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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions  I  By [email protected]
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1.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
2.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
3.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
4.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
5.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
6.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
7.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
8.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
9.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
10.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
11.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
A.
B.
C.
12.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
13.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
14.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
15.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
16.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
17.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
18.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
19.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
20.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
21.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
22.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
23.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
A.
B.
24.  Name three types of immortal cell line
25.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
A.
B.
C.
26.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
27.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
28.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
29.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
30.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
31.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
32.  Dynein motors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
34.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
35.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
36.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
37.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
38.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
39.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
40.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
41.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
42.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
43.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
44.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
45.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
46.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
47.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
48.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
49.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
50.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
51.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
52.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
53.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
54.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
55.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
56.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
57.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
58.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
59.  Flagella are found in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
61.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
62.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
63.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
A.
B.
64.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
65.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
66.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
67.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
68.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
69.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
70.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
71.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
72.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
73.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
74.  What do amyloplasts store?
75.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
77.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
78.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
79.  Three examples of chemical signals
80.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
81.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
82.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
83.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
84.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
85.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
86.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
87.  FACS Machine stands for:
88.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
89.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
90.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
91.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
92.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
93.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
94.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
95.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
96.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
97.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
98.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
99.  Three examples of physical signals
100.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
101.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
102.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
103.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
104.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
105.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
106.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
107.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
108.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
A.
B.
109.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
110.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
111.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
112.  Flagella are ____microns long
113.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
114.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
115.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
116.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
117.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
118.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
119.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
120.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
121.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
122.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
A.
B.
123.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
124.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
125.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
126.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
127.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
128.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
129.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
131.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
132.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
133.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
134.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
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