Astronomy Test #2

54 Questions  I  By Smatrypants
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 Astronomy Test #2
Chapters 4-5, 13-14.

  
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  • 1. 
    ______________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
    • A. 

      Gamma Rays

    • B. 

      Ultraviolet Light

    • C. 

      Infrared Radiation

    • D. 

      X Rays

    • E. 

      A, B, and D above.


  • 2. 
    Star C and star D are equally luminous. Star C is twice as far away from Earth as star D. How do the brightness level of stars C and D compare?
    • A. 

      Star D appears twice as bright as star C

    • B. 

      Star C appears twice as bright as star D

    • C. 

      Star C appears four times as bright as star D

    • D. 

      Star D appears four times as bright as star C


  • 3. 
    You research the star Sirius and find that its spectral lines are blue shifted. What does this tell you about Sirius?
    • A. 

      It has a transverse velocity that is toward us.

    • B. 

      Its surface temperature is higher than that of the Sun.

    • C. 

      It has a radial velocity that is toward us.

    • D. 

      It has a radial velocity that is away from us.

    • E. 

      It has a transverse velocity that is away from us.


  • 4. 
    The wavelength of maximum intensity that is emitted by a black body is
    • A. 

      Proportional to temperature

    • B. 

      Inversely proportional to temperature

    • C. 

      Proportional to temperature to the fourth power

    • D. 

      Inversely proportional to temperature to the fourth power

    • E. 

      Both a and c above


  • 5. 
    Of the following, which color represents the lowest surface temperature star?
    • A. 

      Yellow

    • B. 

      Blue

    • C. 

      Orange

    • D. 

      Red

    • E. 

      White


  • 6. 
    Ultraviolet radiation is hard to observe primarily because
    • A. 

      The Earth's atmosphere easily absorbs it at the upper atmosphere

    • B. 

      Very few objects emit at ultraviolet wavelengths

    • C. 

      No space-based telescopes operate at ultraviolet wavelengths

    • D. 

      Only the lowest mass stars emit ultraviolet light


  • 7. 
    The ________________ of a telescope is a measure of its ability to show fine detail and depends on the diameter of the objective.
    • A. 

      Spherical Aberration

    • B. 

      Focal Length

    • C. 

      Resolving Power

    • D. 

      Magnifying Power

    • E. 

      Light-Gathering Power


  • 8. 
    Radio telescopes are often connected together to do interferometry. What is the primary problem overcome by radio interferometry?
    • A. 

      Poor light gathering power.

    • B. 

      Poor resolving power.

    • C. 

      Poor magnifying power.

    • D. 

      Interference from nearby sources of radio waves.

    • E. 

      The low energy of radio photons.


  • 9. 
    The Arecibo Observatory is:
    • A. 

      A radio observatory

    • B. 

      An adaptive optics observatory

    • C. 

      An X-ray observatory

    • D. 

      A large optical observatory


  • 10. 
    What is the name of the effect when an electromagnetic wave is bent as it passes from one material into another?
    • A. 

      Defraction

    • B. 

      Refraction

    • C. 

      Red Shift

    • D. 

      Reflection


  • 11. 
    The entire electromagmetic spectrum can be divided into the seven bands of Radio,Microwave,Infrared,Visivle,Ultraviolet,X-ray,and Gamma-ray (from longest to shortest wavelength). To which of these two bands is Earth's atmosphere the most transparent?
    • A. 

      Visible and Ultraviolet

    • B. 

      Visible & Radio

    • C. 

      Microwave & Radio

    • D. 

      Ultraviolet & Infrared

    • E. 

      X-ray & Gamma-ray


  • 12. 
    Which electron energy level transition corresponds to a hydrogen atom absorbing a visible-light photon that has a wavelength of 656 nanometers?
    • A. 

      The electron makes the transition from energy level 3 to energy level 2.

    • B. 

      The electron makes the transition from energy level 2 to energy level 3.

    • C. 

      The electron makes the transition from energy level 2 to energy level 1.

    • D. 

      The electron makes the transition from energy level 1 to energy level 2.

    • E. 

      The electron makes the transition from energy level 3 to energy level 4.


  • 13. 
    The reason to prefer a reflecting over a refracting telescope is its
    • A. 

      Lack of chromatic aberration

    • B. 

      Shorter length for the same aperture size

    • C. 

      Lighter weight for larger apertures

    • D. 

      All of the above are valid reasons


  • 14. 
    Particle accelerators that smash atoms or particles together at high speeds, such as Fermilab or CERN, are important tools used for simulating conditions in
    • A. 

      The solar wind

    • B. 

      Planetary nebula

    • C. 

      The early universe

    • D. 

      Brown dwarf stars


  • 15. 
    The lowest energy level in an atom is
    • A. 

      The absolute zero temperature.

    • B. 

      The ground state.

    • C. 

      The ionization level.

    • D. 

      Responsible for Doppler shifts.

    • E. 

      The energy level from which the Paschen Series of hydrogen originates.


  • 16. 
    Ultraviolet radiation from a star
    • A. 

      Will not penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground.

    • B. 

      Has a wavelength that is longer than the visible light emitted by the star.

    • C. 

      Has a wavelength that is shorter than the X-rays emitted by the star.

    • D. 

      A and b

    • E. 

      B and c


  • 17. 
    What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light visible to the human eye?
    • A. 

      400 nm

    • B. 

      7000 nm

    • C. 

      3x108 m

    • D. 

      700 nm


  • 18. 
    If light from a star passes from an excited low density gas seen against the dark background of space to your telescope and spectroscope, __________ spectrum results.
    • A. 

      A bright (emission) line

    • B. 

      Continuous


  • 19. 
    The most massive part of the atom is (are) the ___________which has (have) a ___________charge
    • A. 

      Electrons, negative

    • B. 

      Nucleus, negative

    • C. 

      Nucleus, positive

    • D. 

      Electrons, positive


  • 20. 
    A plot of the continuous spectra of five different stars is shown in the figure below. Based on these spectra, which of the stars is the hottest?
    • A. 

      Star D

    • B. 

      Star C

    • C. 

      Star E

    • D. 

      Star A


  • 21. 
    If continuous spectrum light from a star passes through a cool low density gas on its way to your telescope and spectroscope, _____________ spectrum on the continous spectrum results.
    • A. 

      A dark (absorption) line

    • B. 

      A bright (emission) line

    • C. 

      Continuous


  • 22. 
    The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into six color bands of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue and Violet (from long to short wavelength). A single photon of which of these colors has the greatest amount of energy?
    • A. 

      Green

    • B. 

      Violet

    • C. 

      Red

    • D. 

      Blue

    • E. 

      Orange


  • 23. 
    The fact that the speed of light is constant (as it travels through a vacuum) means that
    • A. 

      Photons with longer wavelengths have lower frequencies

    • B. 

      Radio wave photons have shorter wavelengths than gamma ray photons

    • C. 

      X-rays can be transmitted through the atmosphere around the world

    • D. 

      All of the above are true


  • 24. 
    The number of ___________ in the nucleus determines what element the nucleus is.
    • A. 

      Protons

    • B. 

      All of these determines the element

    • C. 

      Electrons

    • D. 

      None of these determines the element

    • E. 

      Neutrons


  • 25. 
    The emission and absorption lines of a given atom occur at the exact same energies.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 26. 
    The Doppler shift can be used to determine the _________ of an object.
    • A. 

      Temperature

    • B. 

      No radiation

    • C. 

      Energy

    • D. 

      Radial velocity


  • 27. 
    Infrared astronomy is often done from high-flying aircraft because
    • A. 

      Infrared telescopes only need to get above the ozone layer.

    • B. 

      Infrared photons are quite energetic.

    • C. 

      Infrared sources are very bright.

    • D. 

      Infrared telescopes are not very heavy.

    • E. 

      Infrared radiation is absorbed low in Earth's atmosphere by CO2 and water vapor.


  • 28. 
    Absolute zero is
    • A. 

      Zero degrees Celsius.

    • B. 

      The temperature at which atoms have no remaining energy from which we can extract heat.

    • C. 

      The temperature at which water freezes.

    • D. 

      Both a and c

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 29. 
    By what mechanism does radiation reach the Sun's surface from its interior?
    • A. 

      Convection

    • B. 

      Neutrinos

    • C. 

      The solar wind

    • D. 

      Ionization


  • 30. 
    High temperatures are required to get H nuclei to fuse because they ________ one another because of their __________ electric charges.
    • A. 

      Attract, negative

    • B. 

      Repel, positive

    • C. 

      Attract, positive

    • D. 

      Repel, negative


  • 31. 
    Stars of similar temperatures but different sizes
    • A. 

      Will have similar luminosities but different masses

    • B. 

      Will have similar spectral types but different luminosities

    • C. 

      Will have different spectral types but similar luminosities

    • D. 

      Will have similar masses but different distances


  • 32. 
    If a star's distance is 10 pc, what is its parallax?
    • A. 

      0.1 arcsec

    • B. 

      0.01 arcsec

    • C. 

      0.05 arcsec

    • D. 

      0.5 arcsec


  • 33. 
    The sun's magnetic field is evident in the looped shapes of
    • A. 

      Solar flares.

    • B. 

      Solar prominences.

    • C. 

      Granules.

    • D. 

      Sunspots.

    • E. 

      The corona.


  • 34. 
    Which of the following is the most common type of star?
    • A. 

      White dwarfs

    • B. 

      Red giants

    • C. 

      Main Sequence

    • D. 

      Supergiants


  • 35. 
    What are the two most important intrinsic properties used to classify stars?
    • A. 

      Distance and luminosity.

    • B. 

      Distance and surface temperature.

    • C. 

      Distance and color.

    • D. 

      Luminosity and surface temperature.


  • 36. 
    Select the order of star color in increasing temperature from cool to hot.
    • A. 

      Red, yellow, blue

    • B. 

      Red, blue, yellow

    • C. 

      Yellow, blue, red

    • D. 

      Blue, red, yellow


  • 37. 
    Which of the following layers of the Sun makes up the majority of its interior?    
    • A. 

      The photosphere

    • B. 

      The core

    • C. 

      The convective zone

    • D. 

      The radiative zone


  • 38. 
    Granulation is caused by
    • A. 

      The heating in the chromosphere.

    • B. 

      Shock waves in the corona.

    • C. 

      The solar wind flowing away from the corona.

    • D. 

      Sunspots.

    • E. 

      Rising gas below the photosphere.


  • 39. 
    How long does the sunspots cycle last, on average?
    • A. 

      365.25 days.

    • B. 

      Between 25 and 35 days.

    • C. 

      About seven years.

    • D. 

      About 11 years.


  • 40. 
    Magnetic fields inside sunspots are ______________those in surrounding regions.
    • A. 

      Much stronger than

    • B. 

      Much weaker than

    • C. 

      Slightly stronger than

    • D. 

      The same as


  • 41. 
    Which of these are not associated with the active Sun?
    • A. 

      Aurora

    • B. 

      Granulation

    • C. 

      Sunspots

    • D. 

      Prominences

    • E. 

      Flares


  • 42. 
    Star A has higher luminosity than Star B, but is farther away. Which has higher apparent brightness?
    • A. 

      Star A.

    • B. 

      Star B

    • C. 

      Could be either, depending on their specific luminosities and distances.

    • D. 

      Impossible to determine.


  • 43. 
    Neutrinos are created in reaction in the _____________ of the sun.
    • A. 

      Corona

    • B. 

      Core

    • C. 

      Photosphere

    • D. 

      Chromosphere


  • 44. 
    A faster-moving star in a binary is the
    • A. 

      More massive star

    • B. 

      Less massive star

    • C. 

      More distant of the two stars

    • D. 

      Hotter star


  • 45. 
    Binary (double) stars can be detected by
    • A. 

      Being seen as two separate stars with a telescope

    • B. 

      One star traveling a wiggly proper motion path across the sky

    • C. 

      One star dimming abruptly as another passes in front of it

    • D. 

      Pairs of absorption lines seen in the spectrum of what appears to be one star

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 46. 
    Magnetic field is continuously produced and deformed in the Sun by    
    • A. 

      A liquid conducting layer in the interior

    • B. 

      Fusion reactions in the core

    • C. 

      Differential rotation

    • D. 

      This is a trick question. The solar magnetic field is primordial.


  • 47. 
    The light we see from the Sun comes from which layer?    
    • A. 

      Chromosphere

    • B. 

      Photosphere

    • C. 

      Convective zone

    • D. 

      Corona


  • 48. 
    Star E is the same temperature as star F but is four times as luminous. Which star is bigger?    
    • A. 

      Star E is four times as big as star F

    • B. 

      Star F is twice as big as star E

    • C. 

      Star E is twice as big as star F

    • D. 

      Star F is four times as big as star E


  • 49. 
    Which type of binaries are found via Doppler shifts?    
    • A. 

      Astrometric binaries

    • B. 

      Eclipsing binaries

    • C. 

      Visual binaries

    • D. 

      Photometric binaries

    • E. 

      Spectroscopic binaries


  • 50. 
    What is the difference between brightness and luminosity?
    • A. 

      These are different names for the same property

    • B. 

      Brightness is how we see a star; luminosity is how much light it emits

    • C. 

      Luminosity is how we see a star; brightness is how much light it emits

    • D. 

      Luminosity measures size; brightness measures temperature


  • 51. 
    What is the net result of the proton-proton chain?
    • A. 

      2 hydrogens and 1 helium are fused into 1 carbon + energy

    • B. 

      4 hydrogens are fused into 1 helium, 2 neutrinos + energy

    • C. 

      2 protons and 2 neutrons are fused into 1 carbon + energy

    • D. 

      2 heliums are fused into 1 carbon, 1 neutrino + energy


  • 52. 
    A particular star with the same spectral type as the Sun (G2) has a luminosity of 50 solar luminosities. What does this tell you about the star? 
    • A. 

      It must be larger than the Sun.

    • B. 

      It must be smaller than the Sun.

    • C. 

      It must be within 1000 parsecs of the Sun.

    • D. 

      It must be farther away than 1000 parsecs.

    • E. 

      Both a and b above.


  • 53. 
    Star A has the same luminosity as star B. Also, star A is 3 times as far as Star B from Earth. Then star A is ________ as bright as star B as seen from Earth. 
    • A. 

      3 times

    • B. 

      1/3

    • C. 

      9 times

    • D. 

      1/9


  • 54. 
    Parallax would be easier to measure if    
    • A. 

      Earth's orbit was longer.

    • B. 

      The stars were farther away.

    • C. 

      Earth moved slower along its orbit.

    • D. 

      All of these

    • E. 

      None of these


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