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Cell Biology Revision

134 Questions
Cell Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Describe the 4 stages of the transition of a bacteria to an organelle.
  • 2. 
    Name three types of immortal cell line
  • 3. 
    Human eye resolution is ____ nm
  • 4. 
    FACS Machine stands for:
  • 5. 
    In differential centrifugation, the 3 speeds are:
    • A. 

      10000G, 50000G, 200000G

    • B. 

      1000G, 20000G, 150000G

    • C. 

      1000G, 60000G, 200000G

  • 6. 
    The person to first identify the nucleus was ___
  • 7. 
    Light microscope resolution is ___nm
  • 8. 
    Plant pigments are generally separated by paper chromatography using a suitable lipid solvent e.g. chloroform
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    In density gradient centrifugation, a shallow sucrose gradient is
    • A. 

      5-20%

    • B. 

      <10%

    • C. 

      5-40%

  • 10. 
    Resolution is the ability to perceive close objects as separate entities
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Gel filtration chromatography uses ___
  • 12. 
    The phospholipids distributed on outside of membranes:
    • A. 

      Glycolipids

    • B. 

      Phosphatidylserine

    • C. 

      Phosphatidylcholine

    • D. 

      Sphingomyelin

    • E. 

      Phosphatidylethanolamine

  • 13. 
    Scleiden and Swann proposed the ___
  • 14. 
    Electron microscope resolution is ___nm
  • 15. 
    In cholesterol, the hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic tail are joined by a ___
  • 16. 
    Protein makes up approximately  __% of the inner membrane of mitochondria
  • 17. 
    Chlorophyll fluoresces ___ and lignin fluoresces ___
  • 18. 
    ___ which fluoresces blue, can be used to tag DNA
  • 19. 
    Microtubules are ___ - made up of alpha and beta tubulin
  • 20. 
    In confocal microscopy, Z sections are computed into _____ and 3D images
  • 21. 
    In transmission electron microscopy, a beam of electrons is generated by a tungsten filament and accelerated at ____kV
  • 22. 
    A carbohydrate rich zone of oligosaccharides and associated proteins is called a ___
  • 23. 
    The transmission of information across a membrane is called signal ___
  • 24. 
    In plant cell walls, ____ substances bond with cations to form rigid gels
  • 25. 
    Protein makes up approximately __% of myelin membrane
  • 26. 
    The polar head of phospholipids consists of 
    • A. 

      Choline-Phosphate-Glycerol

    • B. 

      Choline-Phosphate-Glycerin

  • 27. 
    Amorphous hemicellulose makes up ___% of plant cell walls
  • 28. 
    Phospholipids are ___ lipids - they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end.
  • 29. 
    What is the protein-membrane association called when the protein is covalently bonded to the membrane?
  • 30. 
    In carrier proteins, when it transports two different molecules in the same direction it is called ___
  • 31. 
    What is the name of the protein associated with the cytoplasmic side of red blood cell membranes?
  • 32. 
    In plant cell walls, crytalline cellulose microfilaments are composed of ___
  • 33. 
    Ganglioside GM1 acts as a receptor for the bacterial toxin which causes ___
  • 34. 
    Example of a phenolic in plant cell walls is ___
  • 35. 
    Nucleus are ____microns in size
  • 36. 
    The inner membrane of the nucleus is lined with the fibrous protein ____
  • 37. 
    The nucleolus is the site of _____
  • 38. 
    Microtubules are ___nm in diameter
  • 39. 
    Molecules which can diffuse through the membrane easily:
    • A. 

      Small non polar gases

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Small uncharged polar molecules

    • D. 

      Charged molecules

  • 40. 
    Microtubules are made up of __ protofilaments
  • 41. 
    Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
  • 42. 
    Name the microtubule inhibitor which prevents disaggregation
  • 43. 
    Dynein motors:
    • A. 

      Globular; move to positive end

    • B. 

      Helical coil; move to negative end

    • C. 

      Globular; move to negative end

    • D. 

      Helical coil; move to positive end

  • 44. 
    Kynesins are double stranded helical coils with ___
  • 45. 
    Actin filaments are ___nm in diameter
  • 46. 
    Actin filaments are composed of the globular protein _____
  • 47. 
    Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents polymerisation
  • 48. 
    Name the actin filament inhibitor which prevents depolymerisation
  • 49. 
    ___ are from the death cap toadstool
  • 50. 
    Intermediate filaments are ___nm in diameter
  • 51. 
    Intermediate filaments have a ___ terminal head and a ____ terminal tail
  • 52. 
    Intermediate filament keratin is ___kD
  • 53. 
    Intermediate filament vimentin is ___kD
  • 54. 
    Neurofilaments are ___kD
  • 55. 
    Flagella are ____microns long
  • 56. 
    Flagella are found in:
    • A. 

      Single celled protists

    • B. 

      Algae

    • C. 

      Protistan flagellates

    • D. 

      Some bacteria

  • 57. 
    The core of cilia/flagella is called the ____
  • 58. 
    Name the 2 accessory proteins which form links between microtubules in the axoneme (alphabetically)
  • 59. 
    Muscle fibres are made up of ____
  • 60. 
    Myofibrils are ___microns in diameter
  • 61. 
    Myofibrils are made up of chains of ____
  • 62. 
    Name the 2 proteins associated with thin filaments
  • 63. 
    Tropomodulin caps which end of the filament? positive/negative
  • 64. 
    Thick filaments are composed of ____
  • 65. 
    The Z disc is made up of ___ and ___
  • 66. 
    ____ - the protein which acts as a template for the length of thin filaments
  • 67. 
    Thin filaments are associated with ____ which is attached to a ____
  • 68. 
    After contraction of the sarcomere, ___ binds myosin and it releases actin.
  • 69. 
    Mitochondria are thought to have arisen from the ____ line
  • 70. 
    The simple protist ____ has been shown to have eubacterial organisation of it mitochondrial DNA
  • 71. 
    ____ and hydrogenosomes have similarities with mitochondria
  • 72. 
    Chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from the blue-green algae ____
  • 73. 
    Name a photosynthetic algae whose plastids have triple/more envelopes
  • 74. 
    ____ have small vestigal nucleoids in their plastids
  • 75. 
    SER is involved in ___ and also stores calcium
  • 76. 
    Name a group of enzymes involved in drug detoxification in SER
  • 77. 
    Name a type of cell with a lot of RER
  • 78. 
    Name a type of cell with a lot of SER
  • 79. 
    The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of ____
  • 80. 
    Lysosomes have a pH of ___
  • 81. 
    Lysosomes are not the main protein degrader as cells have specialised ____ for this function
  • 82. 
    Peroxisomes are involved in ___ reactions and the removal of ____
  • 83. 
    An example of a peroxisomal disorder:
  • 84. 
    Signal sequences are ____ amino acids long
  • 85. 
    Signal sequences bind to the ____ _____ _____ which then binds to a receptor on the ER
  • 86. 
    The enzyme ____ ____ removes the signal sequence
  • 87. 
    _____ ______ won the Nobel Prize in 1999 for the discovery of protein signal sequences
  • 88. 
    During protein glycosylation, the original oligosaccharide added is ____
  • 89. 
    _____ - cell takes up small vesicles of non-specific fluid
  • 90. 
    In phagocytosis, after the vesicle has enclosed the phagosome it fuses with the ___ ____ and becomes a ____ ____
  • 91. 
    Clathrin forms ____ shape from intertwined chains
  • 92. 
    Name the protein molecule in LDLs
  • 93. 
    There are numerous ____ _____ molecules inside an LDL
  • 94. 
    ____ ______ - disease of faulty LDL receptors
  • 95. 
    In autophagy, internal organelles are taken into _____ which then fuse with lysosomes
  • 96. 
    The internal space of a chloroplast is called the ____
  • 97. 
    Thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts sometimes form ____
  • 98. 
    What do amyloplasts store?
  • 99. 
    Plastids are found in higher plants, algae and protists such as Apicomplexa e.g. _____ and ____
  • 100. 
    Mitochondrial genomes code for enzymes for __ ___ and ___ ____
  • 101. 
    Largest mitochondrial genome is that of ____ - 98 genes
  • 102. 
    Smallest mt. genome is that of ____
  • 103. 
    One of the things plastid genomes code for is the large subunit of carbon-fixing enzyme ____
  • 104. 
    Most plastid genomes are _____kbp, although nonphotosynthetic genomes are reduced e.g. Plasmodium falciparum - ___kbp
  • 105. 
    Coccoliths are scales made of ___ ____ which form the coat of ____ (algae)
  • 106. 
    Cartilage is mainly composed of ___ and ____ which are produced by _____
  • 107. 
    _____ secrete calcium and phosphate ions for bone formation
  • 108. 
    Neighbouring plant cells are joined by the ____ _____
  • 109. 
    Plasmodesmata and gap junctions are approximately ___nm wide
  • 110. 
    In animal cells, extracellular matrices are often linked to underlying cells by the protein ____
  • 111. 
    The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix excreted by ____ cells
  • 112. 
    Name the 3 glycoproteins present in the basal lamina
  • 113. 
    Name the proteoglycan present in the basal lamina
  • 114. 
    Tight junctions make a seal between ____ cells
  • 115. 
    In the gut, apical membranes have ___ ___ of glucose and basolateral membranes have ____ ____ of glucose
  • 116. 
    ______ is polarised endocytosis plus exocytosis
  • 117. 
    An example of transcytosis is the uptake of the ___ antibody by infant from mother's milk
  • 118. 
    Antibody IgA binds to the ___ receptor and is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antibody and receptor then pass to the ___ ____ and then to the ____ ____
  • 119. 
    _____ form mechanically strong connection between epithelial cells
  • 120. 
    Gap junctions are made up of 2 hexamers called ____
  • 121. 
    Three examples of physical signals
  • 122. 
    Three examples of chemical signals
  • 123. 
    ____ signals bind to receptors on neighbouring cells
  • 124. 
    ____ signals bind to receptors on the same cell
  • 125. 
    In animals, hormones are produced by the ____ system
  • 126. 
    ____ - the movement away/towards a higher concentration of a chemical repellent/attractant
  • 127. 
    Example of an attractant in chemotaxis
  • 128. 
    Example of a repellent in chemotaxis
  • 129. 
    When bacterial flagella rotate clockwise, the movement of the bacteria is
    • A. 

      Smooth

    • B. 

      Tumbling

  • 130. 
    In the bacterial sensing of repellents mechanism, binding of the repellent to a receptor causes the autophosphorylation of ___ via the adaptor protein ____
  • 131. 
    Once phosphorylated, ____ transfers its phosphate to ___
  • 132. 
    The phosphorylation of ____ causes ___ rotation of the flagella
  • 133. 
    ____ (phosphotase enzyme) rapidly dephosphorylates ___ and the flagella rotate ____
  • 134. 
    ____ and ____ make up the phosphorelay system
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