Related Topics
Take Another Quiz

Bio Test 4 (ch.14)

47 Questions
Biology Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Disease is spread more quickly between individuals who live in close proximity, such as in a nesting colony of penguins. Disease can be considered a:
    • A. 

      Factor that increases carrying capacity

    • B. 

      Density-independent factor

    • C. 

      Density-dependent factor

    • D. 

      Expotential growth factor

    • E. 

      Factor that causes a greater birth rate than death rate

  • 2. 
    Our understanding of the oscillating population cycle of the lynx and snowshoe hare, pictured above, comes from the detailed records kept by the Hudsons Bay Company, beginning in the 17th century, of the numbers of pelts it purchased from fur trappers. Which of the following , if true, would be a reason to suspect the populations actually exhibited the oscillating pattern shown?
    • A. 

      The value of hare pelts and lynx pelts oscillated in response to the size of the hare and lynx populations

    • B. 

      Lynx pelts are better for keeping trappers warm in the winter, and, therefore, trappers kept more of the lynx pelts for themselves

    • C. 

      The hudsons bay company only purchased from french trappers and did not purchase from the native american trappers

    • D. 

      All of the above would be reasons to suspect the populations actually exhibited the oscillating pattern shown

    • E. 

      Only b) and c) would be reasons to suspect the populations actually exhibited the oscillating pattern shown

  • 3. 
    During the period from 25,000 to 10,000 years ago, when people were gatherer -hunters, the rate of the population increase was slow; but from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago there was a dramatic increase in growth rate. Which of these factors is MOST LIKELY to have contributed to this increase?
    • A. 

      Change from nomadic to a more settled life style, making larger families more manageable

    • B. 

      Changes in nutrition during the agricultural revolution that caused an increase in death rate

    • C. 

      Cultural changes leading to a breakdown of mechanisms that controlled the birth rate

    • D. 

      An increased division labor, leading to stratification of social classes

    • E. 

      A decreased vulnerablility to infectious disease in agricultural communities

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      Density-dependent

    • B. 

      Capacity

    • C. 

      Exponential

    • D. 

      Density-independent

    • E. 

      Logistic

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is NOT a density- independent population regulating factor?
    • A. 

      Cold exposure due to suitable nesting sites being occupied

    • B. 

      Variable winter weather

    • C. 

      Fire

    • D. 

      Flooding

    • E. 

      Reduced food avaliablity due to drought

  • 6. 
    Life-history patterns:
    • A. 

      Exist only in organisms that exhibit parental care

    • B. 

      Show up in the fossils of plants

    • C. 

      Have no genetic component

    • D. 

      Are usually learned

    • E. 

      Are subject to the pressures of natural selection

  • 7. 
    A population:
    • A. 

      Is a group of coexisiting organisms capable of interbreeding

    • B. 

      Consists of the interactions of two different species

    • C. 

      Consists of any organisms of the same species

    • D. 

      Consists of all the breeding individuals in a group

    • E. 

      Consists of all of the organisms of a particular habitat

  • 8. 
    Expotential growth can continue indefinitley only if:
    • A. 

      The population starts out in a new habitat

    • B. 

      The carrying capacity of the habitat (K) is very high

    • C. 

      There is no carrying capacity of the habitat

    • D. 

      The population starts out high but grows slowly

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct; expotential growth cannot continue indefinetly

  • 9. 
    Which of the following statements about maximum sustainable yield is incorrect?
    • A. 

      The maximum sustainable yield for a population can be difficult to determine because it is not always possible to accurately measure N

    • B. 

      The maximum sustainable yield for a population is a useful management guideline for harvesting plant products such as timber, but it is not helpful for managing animal populations

    • C. 

      The maximum sustainable yield for a population is the population growth rate at k/2

    • D. 

      The maximum sustainable yield for a population can be difficult to determine because it is not always possible to accurately measure K

    • E. 

      The concept of maximum sustainable yield can generate useful information for fighting the growth of pest species

  • 10. 
    Approximatley what was the human population of the world in the year 1950?
    • A. 

      2.5 billion

    • B. 

      650 million

    • C. 

      1.6 billion

    • D. 

      4.8 billion

    • E. 

      850 million

  • 11. 
    A primary difference in the age-pyramids of industrialized versus third-world countries is that:
    • A. 

      Third-world countries have much larger proportions of their population in the youngest age group

    • B. 

      In third-world countries the few that survive childhood live to a very old age

    • C. 

      Third-world countries show a characteristic "bulge" that indicates a baby boom

    • D. 

      Third world countries have significantly more individuals than industrialized countries

    • E. 

      Mean longevity is significantly greater among third- world countries

  • 12. 
    On average, which leaves more offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce: a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits?
    • A. 

      The pair of elephants will leave more, because any individual elephant born is more likely to survive to become an adult and reproduce

    • B. 

      The pair of rabbits will leave more, because they reach sexual maturity more rapidly

    • C. 

      If both populations are stable, then the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce

    • D. 

      The pair of elephants will leave more, because healthy elephants often have twins

    • E. 

      The pair of rabbits will leave more, because they have so many more offspring per breeding season than do the pair of elephants

  • 13. 
    There is a tradeoff between the number of offspring an organism can produce and the amount of care the organism can provide for its offspring. This statement is:
    • A. 

      Incorrect; the tradeoff exists between the size of the offspring and the amount of care the parent can provide

    • B. 

      Incorrect; tradeoffs exist between the number of offspring and the size of the offspring an organism can have

    • C. 

      Correct; this is referred to as the "cost of reproduction"

    • D. 

      Correct; this is one of the inherent tradeoffs in life history strategies

    • E. 

      Incorrect; tradeoffs exist between the number of offspring and its size

  • 14. 
    Which of the following statements about the hazard factor of a population is incorrect?
    • A. 

      It is relatively low when populations have few predators

    • B. 

      It is responsible for the rate of aging among the individuals in a population

    • C. 

      It is a measure of organisms' risk of death from external sources

    • D. 

      It is a measure of how quickly the indivduals in a population age

    • E. 

      It is higher for a population of porcupines than for a population of guinea pigs

  • 15. 
    What may happen when a population exceeds its carrying capacity?
    • A. 

      The population will slowly decline until it reaches its carrying capacity and fluctuate about that number

    • B. 

      The level of resources in the habitat will increase equally

    • C. 

      The carrying capacity is not important but the population pyramid increases

    • D. 

      The population may shoot past its carrying capacity too quickly then crash

    • E. 

      Both a) and d) are possible

  • 16. 
    A population of scarab beetles has an annual per capita birth rate of 0.8 and an annual per capita death rate of 0.5. Estimate the number of individuals added to or lost from a population of 1000 individuals in one year.
    • A. 

      500 individuals lost

    • B. 

      300 individuals added

    • C. 

      50 individuals lost

    • D. 

      30 individuals added

    • E. 

      3000 individuals added

  • 17. 
    How does expotential growth differ from logistic growth?
    • A. 

      The logistic model of growth incorporates enviromental limitations on population size

    • B. 

      Expontential growth models include consideration of a populations carrying capacity

    • C. 

      Long-term expontential growth is more commonly observed than long-term logisitic growth in nature

    • D. 

      Logistic growth requires a large population

    • E. 

      Logistic growth models take the populations age-structure into account

  • 18. 
    A life history of an organism does NOT consist of the organisms:
    • A. 

      Death

    • B. 

      Birth

    • C. 

      Growth to maturity

    • D. 

      Size

    • E. 

      None of the above; all are part of an organisms life history

  • 19. 
    Dr. David Reznick has studied life history evolution in guppies that live in streams in trinidad. Guppies are found in two different types of habitat: sites where predation is high, and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteriscs would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a high-predation site?
    • A. 

      Delayed sexual maturation

    • B. 

      A female-biased sex ratio

    • C. 

      Increased egg size

    • D. 

      Increased egg number

    • E. 

      Bright colors and courtship displays

  • 20. 
    The demographic transistion:
    • A. 

      Includes a decrease in the death rate followed by a decrease in the birth rate as a population becomes industrialized

    • B. 

      Includes an increase in birth rate and then an increase in death rate

    • C. 

      Occurs in predator-prey pairs, such as the lynx and hare, whose population sizes cycle regularly

    • D. 

      Includes a decrease in the birth rate followed by a decrease in the death rate as a population becomes industrialized

    • E. 

      Is characterized by an increase in a populations growth rate

  • 21. 
    Which of the following mammals would you expect to have the shortest gestation period?
    • A. 

      An elephant

    • B. 

      A giraffe

    • C. 

      A mouse

    • D. 

      A chimpanzee

    • E. 

      A human

  • 22. 
    Natural selection:
    • A. 

      Leads to an increase in the frequency of any illness-inducing alleles that have their effect when an organism can reproduce

    • B. 

      Can influence aging but not longevity

    • C. 

      Does not influence aging because aging is determined by an individuals environment

    • D. 

      Cannot weed out from a population any alleles that do not reduce an individuals relative reproductive success, even if these alleles increase an individuals risk of dying

    • E. 

      Cannot reduce the frequency of alleles that cause mortality among individuals who have not yet reached the age of maturity

  • 23. 
    The term [(K-N)/K] influences a population growth curve such that:
    • A. 

      As K overtakes K, a populations biotic potential decreases

    • B. 

      As N approaches K, the birthrate approaches zero

    • C. 

      When K is small, mortality rates are the lowest

    • D. 

      The increase in actual population numbers is greatest when N is small

    • E. 

      When N equals K, population growth is zero

  • 24. 
    The age-structure diagram of a human population in a developing country has the shape of:
    • A. 

      An hourglass

    • B. 

      A pyramid

    • C. 

      A totem pole

    • D. 

      A funnel

    • E. 

      A rectangle

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is TRUE about estimating human carrying capacity?
    • A. 

      Humans are currently living in all potentials habitats offered on Earth

    • B. 

      Technological innovations usually decrease carrying capacity

    • C. 

      Quality of life is rarely a factor used in determining the carrying capacity

    • D. 

      The united states is a model country when it comes to sustainable living

    • E. 

      Some countries have more resources than their populations can currently use

  • 26. 
    The purpose of a population model is to:
    • A. 

      Test the effectivness of conservation plans

    • B. 

      Demonstrate the effective population size of an endangered species

    • C. 

      Predict or explain changes in an organisms abundance from one generation to the next

    • D. 

      Graph changes in a population over time

    • E. 

      Estimate the death rate of the population from one generation to the next

  • 27. 
    Which of the following is NOT true about a population?
    • A. 

      Birth and death rates are features of a population

    • B. 

      A population contains a group of individuals of the same species

    • C. 

      Individuals are not "endangered" but populations can be

    • D. 

      Members of the same population can mate with each other

    • E. 

      Individuals within a population undergo genetic change

  • 28. 
    In general, there is a positive correlation between body size and generation time. This statement is:
    • A. 

      True; however, after reaching a certain body size, this correlation levels off

    • B. 

      False; however, there is a correlation between body size and type of survivorship curve

    • C. 

      True; larger animals tend to have a longer generation time

    • D. 

      True; larger animals tend to have fewer offspring

    • E. 

      False; the correlation is between small body size and longer generation time

  • 29. 
    In 1900, the world had a human population of approximately _____________________, and, in 2000, the world had a human population of approximatley __________________.
    • A. 

      2.5 billion; 5.2 billion

    • B. 

      2.8 billion; 4.4 billion

    • C. 

      550 million; 7.4 billion

    • D. 

      4.3 billion; 6.7 billion

    • E. 

      1.6 billion; 6.1 billion

  • 30. 
    In a population exhibiting logistic growth, the rate of the population growth is greatest when N is:
    • A. 

      Above the carrying capacity

    • B. 

      0

    • C. 

      K

    • D. 

      0.5 K

    • E. 

      All of the above are correct because the rate of population growth is constant in logistic growth

  • 31. 
    In logistic population growth, as the population size, N, approaches the environments carrying capacity, K, what happens to the rate of population increase?
    • A. 

      It remains the same

    • B. 

      It approaches 0

    • C. 

      It remains at K/2

    • D. 

      It increases expotentially

    • E. 

      It remains at N/K

  • 32. 
    As of 2008, approximatley how many humans live on Earth?
    • A. 

      6 million

    • B. 

      60 million

    • C. 

      6 billion

    • D. 

      60 billion

    • E. 

      600 million

  • 33. 
    Which of the following shows the correct order of ecological levels, from lowest to highest in complexity?
    • A. 

      Individuals > populations > ecosystems > communites

    • B. 

      Communites > populations > ecosystems > individuals

    • C. 

      Ecosystems > communites > individuals > communities

    • D. 

      Populations > communities > individuals > ecosystems

    • E. 

      None of the above correctly shows the order from lowest to highest

  • 34. 
    The "demographic transistion" seen in human population ultmately results in:
    • A. 

      High birth rates and low death rates

    • B. 

      High birth rates and high death rates

    • C. 

      Low birth rates and low death rates

    • D. 

      No births and no deaths

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 35. 
    A population with an S-shaped growth curve is said to exhibit ___________ growth.
    • A. 

      Expotential

    • B. 

      Negative

    • C. 

      Logistic

    • D. 

      Density-independent

    • E. 

      Density-dependent

  • 36. 
    The death rate of organisms in a population exhibiting a type 3 survivorship curve is:
    • A. 

      Unrelated to age

    • B. 

      Lower after the organisms survive to the critical age of establishment

    • C. 

      Usually correlated with density-independent causes

    • D. 

      Higher in post-reproductive than in pre-reproductive years

    • E. 

      More or less constant throughout their lives

  • 37. 
    If there are 500 individuals in a population at the start of a year, and during the year 125 offspring are produced in that population, then the annual birth rate is:
    • A. 

      .5

    • B. 

      .25

    • C. 

      1.25

    • D. 

      125

    • E. 

      The annual birth rate cannot be computed from the information provided

  • 38. 
    The population size that a particular habitat can support indefinitley is called the:
    • A. 

      Realized niche

    • B. 

      Intristic population size

    • C. 

      Fundamental niche

    • D. 

      Carrying capactiy

    • E. 

      Community

  • 39. 
    If r= 1.05 for a population at a given time (t) when N= 100 , what will the population size be at time t+2 (two generations later)?
    • A. 

      105

    • B. 

      110

    • C. 

      111

    • D. 

      100

    • E. 

      It could be b) and c)

  • 40. 
    During logistic growth, the per capita rate of increase:
    • A. 

      Approaches the carrying capacity

    • B. 

      Is always approaching zero

    • C. 

      Is constant

    • D. 

      Is ever-increasing

    • E. 

      Approaches zero after the population reaches one-half the carrying capacity

  • 41. 
    The purpose of a population model is to:
    • A. 

      Test the effectiveness of conservation plans

    • B. 

      Demonstrate the effective population size of an endangered species

    • C. 

      Graph changes in a population over time

    • D. 

      Estimate the death rate of the population from one generation to the next

    • E. 

      Predict or explain changes in an organisms abundance from one generation to the next

  • 42. 
    Which of the following is NOT a mechanism by which humans have so far avoided growth beyond their carrying capacity?
    • A. 

      The ablility to live in higher densities than before

    • B. 

      The ability to expand into new habitats

    • C. 

      The ability to curve previously fatal diseases

    • D. 

      The ability to produce more food with that previously possible

    • E. 

      All of the above are mechanisms by which humans have avoided reaching their carrying capacity

  • 43. 
    Life histories are based on:
    • A. 

      The age at death

    • B. 

      The age of reproduction and number of reproductive events

    • C. 

      Litter size

    • D. 

      The rate of growth and development

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 44. 
    Which of the following was discovered as a result of the fruit fly life-extension experiment?
    • A. 

      Longer-lived flies died more quickly when removed from "ideal" living conditions

    • B. 

      Longer-lived flies aged more quickly when removed from "ideal" living conditions

    • C. 

      Longer-lived flies laid their eggs earlier than short-lived flies

    • D. 

      Longer-lived flies accumulated a greater number of mutations in their genomes

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 45. 
    Which statement best describes expectations for world human population by the year 2010?
    • A. 

      The problem is to complex to make accurate predictions

    • B. 

      It will drop below 6 billion if the current rate of decrease continues

    • C. 

      It will exceed 10 billion if the current rate of increases continues

    • D. 

      It will exceed 7 billion if the current rate of increases continues

    • E. 

      Negative growth in the united states and europe will counterbalance positive growth in developing countries

  • 46. 
    A survivorship curve that had low survivorship in the beginning and stabilized after high initial mortality would be characterisitic for which type of organism?
    • A. 

      Birds of prey

    • B. 

      Hummingbirds

    • C. 

      Cod

    • D. 

      Elephants

    • E. 

      Rodents

  • 47. 
    In the lynx-snowshoe hare oscillating cycle of population growth, when the hare population size grows, more food is provided for the lynx. Which is the IMMEDIATE next step in the cycle?
    • A. 

      The lynx population crashes

    • B. 

      The lynx reproduce at a higher rate

    • C. 

      The food source for the rabbits increases

    • D. 

      The hare population crashes

    • E. 

      The hare population grows furthur