Brain Question

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  • 1. 
    The ʺknee jerkʺ reflex is an example of a(n) ________.
    • A. 

      Extensor thrust reflex

    • B. 

      Stress reflex

    • C. 

      Cross extensor reflex

    • D. 

      Stretch reflex


  • 2. 
    The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
    • A. 

      Ophthalmic

    • B. 

      Maxillary

    • C. 

      Cervical

    • D. 

      Mandibular


  • 3. 
    Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?
    • A. 

      Median

    • B. 

      Phrenic

    • C. 

      Radial

    • D. 

      Ulnar


  • 4. 
    Which of the following is at the lowest level of the CNS?
    • A. 

      Direct system

    • B. 

      Indirect system

    • C. 

      Projection level

    • D. 

      CPG


  • 5. 
    The three primary levels of neural integration in a sensory system include all of the following except the ________.
    • A. 

      Receptor level

    • B. 

      Circuit level

    • C. 

      Perceptual level

    • D. 

      Effector level


  • 6. 
    The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.
    • A. 

      Obturator

    • B. 

      Common fibular

    • C. 

      Tibial

    • D. 

      Femoral


  • 7. 
    Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are, in order ________.
    • A. 

      Rami, trunks, divisions, and cords

    • B. 

      Rami, divisions, cords, and trunks

    • C. 

      Divisions, rami, trunks, and cords

    • D. 

      Trunks, divisions, cords, and rami


  • 8. 
    The cranial nerve with a dual origin (brain and spinal cord) is the ________.
    • A. 

      Hypoglossal

    • B. 

      Accessory

    • C. 

      Vagus

    • D. 

      Glossopharyngeal


  • 9. 
    Which of the following is not a nerve plexus?
    • A. 

      Brachial

    • B. 

      Cervical

    • C. 

      Lumbar

    • D. 

      Thoracic


  • 10. 
    A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.
    • A. 

      Femoral

    • B. 

      Iliohypogastric

    • C. 

      Sciatic

    • D. 

      Ilioinguinal


  • 11. 
    Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________.
    • A. 

      Lumbar plexus

    • B. 

      Femoral plexus

    • C. 

      Sacral plexus

    • D. 

      Thoracic plexus


  • 12. 
    The abducens nerve ________.
    • A. 

      Supplies innervation to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye

    • B. 

      Relays sensory information from taste buds on the tongue

    • C. 

      Exits from the medulla

    • D. 

      If paralyzed, exhibits Bellʹs palsy


  • 13. 
    Basic reflexes ________.
    • A. 

      Are rapid, predictable, learned responses

    • B. 

      May be modified by learned behavior

    • C. 

      Are autonomic only

    • D. 

      Are always mediated by the brain


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is not true about the integration center of a reflex arc?
    • A. 

      The center may be a single synapse between a motor and a sensory neuron.

    • B. 

      There are always multiple synapses with chains of interneurons.

    • C. 

      It is always located in the CNS.

    • D. 

      The center is a simple reflex arc.


  • 15. 
    Striking the ʺfunny boneʺ is actually stimulation of the ________.
    • A. 

      Radial nerve

    • B. 

      Sciatic nerve

    • C. 

      Ulnar nerve

    • D. 

      Median nerve


  • 16. 
    Which of the following numbers of pairs of spinal nerves is correct?
    • A. 

      Six cervical

    • B. 

      Twelve thoracic

    • C. 

      Six lumbar

    • D. 

      Eight sacral


  • 17. 
    Select the statement about plexuses that is most correct ________.
    • A. 

      The dorsal rami of all spinal nerves unite to form complex networks

    • B. 

      Only ventral rami form plexuses

    • C. 

      Each branch of the plexus contains fibers from a single spinal nerve

    • D. 

      The ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves unite to form the thoracic plexus


  • 18. 
    A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle contraction is called a ________.
    • A. 

      Golgi tendon reflex

    • B. 

      Flexor reflex

    • C. 

      Crossed extensor reflex

    • D. 

      Plantar reflex


  • 19. 
    Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors are ________.
    • A. 

      Interoceptors

    • B. 

      Exteroceptors

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors

    • D. 

      Chemoreceptors


  • 20. 
    Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
    • A. 

      Interoceptors

    • B. 

      Photoreceptors

    • C. 

      Nociceptors

    • D. 

      Proprioceptors


  • 21. 
    Meissnerʹs corpuscles ________.
    • A. 

      Are found primarily in connective tissue

    • B. 

      Are anatomically unencapsulated

    • C. 

      Are interoceptors

    • D. 

      Are mechanoreceptors


  • 22. 
    Which receptors adapt most slowly?
    • A. 

      Smell receptors

    • B. 

      Pressure receptors

    • C. 

      Nociceptors

    • D. 

      Touch receptors


  • 23. 
    The abducens nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ________ to the brain.
    • A. 

      Medial rectus muscle

    • B. 

      Lateral rectus muscle

    • C. 

      Superior rectus muscle

    • D. 

      Inferior rectus muscle


  • 24. 
    Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
    • A. 

      Afferent nerves

    • B. 

      Efferent nerves

    • C. 

      Motor nerves

    • D. 

      Mixed nerves


  • 25. 
    Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
    • A. 

      Afferent nerves

    • B. 

      Efferent nerves

    • C. 

      Motor nerves

    • D. 

      Mixed nerves


  • 26. 
    After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
    • A. 

      Wallerian cells

    • B. 

      Schwann cells

    • C. 

      Dendrites

    • D. 

      Golgi organs


  • 27. 
    Regeneration within the CNS ________.
    • A. 

      Is more successful than with the PNS

    • B. 

      Typically allows axonal sprouting of 20 mm

    • C. 

      Is complicated by secondary demyelination

    • D. 

      Is promoted by growth inhibitors and glial scars


  • 28. 
    In a crossed extensor reflex, if the right arm were grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.
    • A. 

      Also flex

    • B. 

      Extend

    • C. 

      Abduct

    • D. 

      Adduct


  • 29. 
    Select the correct definition.
    • A. 

      Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.

    • B. 

      Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.

    • C. 

      Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.

    • D. 

      Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize textures.


  • 30. 
    All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
    • A. 

      Pons

    • B. 

      Thalamus

    • C. 

      Reticular formation

    • D. 

      Medulla


  • 31. 
    The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?
    • A. 

      Pudendal and posterior femoral cutaneous

    • B. 

      Posterior femoral cutaneous and tibial

    • C. 

      Pudendal and common fibular

    • D. 

      Common fibular and tibial


  • 32. 
    The largest and longest nerve of the body is found in the ________.
    • A. 

      Cervical plexus

    • B. 

      Brachial plexus

    • C. 

      Lumbar plexus

    • D. 

      Sacral plexus


  • 33. 
    Irritation of a major nerve of this plexus may cause hiccups.
    • A. 

      Cervical plexus

    • B. 

      Lumbar plexus

    • C. 

      Sacral plexus

    • D. 

      Thoracic plexus


  • 34. 
    Bellʹs palsy ________.
    • A. 

      Is characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles

    • B. 

      Is characterized by loss of vision

    • C. 

      Is often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve

    • D. 

      Is characterized by paralysis of facial muscles


  • 35. 
    Babinskiʹs sign is ________.
    • A. 

      Normal in an infant less than 4 years old

    • B. 

      A reflex whose physiological mechanism is well understood

    • C. 

      When the great toe dorsiflexes and the other toes fan laterally

    • D. 

      Caused by incomplete development of the thalamus in the infant


  • 36. 
    A simple spinal reflex goes along which of the following reflex arcs?
    • A. 

      Effector, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, receptor

    • B. 

      Receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

    • C. 

      Effector, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, receptor

    • D. 

      Receptor, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, effector


  • 37. 
    Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
    • A. 

      Oculomotor

    • B. 

      Vestibulocochlear

    • C. 

      Trigeminal

    • D. 

      Facial


  • 38. 
    Transduction refers to conversion of ________.
    • A. 

      Presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses

    • B. 

      Stimulus information to nerve impulses

    • C. 

      Receptor energy to stimulus energy

    • D. 

      Afferent impulses to efferent impulses


  • 39. 
    ________ always takes a nonspecific ascending pathway.
    • A. 

      Touch

    • B. 

      Pain

    • C. 

      Temperature

    • D. 

      Arousal


  • 40. 
    The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
    • A. 

      Radial

    • B. 

      Median

    • C. 

      Ulnar

    • D. 

      Musculocutaneous


  • 41. 
    The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.
    • A. 

      Trigeminal

    • B. 

      Facial

    • C. 

      Glossopharyngeal

    • D. 

      Trochlear


  • 42. 
    Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
    • A. 

      Abducens

    • B. 

      Vestibulocochlear

    • C. 

      Trigeminal

    • D. 

      Accessory


  • 43. 
    A fracture of the ethmoid bone would result in damage to which cranial nerve?
    • A. 

      Glossopharyngeal

    • B. 

      Vagus

    • C. 

      Olfactory

    • D. 

      Accessory


  • 44. 
    Select the statement that is most correct.
    • A. 

      Ganglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the CNS that are associated with efferent fibers.

    • B. 

      Afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.

    • C. 

      The dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure.

    • D. 

      The cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord.


  • 45. 
    An improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
    • A. 

      Neurofibromatosis

    • B. 

      Postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy

    • C. 

      Paresthesia

    • D. 

      Sciatica


  • 46. 
    Which nerve does not use the jugular foramen as a route of exit from the skull?
    • A. 

      Trigeminal

    • B. 

      Accessory

    • C. 

      Vagus

    • D. 

      Glossopharyngeal


  • 47. 
    The peripheral nervous system includes ________.
    • A. 

      Sensory receptors

    • B. 

      Basal nuclei

    • C. 

      The spinal cord

    • D. 

      The corpus callosum


  • 48. 
    Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________.
    • A. 

      Meissnerʹs corpuscles

    • B. 

      Merkel discs

    • C. 

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • D. 

      Root hair plexuses


  • 49. 
    A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
    • A. 

      Facial

    • B. 

      Glossopharyngeal

    • C. 

      Hypoglossal

    • D. 

      Accessory


  • 50. 
    The circuit level of the somatosensory system involves CNS centers in all of the following except the ________.
    • A. 

      Spinal cord

    • B. 

      Thalamus

    • C. 

      Brain stem

    • D. 

      Cerebral cortex


  • 51. 
    The projection level of the brain does not include the ________.
    • A. 

      Basal nuclei

    • B. 

      Brain stem nuclei

    • C. 

      Reticular formation

    • D. 

      Cerebellum


  • 52. 
    If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
    • A. 

      Complete loss of sensation

    • B. 

      A complete loss of voluntary movement

    • C. 

      Loss of neither sensation nor movement but only of autonomic control

    • D. 

      A complete loss of sensation and movement


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