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Incompletely dominant gene.
Earlier investigators had shown segregation among the offspring.
A large number of true breeding varieties were already available.
The generation time was short; many offspring can be grown easily.
He could choose to self- or cross-pollinate.
Pea plants were self-pollinated for several generations.
He always used only two plants for his work.
Hybrid plants with alternative forms of traits were produced.
Hybrid plants were self-pollinated for several generations.
1 yellow: 3 green
1 yellow: 1 green
3 yellow: 1 green
Seeds with patches of green and yellow color
Tall plants with yellow seeds and short plants with green seeds
Parents transmit information encoded in genes.
Each individual contains two genes for each trait.
Not all genes are identical; alternative forms (alleles) exist.
Each of the alleles present in an individual is discrete.
If a given allele is present, its effects will be seen in the individual.
A fused allele.
True breeding yellow-seeded plants.
True breeding green-seeded plants.
Heterozygous yellow-seeded plants.
True breeding white-flowered plants.
True breeding purple-flowered plants.
Alternative forms of trait are encoded by alternative alleles.
Alternative alleles segregate in gametes.
Either allele has equal probability to be passed on into the gamete.
All genes found in an individual are not separable into gametes.
Purple flowers, tall
Purple flowers, dwarf
White flowers, tall
White flowers, dwarf
Pale purple flowers, intermediate height
P, p, T, t
PT, Pt, pT, pt
Infertile, no gametes produced
First Law of Heredity.
Statement of Assortment Principle.
Second Law of Heredity.
Theory of Genetic Independence.
They produce unrelated traits.
They produce related traits.
They are on the same chromosome.
They are different alleles.
They are on different chromosomes.
Idea of acquired characteristic inheritance.
Theory of blending inheritance.
The assumption of direct transmission of traits.
The law of dominance.
The laws of probability.
Homozygous dominant purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant
Homozygous dominant purple pea plant and heterozygous white pea plant
Heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant
Heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous dominant purple pea plant
Heterozygous purple pea plant and heterozygous purple pea plant
Humans are more advanced than pea plants; thus, the genetics of peas is much simpler than humans.
The intermediate size pea plant seeds are aborted within the seedpod and thus will never develop.
The intermediate size pea plant seeds have deleterious alleles that prevent them from germinating.
Many genes, rather than one gene for a characteristic, control some variations in species.
These variations in humans are affected by lack of dominance in the alleles that control these traits.
1/16 YYRr, 2/16 YYRR, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YyRr
1/16 YyRr, 2/16 YYRr, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YYRR
1/16 YYRR, 1/16 YYRr, 1/16 YyRR
1/16 YYRR, 2/16 YYRr, 2/16 YyRR, 4/16 YyRr
Determine gametic possibilities.
Predict phenotypic ratio.
Determine genotypic ratio.
Establish a pedigree.
Cannot determine from the information provided.