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Biology 110

39 Questions
Biology 110
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    You are working for a fruit fly geneticist who sends you to a produce market to find new mutations. You rummage through the dumpsters and capture 100 flies. You note that 100% of the flies have red eyes and 90% have long body bristles (10% have short body bristles). Based on these results, you can conclude that:
    • A. 

      Red eyes are dominant and short body bristles are recessive

    • B. 

      Red eyes and short body bristles are located on different chromosomes

    • C. 

      In this produce market, red eyes and long bristles are wild type traits

    • D. 

      Short body bristles and long bristles are located on different chromosomes

  • 2. 
    A child involved in a paternity suit has type O blood. Which one of these genotypes would EXCLUDE a man from being this child’s father?
    • A. 

      Type AB

    • B. 

      Type A

    • C. 

      Type B

    • D. 

      Type O

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      1/250

    • B. 

      1/2500

    • C. 

      1/10,000

    • D. 

      1/25,000

  • 4. 
    The boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic is marked by a significant mass extinction event, the second largest in Earth’s history. This photograph from a road cut in Utcubamba, Peru shows this boundary in the rock layers. If the age of this boundary is 201 million years ago, a fossil found at position A would be:
    • A. 

      Just about 201 million years

    • B. 

      Younger than 201 million years

    • C. 

      Older than 201 million years

    • D. 

      Not enough information

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      All puppies are chocolate labs

    • B. 

      Half of the puppies would be chocolate and half would be yellow

    • C. 

      Half of the puppies would be black and half would be chocolate

    • D. 

      One quarter would be black, one quarter would be chocolate, one half would be yellow

  • 6. 
    In this pedigree showing the inheritance of a genetic disorder within a family, the genotype of the individual marked "IVA" is most likely
    • A. 

      Heterozygous for this disorder, which is inherited as a complete recessive.

    • B. 

      Hemizygous for this trait, which shows x-linked recessive inheritance.

    • C. 

      Homozygous for this disorder, which is expressed as a complete dominant.

    • D. 

      Homozygous recessive for this disorder, which shows recessive inheritance.

  • 7. 
    A form of diabetes, renal diabetes insipidus, is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in humans. A man without diabetes marries a woman who has diabetes; her mother also had this disease but her father did not. What is the possibility that this couple will have a son with renal diabetes insipidus?
    • A. 

      1/2

    • B. 

      1/4

    • C. 

      3/4

    • D. 

      1/1

  • 8. 
    A woman has red-green colorblindness; her mother has normal color vision. Which of the following statements must be true?
    • A. 

      All brothers are colorblind

    • B. 

      Her father has normal color vision

    • C. 

      Her mother is a carrier of the color blindness allele

    • D. 

      All of her sisters have normal color vision

  • 9. 
    You are recreating Mendel’s experiments with garden peas. You have a plant with round seeds (R) but you do not know its genotype. To determine this, you would cross it to a pea plant with the genotype:
    • A. 

      RR

    • B. 

      Rr

    • C. 

      Rr

  • 10. 
    You are working at an archaeological site, Danger Cave in Utah; this site was occupied by humans for thousands of years. At that site, there is a burial area with both human and dog graves, providing evidence that dogs were domesticated and living with human groups at that time. You are investigating the possibility that this is early evidence for the domestication of dogs. The dog thigh bone sample that you are working with contained 6 gm of C14 at the time the dog died. It now contains 1.5 gm. This dog was buried approximately ________ years ago.
    • A. 

      11,480

    • B. 

      12,500

    • C. 

      8610

    • D. 

      2870

  • 11. 
    This pedigree shows the inheritance of an autosomal dominant condition. If Jim and Kay (both marked by an *) have another child, what is the likelihood that child will inherit the condition?
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      75%

    • D. 

      88%

  • 12. 
    For all of the characters that Mendel observed, when two plants from true-breeding lines for two different traits were crossed, one of the traits disappeared in the P1 generation, then reappeared in the P2 generation. This is because all of these characters showed:
    • A. 

      Complete dominance

    • B. 

      Codominance

    • C. 

      Incomplete dominanace

    • D. 

      Polygenic inheritance

  • 13. 
    In Australia, all large land animals that weighed more than 165 pounds appear to have gone extinct around 50,000 years ago in an event called the Australian Megafaunal Extinction. A lab at the University of Colorado has been using amino acide racemization to narrow the time window for this extinction. They measure the racemization rate of the amino acid Isoleucine in eggshells of large, flightless birds, from both an extinct species, Genyornis, and a species that is still living today, the Emu. If you compare the egg shells of a freshly laid Emu egg compared to a Genyornis egg that is 50,000 years old, you would expect to find:
    • A. 

      Only L forms of the amino acid Isoleucine in both.

    • B. 

      Amino acid racemization cannot be used to date objects older than about 5000 years.

    • C. 

      More D forms of the amino acid Isoleucine in the eggshells of Genyornis.

    • D. 

      The same mix of D and L forms of the amino acid Isoleucine in both.

  • 14. 
    Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait. A man with hemophilia is married to a woman without hemophilia; her father has hemophilia. What is the probability that their next male child will have hemophilia?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      3/4

    • C. 

      1/4

    • D. 

      1/2

  • 15. 
    In Drosophila, the gene for yellow body (yb) is found on Chromosome 2. The gene for bent wings (b) is found on Chromosome 4. A fly that is heterozygous for both traits (yb+ yb b+ b) can make four different possible gamete types: yb+ b+, yb+ b, yb b+, yb b. This is because of:
    • A. 

      Independent assortment

    • B. 

      Crossing-over

    • C. 

      Epistasis

    • D. 

      Pleitropy

  • 16. 
    In Drosophila, curly wings (Cy) are dominant to normal wings (Cy+). You have a fly with curly wings and want to find out if it is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait. You would use a fly with the genotype ______________ to determine this.
    • A. 

      There is no cross that you can perform to determine the fly's genotype.

    • B. 

      Cy+Cy+

    • C. 

      Cy Cy+

    • D. 

      Cy Cy

  • 17. 
    Which of these places the meiotic events that can lead to genetic variation among gametes in the correct order (earliest to latest during meiosis)?
    • A. 

      independent assortment – homologous chromosomes pair – DNA replication – crossing over

    • B. 

      Homologous chromosomes pair - crossing over – DNA replication – independent assortment

    • C. 

      DNA replication – homologous chromosomes pair - crossing over – independent assortment

    • D. 

      DNA replication – homologous chromosomes pair – independent assortment – crossing over

  • 18. 
    An individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdeeFf can produce gametes with _________ different genotypes.
    • A. 

      Sixteen

    • B. 

      Eight

    • C. 

      Fourt

    • D. 

      Two

  • 19. 
    In the oral history of a Native American tribe, there are several references to a period of very hot, dry summers when crops failed and the people starved. You have decided that __________ offers you the best way to determine when these droughts occurred.
    • A. 

      Dendrochronology

    • B. 

      Relative dating

    • C. 

      Amino acid racemization

    • D. 

      Carbon 14 dating

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      1/64

    • B. 

      3/64

    • C. 

      9/64

    • D. 

      27/64

  • 21. 
    There are many different patterns of inheritance for characters. If you see a character that has a roughly normal distribution of phenotypes in a population, for example, eye color in humans, that character most likely shows _____________ inheritance.
    • A. 

      Epistatic

    • B. 

      Pleiotrophic

    • C. 

      Mendelian

    • D. 

      Polygenic

  • 22. 
     This picture shows a type of flower called a forget me not (genus Myosotis). Based only upon the information in this picture, what is the most likely pattern of inheritance for this character in these flowers?
    • A. 

      Complete dominance

    • B. 

      Codominance

    • C. 

      Incomplete dominance

  • 23. 
    You are studying a species of organ pipe cactus in Utah and discover that the cells in the cactus stems have 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be found in the gametes of this species?
    • A. 

      11

    • B. 

      22

    • C. 

      33

  • 24. 
    Which of the following terms describes a cross between an individual expressing a dominantly expressed trait, but of unknown genotype, and a homozygous recessive individual?
    • A. 

      Reciprocal cross

    • B. 

      Dihybrid cross

    • C. 

      Monohybrid cross

    • D. 

      Testcross

  • 25. 
    In Drosophila, two genes on the fourth chromosome, bent wings (b) and shaven bristles (svn) are completely linked. If a fly with the genotype bb svnsvn is crossed to a fly with the genotype b+b+ svn+svn+, what type(s) of gametes will their offspring produce?
    • A. 

      Four types of gametes - b+ svn+, b svn, b+ svn and b svn+

    • B. 

      Both b+ svn+ and b svn

    • C. 

      Only b svn

    • D. 

      Only b+ svn+

  • 26. 
    You are taking Mendel’s work one step further and doing a dihybrid cross between two plants with the genotype PpYy (the phenotype is purple flowers and yellow seeds). What proportion of their offspring will have the phenotype purple flowers and green seeds?
    • A. 

      9/16

    • B. 

      3/16

    • C. 

      4/16

    • D. 

      1/16

  • 27. 
    A phenotypic ratio of 1:2:1 in the F2 generation of a monohybrid cross is best explained by:
    • A. 

      Independent assortment

    • B. 

      Incomplete dominance

    • C. 

      Segregation of alleles

    • D. 

      Complete dominance

  • 28. 
    During the human life cycle, the process of _______________ is responsible for growth and maintenance of an individual; the only ______________ cells are the gametes, sperm and eggs.
    • A. 

      Meiosis/diploid

    • B. 

      Meiosis/haploid

    • C. 

      Mitosis/haploid

  • 29. 
    Which of the following features can only be found in a pedigree of a genetic disorder, such as sickle cell anemia, that is caused by a recessive mutation with autosomal inheritance?
    • A. 

      Two normal parents can have an affected child.

    • B. 

      When one parent is affected, about half of their offspring are affected.

    • C. 

      Only females transmit the trait to their male offspring.

    • D. 

      Affected offspring have only one affected parent.

  • 30. 
    In Zea mays (maize or corn) the allele for kernel color (C) is dominant to colorless (c) and full kernel shape (S) is dominant to shrunken (s). A plant with kernels that have color and full shape (CCSS) is crossed with another plant that is homozygous recessive at both genes (ccss) to yield F1 offspring that are heterozygous at both genes. A test cross is then done using an F1 individual and four classes of offspring are produced as follows (total = 2000):
    • Full color, full shape   963
    • Full color, shrunken shape   38
    • Colorless, full shape   42
    • Colorless, shrunken shape   957
  • Based upon these results, the map distance between the c and s genes is estimated to be:
  • A. 

    2 map units

  • B. 

    8 map units

  • C. 

    4 map units

  • D. 

    80 map units

  • 31. 
    This image shows a pair of homologous chromosomes with three linked genes indicated (genes A, B, and C). Which of the following statements is true with respect to these genes?
    • A. 

      The parental arrangement of alleles is abC and ABC.

    • B. 

      Independent assortment can produce gametes with the genotypes aBC, abC, AbC, ABC.

    • C. 

      Crossing-over can produce recombinant gametes with the genotypes abC and ABC.

    • D. 

      Crossing-over can produce recombinant gametes with the genotypes aBC and AbC.

  • 32. 
    Which of the following is not true of X-inactivation?
    • A. 

      The XIST gene is responsible for inactivation.

    • B. 

      It occurs randomly early in embryonic development.

    • C. 

      It causes heterozygous females to have a mosaic phenotype.

    • D. 

      A barr body is typically found in the nuclei of both male and female body cells.

  • 33. 
    Which one of these statements is NOT true of mitosis?
    • A. 

      Crossing over does not take place in Prophase.

    • B. 

      Non-homologous pairs of chromosomes show independent assortment

    • C. 

      Homologous chromosomes do not pair.

    • D. 

      The centromere splits and sister chromatids are separated in Anaphase.

  • 34. 
    In Drosophila, wild type wings (vg+) are dominant to vestigial wings (vg). You cross a true breeding fly with wild type wings to a true breeding fly with vestigial wings (the P generation). They you allow their offspring (the F1 generation) to mate. You determine the wing shape for 1000 offspring in the F2 generation. Your expectation is that about _________________ of these flies will be heterozygousvg+vg.
    • A. 

      500

    • B. 

      250

    • C. 

      750

  • 35. 
    For a diploid organism, Mitosis and Meiosis II are very similar except that ________________ Meiosis II.
    • A. 

      The daughter cells are diploid at the end of

    • B. 

      DNA does not replicate before

    • C. 

      sister chromatids are not separated in anaphase of

    • D. 

      Homologous chromosomes align in pairs during metaphase of

  • 36. 
    This image shows a partial map of chromosome 2 in Drosophila melanogaster. The numbers below the genes indicate the distance of each gene from the gene for short aristae. Which of the genes shown on this map is/are linked to the gene for short aristae at a map distance that can be calculated by doing a dihybrid cross?
    • A. 

      The genes for black body (b), cinnabar eyes (cn), and vestigial wings (vg).

    • B. 

      A map distance can be calculated from the gene for short aristae to all of the genes shown.

    • C. 

      The genes for black body (b) and cinnabar eyes (cn).

    • D. 

      The gene for black body (b).

  • 37. 
    What proportion of the female’s gametes is expected to have the genotype (yb cw+)
    • A. 

      38%

    • B. 

      26%

    • C. 

      14%

    • D. 

      74%

  • 38. 
    Which of the following crosses could have given rise to the females used in the cross described above? Assume that all individuals are true breeding.
    • A. 

      Yellow body color, cut wings X yellow body color, cut wings

    • B. 

      Wild type body color, wild type wings X yellow body color, cut wings

    • C. 

      Wild type body color, wild type wings X wild type body color, wild type wings

    • D. 

      wild type body color, cut wings X yellow body color, wild type wings

  • 39. 
    Based upon these results, the map distance between the yb and cw genes is estimated to be
    • A. 

      12

    • B. 

      26

    • C. 

      38

    • D. 

      74