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Cell Biology Revision

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1.  Dynein motors:
2.  ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
3.  The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
4.  Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
5.  Flagella are found in:
6.  The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
7.  In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
8.  Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
9.  Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
10.  ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
11.  _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
12.  Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
13.  Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
14.  Nucleus are ____microns in size
15.  An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
16.  In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
17.  Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
18.  In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
19.  Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
20.  The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
21.  A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
22.  Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
23.  During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
24.  Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
25.  Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
26.  Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
27.  Neurofilaments are ___kD
28.  Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
29.  An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
30.  Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
31.  ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
32.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
33.  There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
34.  Lysosomes have a pH of ___
35.  Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
36.  The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
37.  ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
38.  Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
39.  Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
40.  What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
41.  Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
42.  SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
43.  Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
44.  Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
45.  Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
46.  Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
47.  Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
48.  In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
49.  Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
50.  In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
51.  Flagella are ____microns long
52.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
53.  Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
54.  Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
55.  Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
56.  Thick filaments are composed of ____
57.  After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
58.  ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
59.  Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
60.  Three examples of physical signals
61.  In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
62.  _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
63.  In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
64.  The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
65.  The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
66.  What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
67.  In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
68.  Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
69.  ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
70.  The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
71.  Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
72.  Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
73.  Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
74.  Name the protein molecule in LDLs
75.  Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
76.  Name three types of immortal cell line
77.  Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
78.  Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
79.  Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
80.  Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
81.  Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
82.  The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
83.  The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
84.  Three examples of chemical signals
85.  Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
86.  The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
87.  Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
88.  Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
89.  _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
90.  _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
91.  Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
92.  Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
93.  ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
94.  ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
95.  Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
96.  In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
97.  ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
98.  In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
99.  In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
100.  Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
101.  Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
102.  The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
103.  Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
104.  Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
105.  Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
106.  When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
107.  ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
108.  One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
109.  In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
110.  In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
111.  ___ are from the death cap toadstool
112.  ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
113.  Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
114.  The nucleolus is the site of _____
115.  The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
116.  Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
117.  The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
118.  Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
119.  Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
120.  Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
121.  Light microscope resolution is ___nm
122.  Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
123.  Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
124.  Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
125.  Human eye resolution is ____ nm
126.  In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
127.  Muscle fibres are made up of ____
128.  Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
129.  What do amyloplasts store?
130.  FACS Machine stands for:
131.  Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
132.  Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
133.  Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
134.  Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
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