Biology 1401 Chapter 11 Sexual Reproduction And Meiosis

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  • 1. 
    The fusion of male gamete cells with female gamete cells is called
    • A. 

      Fertilization.

    • B. 

      Meiosis.

    • C. 

      Mitosis.

    • D. 

      Recombination.

    • E. 

      Synapsis.


  • 2. 
    Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consists of how many rounds of nuclear division?
    • A. 

      One

    • B. 

      Two

    • C. 

      Three

    • D. 

      Four

    • E. 

      None of these


  • 3. 
    The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing over is referred to as
    • A. 

      Syngamy.

    • B. 

      Synapsis.

    • C. 

      Prophase.

    • D. 

      Recombination.

    • E. 

      Centromere.


  • 4. 
    The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm is the
    • A. 

      Gamete.

    • B. 

      Haploid.

    • C. 

      Zygote.

    • D. 

      Germ line cell.

    • E. 

      Somatic cell.


  • 5. 
    The zygote has
    • A. 

      One copy of each chromosome.

    • B. 

      One full haploid complement of chromosomes.

    • C. 

      Chromosomes identical to those of a sperm cell.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes identical to those of an egg cell.

    • E. 

      Two copies of each chromosome.


  • 6. 
    The reduction division that separates two haploid complements from each other is called
    • A. 

      Mitosis.

    • B. 

      Meiosis.

    • C. 

      Syngamy.

    • D. 

      Haploid division.

    • E. 

      Binary fission.


  • 7. 
    All of the following animal cells are diploid except
    • A. 

      Gametic.

    • B. 

      Muscles.

    • C. 

      Nerves.

    • D. 

      Skin.

    • E. 

      Reproductive organ.


  • 8. 
    The point of connection between the two sister chromatids before anaphase of mitosis separates them is called the
    • A. 

      Homologue.

    • B. 

      Kinetochore.

    • C. 

      Centromere.

    • D. 

      Microtubule complex.

    • E. 

      Synapsis.


  • 9. 
    Which of the following produces identical cells?
    • A. 

      Meiosis

    • B. 

      Mitosis

    • C. 

      Gamete formation

    • D. 

      Syngamy

    • E. 

      Fertilization


  • 10. 
    In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. These are
    • A. 

      Haploid cells.

    • B. 

      Germline cells.

    • C. 

      Sex cells.

    • D. 

      Zygotes.

    • E. 

      Sperm and egg cells.


  • 11. 
    In one of the first steps in meiosis, the
    • A. 

      Clearly defined spindle apparatus appears in the center of the cell.

    • B. 

      Chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.

    • C. 

      Half chromosomes are made inactive.

    • D. 

      Homologous pairs of chromosomes pair up along their length.

    • E. 

      Chromosomes become invisible.


  • 12. 
    Chromosomes exchange genetic information by
    • A. 

      Fertilization.

    • B. 

      Mitosis.

    • C. 

      Syngamy.

    • D. 

      DNA replication.

    • E. 

      Crossing over.


  • 13. 
    Between the two divisions of meiosis there is
    • A. 

      A full cell cycle.

    • B. 

      A pairing of homologues.

    • C. 

      Replication of some parts of the chromosomes.

    • D. 

      No S phase.

    • E. 

      Random combination among chromatids.


  • 14. 
    Crossing over of chromosomes takes place in
    • A. 

      Prophase II.

    • B. 

      Prophase I.

    • C. 

      Interphase II.

    • D. 

      Interphase I.

    • E. 

      Metaphase II.


  • 15. 
    The synaptonemal complex develops early in meiosis. It is
    • A. 

      A cluster of chromatids at the end of the cell.

    • B. 

      A framework of microtubules that organize chromatids.

    • C. 

      A lattice of proteins that holds homologues together.

    • D. 

      A set of two homologues lined side by side.

    • E. 

      The wound up regions of DNA molecules.


  • 16. 
    At the end of telophase II of meiosis, each of the four resulting cells contains
    • A. 

      One full set of chromosomes, each with two chromatids.

    • B. 

      Two full sets of chromosomes, each with two chromatids.

    • C. 

      One full set of chromosomes, each a single chromatid.

    • D. 

      Two full sets of chromosomes, each a single chromatid.

    • E. 

      A different number of chromosomes.


  • 17. 
    The four haploid cells resulting from meiosis may further divide by mitosis in all of the following organisms except?
    • A. 

      Plants

    • B. 

      Fungi

    • C. 

      Many protists

    • D. 

      Animals


  • 18. 
    Sexual reproduction increases genetic variability through all of the following except
    • A. 

      Crossing over in prophase I of meiosis.

    • B. 

      Independent assortment in meiosis.

    • C. 

      Fertilization.

    • D. 

      Mitosis.


  • 19. 
    One of the most likely explanations for the evolutionary origin of sexual reproduction is that
    • A. 

      Organisms could then move onto land.

    • B. 

      DNA replication errors could be corrected by recombination.

    • C. 

      More and larger offspring could be produced.

    • D. 

      Haploid cells require less energy and raw materials.


  • 20. 
    Which of the following is an explanation for independent assortment, a factor in producing genetic variability?
    • A. 

      In anaphase I, where how one pair separates does not affect how any other pair separates.

    • B. 

      Chromosomes are divided into daughter cells in a random fashion.

    • C. 

      In prophase I, which chromosomes pairs with which other one is completely random.

    • D. 

      Each chromosome is capable of a different function.

    • E. 

      Chromosomes can have different functions in various types of cells of the same organism.


  • 21. 
    Meiosis and mitosis are both processes that involve nuclear division. What is the difference between the two?
    • A. 

      Mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to haploid gametes. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to diploid somatic cells.

    • B. 

      Mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to diploid somatic cells. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to haploid gametes.

    • C. 

      Mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to diploid gametes. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to haploid somatic cells.

    • D. 

      Mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to syngamy. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to zygotes.


  • 22. 
    After fertilization, the resulting zygote develops by which of the following processes?
    • A. 

      Mitosis

    • B. 

      Meiosis

    • C. 

      Syngamy

    • D. 

      Synapsis

    • E. 

      Reduction division


  • 23. 
    The homologous chromosomes (homologues) pair up during meiosis I. Each homologue pairs along its entire length. This process is called
    • A. 

      Syngamy.

    • B. 

      Synapsis.

    • C. 

      Meiosis.

    • D. 

      Mitosis.

    • E. 

      Crossing over.


  • 24. 
    Crossing over occurs during prophase I of meiosis I. The two sister chromatids of each homologous pair of chromosomes remain attached by
    • A. 

      A common centromere and the synapsis.

    • B. 

      A common centromere and the chiasmata.

    • C. 

      A common centromere and the recombination synapsis.

    • D. 

      A common centromere and the synaptonemal complex.

    • E. 

      A common centromere and the spindle fibers.


  • 25. 
    The majority of the meiosis I is spent in prophase I and metaphase I. After metaphase I is completed, anaphase I and telophase I quickly proceed, thus ending meiosis I. What immediately follows meiosis I?
    • A. 

      DNA synthesis

    • B. 

      Prophase II

    • C. 

      Metaphase II

    • D. 

      Developing of a synapsis

    • E. 

      Crossing over of the homologues


  • 26. 
    All of the following are processes that promote new genetic combinations except
    • A. 

      Crossing over.

    • B. 

      Random fertilization.

    • C. 

      Independent assortment.

    • D. 

      Mitosis.

    • E. 

      Natural selection.


  • 27. 
    You are studying mitosis in an organism that has 28 chromosomes as its diploid number. How many chromosomes will the cell have after mitosis, but before cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      7

    • B. 

      14

    • C. 

      28

    • D. 

      56


  • 28. 
    You are studying meiosis in an organism that has 28 chromosomes as its diploid number. How many chromosomes will each nucleus have after meiosis I, but before cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      14

    • B. 

      28

    • C. 

      56

    • D. 

      Cannot determine from the information provided


  • 29. 
    You are studying meiosis in an organism that has 28 chromosomes as its diploid number. How many chromosomes will the cell have after meiosis II, but before cytokinesis?
    • A. 

      14

    • B. 

      28

    • C. 

      56

    • D. 

      Cannot determine from the information provided


  • 30. 
    Which of the following statements about crossing over is false?
    • A. 

      Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids.

    • B. 

      Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids.

    • C. 

      Recombination nodules may be observed.

    • D. 

      Sites of crossing over are called chiasmata.


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