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AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  By definition, a sample
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A schema is
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Faster neural impulses occur in
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Caffeine is to alcohol as
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Dissociation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Technically, your absolute threshold is the point which you can detect
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Flashbulb memories are
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  When a person has chronic problems not getting adequate sleep, he or she is said to suffer from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Depressant drugs have been found to
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  The basic parts of a neuron are
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the promotion of digestion, is handled by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  Mary woke up one night with a spider dangling in front of her face. She screamed, and from that point on she could not stand to be near spiders. Mary's fear of spiders is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
195.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.