AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
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2.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
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3.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
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D.
4.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
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D.
5.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
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D.
6.  The median is
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B.
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D.
7.  The mean in a set of scores is
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D.
8.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
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9.  The standard deviation
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10.  A theory is
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11.  A hypothesis is
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12.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
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13.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
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B.
C.
D.
14.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
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B.
C.
D.
15.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
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16.  A group of researchers want to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direction to a parking spot by an individual wearing blue jeans and a t-shirt. In this study, the dependent variable would be
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17.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
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D.
18.  The experimental group
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D.
19.  The purpose of the control group is to
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20.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
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D.
22.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
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D.
23.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
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24.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
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B.
C.
D.
25.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
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D.
26.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
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27.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
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28.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
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29.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
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30.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
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31.  In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
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32.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
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D.
33.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
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D.
34.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
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B.
C.
D.
35.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
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D.
36.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
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D.
37.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
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D.
38.  The two basic types of statistics are
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D.
39.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
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D.
40.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
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D.
41.  The median is
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B.
C.
D.
42.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
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D.
43.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
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D.
44.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
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D.
45.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
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D.
46.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
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C.
D.
47.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
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B.
C.
D.
48.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
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D.
49.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
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D.
50.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
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D.
51.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
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D.
52.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
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D.
53.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
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D.
54.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
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D.
55.  By definition, a sample
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56.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
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B.
C.
D.
57.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
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D.
58.  The subjects who participate in an experiment should
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D.
59.  A sample is representative if
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D.
60.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
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D.
61.  Placebo effects occur when
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D.
62.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
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B.
C.
D.
63.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
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B.
C.
D.
64.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
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B.
C.
D.
65.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
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D.
66.  Experimenter bias occurs when
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D.
67.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
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68.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
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D.
69.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
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B.
C.
D.
70.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
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B.
C.
D.
71.  The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
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B.
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D.
72.  Glia cells
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B.
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D.
73.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
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C.
D.
74.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
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B.
C.
D.
75.  The basic parts of a neuron are
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B.
C.
D.
76.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
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B.
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D.
77.  Exchange of information between neurons takes place at the
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D.
78.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
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B.
C.
D.
79.  Faster neural impulses occur in
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B.
C.
D.
80.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
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B.
C.
D.
81.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
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B.
C.
D.
82.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
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D.
83.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
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D.
84.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
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D.
85.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
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B.
C.
D.
86.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
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B.
C.
D.
88.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
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B.
C.
D.
89.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
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B.
C.
D.
93.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
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B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
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B.
C.
D.
97.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
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B.
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D.
98.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
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B.
C.
D.
99.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
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B.
C.
D.
100.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
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B.
C.
D.
101.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
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B.
C.
D.
104.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
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B.
C.
D.
105.  The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the promotion of digestion, is handled by the
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B.
C.
D.
106.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
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B.
C.
D.
117.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The hindbrain structure involved with sleep and arousal is the
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B.
C.
D.
120.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Which of the following is responsible for the human ability to engage in higher mental activity such as thinking and philosophizing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
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B.
C.
D.
130.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
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B.
C.
D.
131.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
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B.
C.
D.
132.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
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B.
C.
D.
138.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
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B.
C.
D.
139.  A split-brain person has a severed
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C.
D.
140.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
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B.
C.
D.
143.  The endocrine system
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B.
C.
D.
144.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
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B.
C.
D.
146.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
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B.
C.
D.
148.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
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B.
C.
D.
149.  Technically, your absolute threshold is the point which you can detect
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.