In accordance with auditing standards.
As effectively as reasonably possible.
In a timely manner.
Only after an adequate investigation of the management team.
Issue an adverse audit report.
Issue a disclaimer of opinion.
Withdraw from the engagement.
Issue a qualified audit report.
An error is unintentional, whereas fraud is intentional.
Frauds occur more often than errors in financial statements.
Errors are always fraud and frauds are always errors.
Auditors have more responsibility for finding fraud than errors.
Important to the financial statements
Statistically significant to the financial statements
Material to the financial statements
Identified by the client
Violation of federal employment laws.
Violation of federal environmental regulations.
Violation of federal income tax laws.
Violation of civil rights laws.
Discuss the matter with the client’s legal counsel.
Obtain evidence about the potential effect of the illegal act on the financial statements.
Contact the local law enforcement officials regarding potential criminal wrongdoing.
Consider the impact of the illegal act on the relationship with the company’s management.
A prudent user.
Provide reasonable assurance that material misstatements will be detected.
Be a guarantor of the fairness in the statements.
Be equally responsible with management for the preparation of the financial statements.
Be an insurer of the fairness in the statements.
Test for monetary errors in the financial statements.
Prove that the accounts with material balances are classified correctly.
Prove that the trial balance is in balance.
Identify the details of the internal control system.
An attitude of professional skepticism.
A rule in the AICPA’s Code of Professional Conduct.
The audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
The financial statements are the client’s responsibility.
The client is guilty of contributory negligence.
The client is guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation.
Theft of assets.
It is easier for the auditor to uncover fraud than errors.
It is easier for the auditor to uncover indirect-effect illegal acts than fraud.
The auditor’s responsibility for detecting direct-effect illegal acts is similar to the responsibility to detect fraud.
The auditor’s responsibility for detecting indirect-effect illegal acts is similar to the responsibility to detect fraud.
Greater for management fraud because managers are inherently more deceptive than employees.
Greater for management fraud because of management’s ability to override existing internal controls.
Greater for employee fraud because of the higher crime rate among blue collar workers.
Greater for employee fraud because of the larger number of employees in the organization.
The auditor has no responsibility for searching for indirect-effect illegal acts.
The auditor has the same responsibility for searching for indirect-effect illegal acts as any other potential misstatement that may occur.
Auditors have responsibility for searching for any illegal act, whether direct-effect or indirect-effect.
Discovery of indirect-effect illegal acts is usually easier than discovery of fraud.
More on discovering errors than employee fraud.
More on discovering employee fraud than errors.
Equally on discovering either one.
On the senior auditor for detecting errors and on the manager for detecting employee fraud.
Include audit procedures which have a strong probability of detecting illegal acts.
Still include some audit procedures designed specifically to uncover illegalities.
Ignore the issue.
Make inquiries of management regarding their policies for detecting and preventing illegal acts and regarding their knowledge of violations, and then rely on normal audit procedures to detect errors, irregularities, and illegalities.
Inquire of management only at one level below those likely to be involved with the illegality.
Begin communication with the FASB in accordance with PCAOB regulations.
Consider accumulating additional evidence to determine if there is actually an illegal act.
Withdraw from the engagement.
Report it to the proper governmental authorities.
Consider the effects on the financial statements, including the adequacy of disclosure.
Withdraw from the engagement.
Issue an adverse opinion.
Local law enforcement officials.
The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.
The Securities and Exchange Commission.
All of the above.
Most auditors are trained to audit cycles as opposed to entire financial statements.
The approach aids in the assignment of tasks to different members of the audit team.
The cycle approach is required by auditing standards.
The cycle approach allows the auditor to detect indirect-effect illegal acts.
Implied or expressed representations about accounts, transactions, and disclosures in the financial statements.
Stated in the footnotes to the financial statements.
Explicitly expressed representations about the financial statements.
Provided to the auditor in the assertions letter, but are not disclosed on the financial statements.
Income tax expense and liability accounts.
Retained earnings account.
The specific audit objectives are applicable to every account balance on the financial statements
The general audit objectives are applicable to every account balance on the financial statements.
The general audit objectives are stated in terms tailored to the engagement.
For any given class of transactions, usually only one audit objective must be met to conclude the transactions are properly recorded..
The existence and completeness assertions emphasize different audit concerns.
Existence deals with overstatements and completeness deals with understatements.
Existence deals with understatements and completeness deals with overstatements.
The completeness assertion deals with unrecorded transactions.
Presentation and disclosure matters
Classes of transactions and events during the period
Proper classification of income statement accounts
Classification and understandability
Balance-related audit objectives are applied to account balances.
Transaction-related audit objectives are applied to classes of transactions.
Balance-related audit objectives are applied to the ending balance in balance sheet accounts.
Balance-related audit objectives are applied to both beginning and ending balances in balance sheet accounts.
Whether all of the current period’s transactions are recorded.
Whether transactions are recorded in the correct accounting period.
The proper cutoff between capitalizing and expensing expenditures.
The proper cutoff between disclosing items in footnotes or in account balances.
Agree with related subsidiary ledger amounts.
Are properly disclosed in accordance with GAAP.
Foot to the total in the account balance.
Agree with the total in the general ledger.
Valuation and allocation
Rights and obligations
Accuracy and cutoff.
Classification and classification.
Posting and summarization with accuracy.
Occurrence and occurrence.
Existence relates to whether the amounts in accounts are understated.
Occurrence relates to whether balances exist.
Existence relates to whether amounts included exist.
Occurrence relates to whether the amounts in accounts occurred in the proper year.
Incorrect postings of recorded transactions.
Counterfeit signatures on paid checks.
Fraud involving collusion.
Generally, the auditor is under no obligation to notify parties other than personnel within the client’s organization.
Generally, the auditor is under an obligation to inform the PCAOB.
Generally, the auditor is obligated to disclose the relevant facts in the auditor’s report.
Generally, the auditor is expected to compel the client to adhere to requirements of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
The auditor is responsible for the failure to detect fraud only when such failure clearly results from nonperformance of audit procedures specifically described in the engagement letter
The auditor must extend auditing procedures to actively search for evidence of fraud in all situations.
The auditor must extend auditing procedures to actively search for evidence of fraud where the examination indicates that fraud may exist.
The auditor is responsible for the failure to detect fraud only when an unqualified opinion is issued.
Both directly and indirectly.
Materially if direct; immaterially if indirect.
No assurance that they will be detected.
The same reasonable assurance provided for other items.
Assurance that they will be detected, if material.
Assurance that they will be detected, if highly material.
At the beginning and end of the fiscal period.
Each start of the annual audit.
At January 1 and December 31.
At the origin and final disposition of the company.