AP Psychology Midterm Review

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AP Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

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1.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  A group of researchers want to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direction to a parking spot by an individual wearing blue jeans and a t-shirt. In this study, the dependent variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Mary woke up one night with a spider dangling in front of her face. She screamed, and from that point on she could not stand to be near spiders. Mary's fear of spiders is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The MOST widely used recreational drug in the United States is
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  A schema is
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  In order for a memory to be stored, it must first be
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Experimenter bias occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  By definition, a sample
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Stimulus generalization occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  The most vivid dreams generally occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Caffeine is to alcohol as
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.