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AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  A hypothesis is
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following is responsible for the human ability to engage in higher mental activity such as thinking and philosophizing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Faster neural impulses occur in
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ______ of a list than for items ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Mary woke up one night with a spider dangling in front of her face. She screamed, and from that point on she could not stand to be near spiders. Mary's fear of spiders is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Depressant drugs have been found to
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  The subjects who participate in an experiment should
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  The MOST widely used recreational drug in the United States is
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Stimulus generalization occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The two basic types of statistics are
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  A schema is
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Caffeine is to alcohol as
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  The hindbrain structure involved with sleep and arousal is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  The purpose of the control group is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  The most vivid dreams generally occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
195.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.