AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
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B.
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D.
2.  Glia cells
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B.
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D.
3.  The median is
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B.
C.
D.
4.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
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B.
C.
D.
7.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
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B.
C.
D.
10.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
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B.
C.
D.
11.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
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B.
C.
D.
19.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
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B.
C.
D.
27.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
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C.
D.
35.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The experimental group
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B.
C.
D.
40.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the promotion of digestion, is handled by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
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B.
C.
D.
43.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
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B.
C.
D.
46.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
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B.
C.
D.
47.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A hypothesis is
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
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B.
C.
D.
50.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
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B.
C.
D.
52.  By definition, a sample
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C.
D.
53.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
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B.
C.
D.
54.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Flashbulb memories are
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfum and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfum, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
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B.
C.
D.
73.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Scripts are
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
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B.
C.
D.
87.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Depressant drugs have been found to
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Dissociation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  The purpose of the control group is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Experimenter bias occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  A rapid EEG (beta), dreaming, rapid eye movements, and profound muscle relaxation go with
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The basic parts of a neuron are
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ______ of a list than for items ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The two basic types of statistics are
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.