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Cells use the cycle to recycle ADP and phosphate
Cells use the cycle to recycle energy released by ATP hydrolysis
Cells use the cycle to recycle ADP, phosphate, and the energy released by ATP hydrolysis
Cells us the cycle primarily to generate heat.
Succinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and fumarate is the substrate
Succinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and malonic acid is the substrate
Succinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product
Fumarate is the product, and malonic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor
Malonic acid is the product, and fumarate is a competitive inhibitor
It is a competitive inhibitor.
It blocks the binding of fumarate
It is a noncompetitive inhibitor
It is able to bind to succinate
It is an allosteric regulator
An allosteric inhibitor
An allosteric inhibitor
A competitive inhibitor
Free energy; entropy
Heat is not a form of energy
Cells do not have much heat; they are relatively cool
Temperature is usually uniform throughout a cell
Heat can never be used to do work
Heat must remain constant during work.
ADP+Pi -> ATP + H20
C6H12O6 + 602 -> 6CO2 + 6 H2O
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Amino acids -> proteins
Glucose + fructose -> fructose
Add more of the enzyme
Heat the solution to 99 C
Add more substrate
Add an allosteric inhibitor
Add a noncompetitive inhibitor
They are able to maintain a lower internal temperature
High temperatures make catalysis unnecessary
Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures
Their enzymes are completely insensitive to temperature
They use molecules other than proteins or RNAs as their main catalysts
Additional product will be formed
Additional substrate will be formed
The reaction will change from endergonic to exergonic
The free energy of the system will change
Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium
Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy from food
Metabolism depends on an organism's adequate hydration
Metabolism uses all of an organism's resources
Metabolism consists of all the energy transformation reactions in an organism
Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism
^S is the change in enthalpy, a measure of randomness
^H is the change in entropy, the energy available to do work
^G is the change in free energy
T is the temperature in degrees Celsius
Consumes energy at a steady rate
Releases energy at a steady rate
Consumes or releases energy, depending on whether it is exergonic or endergonic
Has zero kinetic energy
Con do no work
The products have more total energy than the reactants
The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy
The reaction goes only in a forward direction: all reactants will be converted to products, but no products will be converted to reactants
A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed
The reactions are rapid
A reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any point away from equilibrium
A chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an opposite entropy change in the cell's suuroundings
An endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment
A chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are not being produced or used in any active metabolic pathway
No possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell
+^H, -^S, -^G
+^H, -^S, +^G
-^H, -^S, +^G
-^H, +^S, +^G
+^G, +^H, -^S
+^G, -^H, -^S
-^G, +^H, +^S
-^G, -^H, -^S
The total kinetic energy of a system
The heat content of a chemical system
The system's entropy
The cell's energy equilibrium
The condition of a cell that is not able to react
It is +7.3 kcal/mol.
It is less than +7.3 kcal/mol.
It is about +13 kcal/mol.
It is greater than +13 kcal/mol.
The information given is insufficient to deduce the free energy change.
Cells are open systems, but a test tube is a closed system.
Cells are less efficient at heat production than nonliving systems.
The hydrolysis of ATP in a cell produces different chemical products than does the reaction in a test tube.
The reaction in cells must be catalyzed by enzymes, but the reaction in a test tube does not need enzymes.
Reactant and product concentrations in the test tube are different from those in the cell.
They combine molecules into more energy-rich molecules
They supply energy, primarily in the form of ATP, for the cell's work
They are endergonic
They are spontaneous and do not need enzyme catalysis
They build up complex molecules such as protein from simpler compounds
It is used to power yet more cellular work
It is used to store energy as more ATP
It is used to generate ADP from nucleotide precursors
It is lost to the environment
It is transported to specific organs such as the brain
The phosphate can only be used as an excretory waste
The phosphate can only be used to regenerate more ATP
The phosphate can be added to water and excreted as a liquid
The phosphate may be incorporated into any molecule that contains phosphate
It enters the nucleus to affect gene expression
A) ATPase activity must be powering an inflow of calcium from the outside of the cell into the SR.
B) ATPase activity must be transferring Pi to the SR to enable this to occur.
C) ATPase activity must be pumping calcium from the cytosol to the SR against the concentration gradient.
D) ATPase activity must be opening a channel for the calcium ions to diffuse back into the SR along the concentration gradient.
E) ATPase activity must be routing calcium ions from the SR to the cytosol, and then to the cell's environment.
The reaction is faster than the same reaction in the absense of the enzyme
The free energy change of the reaction is opposite from the reaction that occurs in the absense of the enzyme
The reaction always goes in the direction toward chemical equilibrium
Enzyme-catalyzed reaction require energy to activate the enzyme
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions release more free energy than noncatalyzed reactions