Biology 1401 Chapter 12 Patterns Of Inheritance

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  • 1. 
    A diploid organism that has two identical alleles for the same trait is called _______ for that particular trait.
    • A. 

      Homozygous

    • B. 

      Heterozygous

    • C. 

      Dominant

    • D. 

      Recessive

    • E. 

      Codominant


  • 2. 
    A gene for a particular trait that is only expressed in the presence of another gene of the same kind is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Dominant gene.

    • B. 

      Codominant gene.

    • C. 

      Incompletely dominant gene.

    • D. 

      Recessive gene.

    • E. 

      Multiple allele.


  • 3. 
    Mendel chose the garden pea for his work on inheritance for all of the following reasons except
    • A. 

      Earlier investigators had shown segregation among the offspring.

    • B. 

      A large number of true breeding varieties were already available.

    • C. 

      The generation time was short; many offspring can be grown easily.

    • D. 

      He could choose to self- or cross-pollinate.


  • 4. 
    Mendel's experiments had all of the following characteristics except
    • A. 

      Pea plants were self-pollinated for several generations.

    • B. 

      He always used only two plants for his work.

    • C. 

      Hybrid plants with alternative forms of traits were produced.

    • D. 

      Hybrid plants were self-pollinated for several generations.


  • 5. 
    Mendel referred to the trait that was expressed in the hybrid, F1 or first filial generation as
    • A. 

      Recessive.

    • B. 

      Dominant.

    • C. 

      Codominant.

    • D. 

      Independent.

    • E. 

      Epistatic.


  • 6. 
    In a typical Mendel experiment on pea-seed color, if the dominant yellow seed-bearing plant was crossed with the recessive green seed-bearing plant, the F2 generation will show what ratio of each kind?
    • A. 

      1 yellow: 3 green

    • B. 

      1 yellow: 1 green

    • C. 

      3 yellow: 1 green

    • D. 

      Seeds with patches of green and yellow color

    • E. 

      Tall plants with yellow seeds and short plants with green seeds


  • 7. 
    Mendel's understanding of the inheritance of traits in peas, expressed in modern language, included all of the following except
    • A. 

      Parents transmit information encoded in genes.

    • B. 

      Each individual contains two genes for each trait.

    • C. 

      Not all genes are identical; alternative forms (alleles) exist.

    • D. 

      Each of the alleles present in an individual is discrete.

    • E. 

      If a given allele is present, its effects will be seen in the individual.


  • 8. 
    When the two haploid gametes contain two different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is called
    • A. 

      Discrete.

    • B. 

      A haploid.

    • C. 

      Heterozygous.

    • D. 

      Homozygous.

    • E. 

      A fused allele.


  • 9. 
    In a heterozygous individual the allele being expressed is
    • A. 

      Recessive.

    • B. 

      Masked.

    • C. 

      Redundant.

    • D. 

      Dominant.

    • E. 

      Epistatic.


  • 10. 
    An allele that is present but unexpressed is
    • A. 

      Redundant.

    • B. 

      Dominant.

    • C. 

      Functional.

    • D. 

      Epistatic.

    • E. 

      Recessive.


  • 11. 
    The allelic make up of an individual is referred to as its
    • A. 

      Blueprint.

    • B. 

      Genotype.

    • C. 

      Phenotype.

    • D. 

      Genetic pattern.


  • 12. 
    The observable outward manifestation of the genes of an individual is referred to as its
    • A. 

      Blueprint.

    • B. 

      Genotype.

    • C. 

      Phenotype.

    • D. 

      Genetic map.


  • 13. 
    What is the name of the cross that involves the mating of a hybrid F1 plant with a homozygous recessive plant for the same trait?
    • A. 

      Monohybrid cross

    • B. 

      Dihybrid cross

    • C. 

      Reciprocal cross

    • D. 

      Test cross

    • E. 

      Back cross


  • 14. 
    Yellow-seeded plants might be homozygous or heterozygous. We could find out which by crossing these plants with
    • A. 

      True breeding yellow-seeded plants.

    • B. 

      True breeding green-seeded plants.

    • C. 

      Heterozygous yellow-seeded plants.

    • D. 

      True breeding white-flowered plants.

    • E. 

      True breeding purple-flowered plants.


  • 15. 
    Mendel's first law encompasses all of the following except
    • A. 

      Alternative forms of trait are encoded by alternative alleles.

    • B. 

      Alternative alleles segregate in gametes.

    • C. 

      Either allele has equal probability to be passed on into the gamete.

    • D. 

      All genes found in an individual are not separable into gametes.


  • 16. 
    An individual possessing both kinds of alleles of two different traits is called
    • A. 

      Homozygote.

    • B. 

      Monohybrid.

    • C. 

      Dihybrid.

    • D. 

      True breed.

    • E. 

      Diallelic.


  • 17. 
    Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. What would be the appearance of a plant with the genotype PpTt?
    • A. 

      Purple flowers, tall

    • B. 

      Purple flowers, dwarf

    • C. 

      White flowers, tall

    • D. 

      White flowers, dwarf

    • E. 

      Pale purple flowers, intermediate height


  • 18. 
    Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. What combinations of gametes could be produced by a heterozygote for both the traits?
    • A. 

      PpTt only

    • B. 

      Pp, Tt

    • C. 

      P, p, T, t

    • D. 

      PT, Pt, pT, pt

    • E. 

      Infertile, no gametes produced


  • 19. 
    Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. Of the 16 possible gamete combinations in the dihybrid cross, how many would be the phenotype white, tall?
    • A. 

      None

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      9

    • E. 

      16


  • 20. 
    Mendel's observations that different pairs of genes assort independently of each other is known as Mendel's
    • A. 

      First Law of Heredity.

    • B. 

      Pea Manifesto.

    • C. 

      Statement of Assortment Principle.

    • D. 

      Second Law of Heredity.

    • E. 

      Theory of Genetic Independence.


  • 21. 
    One of the main reasons genes assort independent of one another is that
    • A. 

      They produce unrelated traits.

    • B. 

      They produce related traits.

    • C. 

      They are on the same chromosome.

    • D. 

      They are different alleles.

    • E. 

      They are on different chromosomes.


  • 22. 
    A single gene has 3 or more alternative forms. These are called
    • A. 

      Heterozygotes.

    • B. 

      Multiple alleles.

    • C. 

      Epistatic.

    • D. 

      Homozygotes.

    • E. 

      Multiple zygotes.


  • 23. 
    Sometimes one gene pair will interact so as to control the expression of a second gene pair in an interaction called
    • A. 

      Dominance.

    • B. 

      Gene regulation.

    • C. 

      Recessiveness.

    • D. 

      Pleiotropy.

    • E. 

      Epistasis.


  • 24. 
    If an individual allele has more than one effect on the phenotype it is said to be
    • A. 

      Pleiotropic.

    • B. 

      Epistatic.

    • C. 

      Recessive.

    • D. 

      Dominant.

    • E. 

      Homozygotic.


  • 25. 
    ABO blood group expression is an example of
    • A. 

      Epistasis.

    • B. 

      Dominance.

    • C. 

      Recessiveness.

    • D. 

      Multiple alleles.

    • E. 

      Pleiotropy.


  • 26. 
    When Mendel crossed dark purple-flowered pea plants with white-flowered pea plants, he never got any pea plants with light purple flowers. This was counter to the
    • A. 

      Idea of acquired characteristic inheritance.

    • B. 

      Theory of blending inheritance.

    • C. 

      The assumption of direct transmission of traits.

    • D. 

      The law of dominance.

    • E. 

      The laws of probability.


  • 27. 
    When Mendel crossed two purple-flowered pea plants with each other, he obtained a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 (purple-flowered pea plants to white-flowered pea plants). His results are consistent with which of the following sets of parents?
    • A. 

      Homozygous dominant purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant

    • B. 

      Homozygous dominant purple pea plant and heterozygous white pea plant

    • C. 

      Heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant

    • D. 

      Heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous dominant purple pea plant

    • E. 

      Heterozygous purple pea plant and heterozygous purple pea plant


  • 28. 
    Height and eye colors are two examples of continuous variation in humans. Whereas in pea plants the tall allele is dominant over the short allele, there are no intermediate heights in peas. Which of the following is the best explanation for the differences described above?
    • A. 

      Humans are more advanced than pea plants; thus, the genetics of peas is much simpler than humans.

    • B. 

      The intermediate size pea plant seeds are aborted within the seedpod and thus will never develop.

    • C. 

      The intermediate size pea plant seeds have deleterious alleles that prevent them from germinating.

    • D. 

      Many genes, rather than one gene for a characteristic, control some variations in species.

    • E. 

      These variations in humans are affected by lack of dominance in the alleles that control these traits.


  • 29. 
    Which blood could be safely given to anyone?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      AB

    • D. 

      O


  • 30. 
    Choose the letter of the best match from the following: A. genotype B. heterozygote C. homozygote D. phenotype
    • A. A diploid individual carrying two different alleles on its homologous chromosomes.
    • A.
    • B. The totality of the alleles present in an organism.
    • B.
    • C. The observable expression of the genes present.
    • C.
    • D. A diploid individual whose two copies of a given gene are the same.
    • D.

  • 31. 
    How many different types of gametes can be formed by plants with a genotype of PPTt?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      8

    • D. 

      16


  • 32. 
    Let Y = yellow and y = green, and R = round and r = wrinkled. You cross YYRR peas with yyrr peas. All of the F1 individuals are yellow and round with a genotype of YyRr. You then perform a F2 cross and get the expected 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. Which of the following is the correct genotypic ratio for yellow, round F2 individuals?
    • A. 

      1/16 YYRr, 2/16 YYRR, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YyRr

    • B. 

      1/16 YyRr, 2/16 YYRr, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YYRR

    • C. 

      1/16 YYRR, 1/16 YYRr, 1/16 YyRR

    • D. 

      1/16 YYRR, 2/16 YYRr, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YyRr


  • 33. 
    Let R = red pigment and r = no pigment. In carnations, RR offspring make a lot of red pigment, rr offspring make no pigment and Rr offspring make a small amount of red pigment, thus appearing pink. Pink carnations are therefore an example of
    • A. 

      Codominance.

    • B. 

      Incomplete dominance.

    • C. 

      Epistatic interaction.

    • D. 

      Blending.


  • 34. 
    You can use a Punnet square to do all of the following except
    • A. 

      Determine gametic possibilities.

    • B. 

      Predict phenotypic ratio.

    • C. 

      Determine genotypic ratio.

    • D. 

      Establish a pedigree.


  • 35. 
    As a genetic counselor, you are constructing a human pedigree for a particular disease. You note that every generation shows the trait, suggesting that it is
    • A. 

      Sex-linked.

    • B. 

      Recessive.

    • C. 

      Dominant.

    • D. 

      Cannot determine from the information provided.


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