# Astronomy Test #2

54 Questions

Chapters 4-5, 13-14.

• 1.
______________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
• A.

Gamma Rays

• B.

Ultraviolet Light

• C.

• D.

X Rays

• E.

A, B, and D above.

• 2.
Star C and star D are equally luminous. Star C is twice as far away from Earth as star D. How do the brightness level of stars C and D compare?
• A.

Star D appears twice as bright as star C

• B.

Star C appears twice as bright as star D

• C.

Star C appears four times as bright as star D

• D.

Star D appears four times as bright as star C

• 3.
You research the star Sirius and find that its spectral lines are blue shifted. What does this tell you about Sirius?
• A.

It has a transverse velocity that is toward us.

• B.

Its surface temperature is higher than that of the Sun.

• C.

It has a radial velocity that is toward us.

• D.

It has a radial velocity that is away from us.

• E.

It has a transverse velocity that is away from us.

• 4.
The wavelength of maximum intensity that is emitted by a black body is
• A.

Proportional to temperature

• B.

Inversely proportional to temperature

• C.

Proportional to temperature to the fourth power

• D.

Inversely proportional to temperature to the fourth power

• E.

Both a and c above

• 5.
Of the following, which color represents the lowest surface temperature star?
• A.

Yellow

• B.

Blue

• C.

Orange

• D.

Red

• E.

White

• 6.
Ultraviolet radiation is hard to observe primarily because
• A.

The Earth's atmosphere easily absorbs it at the upper atmosphere

• B.

Very few objects emit at ultraviolet wavelengths

• C.

No space-based telescopes operate at ultraviolet wavelengths

• D.

Only the lowest mass stars emit ultraviolet light

• 7.
The ________________ of a telescope is a measure of its ability to show fine detail and depends on the diameter of the objective.
• A.

Spherical Aberration

• B.

Focal Length

• C.

Resolving Power

• D.

Magnifying Power

• E.

Light-Gathering Power

• 8.
Radio telescopes are often connected together to do interferometry. What is the primary problem overcome by radio interferometry?
• A.

Poor light gathering power.

• B.

Poor resolving power.

• C.

Poor magnifying power.

• D.

Interference from nearby sources of radio waves.

• E.

The low energy of radio photons.

• 9.
The Arecibo Observatory is:
• A.

• B.

• C.

An X-ray observatory

• D.

A large optical observatory

• 10.
What is the name of the effect when an electromagnetic wave is bent as it passes from one material into another?
• A.

Defraction

• B.

Refraction

• C.

Red Shift

• D.

Reflection

• 11.
The entire electromagmetic spectrum can be divided into the seven bands of Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visivle, Ultraviolet, X-ray, and Gamma-ray (from longest to shortest wavelength). To which of these two bands is Earth's atmosphere the most transparent?
• A.

Visible and Ultraviolet

• B.

• C.

• D.

Ultraviolet & Infrared

• E.

X-ray & Gamma-ray

• 12.
Which electron energy level transition corresponds to a hydrogen atom absorbing a visible-light photon that has a wavelength of 656 nanometers?
• A.

The electron makes the transition from energy level 3 to energy level 2.

• B.

The electron makes the transition from energy level 2 to energy level 3.

• C.

The electron makes the transition from energy level 2 to energy level 1.

• D.

The electron makes the transition from energy level 1 to energy level 2.

• E.

The electron makes the transition from energy level 3 to energy level 4.

• 13.
The reason to prefer a reflecting over a refracting telescope is its
• A.

Lack of chromatic aberration

• B.

Shorter length for the same aperture size

• C.

Lighter weight for larger apertures

• D.

All of the above are valid reasons

• 14.
Particle accelerators that smash atoms or particles together at high speeds, such as Fermilab or CERN, are important tools used for simulating conditions in
• A.

The solar wind

• B.

Planetary nebula

• C.

The early universe

• D.

Brown dwarf stars

• 15.
The lowest energy level in an atom is
• A.

The absolute zero temperature.

• B.

The ground state.

• C.

The ionization level.

• D.

Responsible for Doppler shifts.

• E.

The energy level from which the Paschen Series of hydrogen originates.

• 16.
• A.

Will not penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground.

• B.

Has a wavelength that is longer than the visible light emitted by the star.

• C.

Has a wavelength that is shorter than the X-rays emitted by the star.

• D.

A and b

• E.

B and c

• 17.
What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light visible to the human eye?
• A.

400 nm

• B.

7000 nm

• C.

3x108 m

• D.

700 nm

• 18.
If light from a star passes from an excited low density gas seen against the dark background of space to your telescope and spectroscope, __________ spectrum results.
• A.

A bright (emission) line

• B.

Continuous

• 19.
The most massive part of the atom is (are) the ___________which has (have) a ___________charge
• A.

Electrons, negative

• B.

Nucleus, negative

• C.

Nucleus, positive

• D.

Electrons, positive

• 20.
A plot of the continuous spectra of five different stars is shown in the figure below. Based on these spectra, which of the stars is the hottest?
• A.

Star D

• B.

Star C

• C.

Star E

• D.

Star A

• 21.
If continuous spectrum light from a star passes through a cool low density gas on its way to your telescope and spectroscope, _____________ spectrum on the continous spectrum results.
• A.

A dark (absorption) line

• B.

A bright (emission) line

• C.

Continuous

• 22.
The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into six color bands of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue and Violet (from long to short wavelength). A single photon of which of these colors has the greatest amount of energy?
• A.

Green

• B.

Violet

• C.

Red

• D.

Blue

• E.

Orange

• 23.
The fact that the speed of light is constant (as it travels through a vacuum) means that
• A.

Photons with longer wavelengths have lower frequencies

• B.

Radio wave photons have shorter wavelengths than gamma ray photons

• C.

X-rays can be transmitted through the atmosphere around the world

• D.

All of the above are true

• 24.
The number of ___________ in the nucleus determines what element the nucleus is.
• A.

Protons

• B.

All of these determines the element

• C.

Electrons

• D.

None of these determines the element

• E.

Neutrons

• 25.
The emission and absorption lines of a given atom occur at the exact same energies.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 26.
The Doppler shift can be used to determine the _________ of an object.
• A.

Temperature

• B.

• C.

Energy

• D.

• 27.
Infrared astronomy is often done from high-flying aircraft because
• A.

Infrared telescopes only need to get above the ozone layer.

• B.

Infrared photons are quite energetic.

• C.

Infrared sources are very bright.

• D.

Infrared telescopes are not very heavy.

• E.

Infrared radiation is absorbed low in Earth's atmosphere by CO2 and water vapor.

• 28.
Absolute zero is
• A.

Zero degrees Celsius.

• B.

The temperature at which atoms have no remaining energy from which we can extract heat.

• C.

The temperature at which water freezes.

• D.

Both a and c

• E.

None of the above

• 29.
By what mechanism does radiation reach the Sun's surface from its interior?
• A.

Convection

• B.

Neutrinos

• C.

The solar wind

• D.

Ionization

• 30.
High temperatures are required to get H nuclei to fuse because they ________ one another because of their __________ electric charges.
• A.

Attract, negative

• B.

Repel, positive

• C.

Attract, positive

• D.

Repel, negative

• 31.
Stars of similar temperatures but different sizes
• A.

Will have similar luminosities but different masses

• B.

Will have similar spectral types but different luminosities

• C.

Will have different spectral types but similar luminosities

• D.

Will have similar masses but different distances

• 32.
If a star's distance is 10 pc, what is its parallax?
• A.

0.1 arcsec

• B.

0.01 arcsec

• C.

0.05 arcsec

• D.

0.5 arcsec

• 33.
The sun's magnetic field is evident in the looped shapes of
• A.

Solar flares.

• B.

Solar prominences.

• C.

Granules.

• D.

Sunspots.

• E.

The corona.

• 34.
Which of the following is the most common type of star?
• A.

White dwarfs

• B.

Red giants

• C.

Main Sequence

• D.

Supergiants

• 35.
What are the two most important intrinsic properties used to classify stars?
• A.

Distance and luminosity.

• B.

Distance and surface temperature.

• C.

Distance and color.

• D.

Luminosity and surface temperature.

• 36.
Select the order of star color in increasing temperature from cool to hot.
• A.

Red, yellow, blue

• B.

Red, blue, yellow

• C.

Yellow, blue, red

• D.

Blue, red, yellow

• 37.
Which of the following layers of the Sun makes up the majority of its interior?
• A.

The photosphere

• B.

The core

• C.

The convective zone

• D.

• 38.
Granulation is caused by
• A.

The heating in the chromosphere.

• B.

Shock waves in the corona.

• C.

The solar wind flowing away from the corona.

• D.

Sunspots.

• E.

Rising gas below the photosphere.

• 39.
How long does the sunspots cycle last, on average?
• A.

365.25 days.

• B.

Between 25 and 35 days.

• C.

• D.

• 40.
Magnetic fields inside sunspots are ______________those in surrounding regions.
• A.

Much stronger than

• B.

Much weaker than

• C.

Slightly stronger than

• D.

The same as

• 41.
Which of these are not associated with the active Sun?
• A.

Aurora

• B.

Granulation

• C.

Sunspots

• D.

Prominences

• E.

Flares

• 42.
Star A has higher luminosity than Star B, but is farther away. Which has higher apparent brightness?
• A.

Star A.

• B.

Star B

• C.

Could be either, depending on their specific luminosities and distances.

• D.

Impossible to determine.

• 43.
Neutrinos are created in reaction in the _____________ of the sun.
• A.

Corona

• B.

Core

• C.

Photosphere

• D.

Chromosphere

• 44.
A faster-moving star in a binary is the
• A.

More massive star

• B.

Less massive star

• C.

More distant of the two stars

• D.

Hotter star

• 45.
Binary (double) stars can be detected by
• A.

Being seen as two separate stars with a telescope

• B.

One star traveling a wiggly proper motion path across the sky

• C.

One star dimming abruptly as another passes in front of it

• D.

Pairs of absorption lines seen in the spectrum of what appears to be one star

• E.

All of the above

• 46.
Magnetic field is continuously produced and deformed in the Sun by
• A.

A liquid conducting layer in the interior

• B.

Fusion reactions in the core

• C.

Differential rotation

• D.

This is a trick question. The solar magnetic field is primordial.

• 47.
The light we see from the Sun comes from which layer?
• A.

Chromosphere

• B.

Photosphere

• C.

Convective zone

• D.

Corona

• 48.
• A.

Star E is four times as big as star F

• B.

Star F is twice as big as star E

• C.

Star E is twice as big as star F

• D.

Star F is four times as big as star E

• 49.
Which type of binaries are found via Doppler shifts?
• A.

Astrometric binaries

• B.

Eclipsing binaries

• C.

Visual binaries

• D.

Photometric binaries

• E.

Spectroscopic binaries

• 50.
What is the difference between brightness and luminosity?
• A.

These are different names for the same property

• B.

Brightness is how we see a star; luminosity is how much light it emits

• C.

Luminosity is how we see a star; brightness is how much light it emits

• D.

Luminosity measures size; brightness measures temperature

• 51.
What is the net result of the proton-proton chain?
• A.

2 hydrogens and 1 helium are fused into 1 carbon + energy

• B.

4 hydrogens are fused into 1 helium, 2 neutrinos + energy

• C.

2 protons and 2 neutrons are fused into 1 carbon + energy

• D.

2 heliums are fused into 1 carbon, 1 neutrino + energy

• 52.
A particular star with the same spectral type as the Sun (G2) has a luminosity of 50 solar luminosities. What does this tell you about the star?
• A.

It must be larger than the Sun.

• B.

It must be smaller than the Sun.

• C.

It must be within 1000 parsecs of the Sun.

• D.

It must be farther away than 1000 parsecs.

• E.

Both a and b above.

• 53.
Star A has the same luminosity as star B. Also, star A is 3 times as far as Star B from Earth. Then star A is ________ as bright as star B as seen from Earth.
• A.

3 times

• B.

1/3

• C.

9 times

• D.

1/9

• 54.
Parallax would be easier to measure if
• A.

Earth's orbit was longer.

• B.

The stars were farther away.

• C.

Earth moved slower along its orbit.

• D.

All of these

• E.

None of these

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