AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The subjects who participate in an experiment should
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Dissociation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Stimulus generalization occurs when
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B.
C.
D.
19.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
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B.
C.
D.
32.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
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B.
C.
D.
35.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
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B.
C.
D.
36.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Faster neural impulses occur in
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  In order for a memory to be stored, it must first be
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  By definition, a sample
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  The basic parts of a neuron are
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ______ of a list than for items ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Flashbulb memories are
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  A schema is
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfum and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfum, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.