AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  A sample is representative if
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B.
C.
D.
2.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The experimental group
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The most vivid dreams generally occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
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B.
C.
D.
20.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
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B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Flashbulb memories are
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Which of the following is responsible for the human ability to engage in higher mental activity such as thinking and philosophizing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ______ of a list than for items ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  If you were attempt to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfum and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfum, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  When a person has chronic problems not getting adequate sleep, he or she is said to suffer from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Experimenter bias occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The subjects who participate in an experiment should
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  In order for a memory to be stored, it must first be
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  The purpose of the control group is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  A group of researchers want to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direction to a parking spot by an individual wearing blue jeans and a t-shirt. In this study, the dependent variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Exchange of information between neurons takes place at the
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  The two basic types of statistics are
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Faster neural impulses occur in
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  Scripts are
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is
A.
B.
C.
D.