasts store?
15.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
16.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
17.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
18.  FACS Machine stands for:
19.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
20.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
21.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
22.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
23.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
24.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
25.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
26.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
27.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
28.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
29.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
30.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
31.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
32.  Three examples of physical signals
33.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
34.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
35.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
36.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
37.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
38.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
39.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
40.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
41.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
42.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
43.  Name three types of immortal cell line
44.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
45.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
46.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
47.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
48.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
49.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
50.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
51.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
52.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
53.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
54.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
55.  Flagella are ____microns long
56.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
57.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
58.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
59.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
60.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
61.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
62.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
63.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
64.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
65.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
66.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
67.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
68.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
69.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
70.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
71.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
72.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
73.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
74.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
75.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
76.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
77.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
78.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
79.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
80.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
81.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
82.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
83.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
84.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
85.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
86.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
87.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
88.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
90.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
91.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
92.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
93.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
94.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
95.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
97.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
98.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
99.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
100.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
101.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
102.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
103.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
105.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
106.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
107.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
108.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
109.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
111.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
112.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
113.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
114.  Three examples of chemical signals
115.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
116.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
117.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
118.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
119.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
120.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
121.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
122.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
123.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
124.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
125.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
126.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
127.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
128.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
129.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
130.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
131.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
132.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
133.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
134.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
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