AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  The purpose of the control group is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the promotion of digestion, is handled by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  When a person has chronic problems not getting adequate sleep, he or she is said to suffer from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Stimulus generalization occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfum and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfum, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  A rapid EEG (beta), dreaming, rapid eye movements, and profound muscle relaxation go with
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  In order for a memory to be stored, it must first be
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  A group of researchers want to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direction to a parking spot by an individual wearing blue jeans and a t-shirt. In this study, the dependent variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Faster neural impulses occur in
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The two basic types of statistics are
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The most vivid dreams generally occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ______ of a list than for items ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Experimenter bias occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  If you were attempt to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.