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AP Psychology Midterm Review

300 Questions  I  By Themyqs
AP psychology midterm review

  
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1.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  When a person has chronic problems not getting adequate sleep, he or she is said to suffer from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The most vivid dreams generally occur
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  A rapid EEG (beta), dreaming, rapid eye movements, and profound muscle relaxation go with
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Technically, your absolute threshold is the point which you can detect
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Stop Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Scripts are
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  A hypothesis is
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Exchange of information between neurons takes place at the
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Stimulus generalization occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The brain structure that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends most on
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Depressant drugs have been found to
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which of the following is responsible for the human ability to engage in higher mental activity such as thinking and philosophizing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  The basic parts of a neuron are
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  The hindbrain structure involved with sleep and arousal is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  The door-in-the-face technique involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Dissociation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  If you were attempt to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  Which of the following lists of letters would be easier for a person to maintain in short-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Which of the following techniques is most likely to prove useful in determining why a PARTICULAR child is afraid to go to school?
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  The purpose of the control group is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Neurotransmitters are secreted from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  The MOST widely used recreational drug in the United States is
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  A hormone is
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  Researchers who were studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had taped conversations playing 24 hours a day; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room which had the conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
195.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
196.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
197.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
198.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
199.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
200.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
201.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
A.
B.
C.
D.
202.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
203.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
204.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
205.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
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D.
206.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
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D.
207.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
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B.
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D.
208.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
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B.
C.
D.
209.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
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D.
210.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
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D.
211.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
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B.
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D.
212.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
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D.
213.  A schema is
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D.
214.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
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D.
215.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
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D.
216.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
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D.
217.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
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D.
218.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
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D.
219.  By definition, a sample
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220.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
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B.
C.
D.
221.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
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D.
222.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
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D.
223.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
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D.
224.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
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B.
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D.
225.  The experimental group
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C.
D.
226.  The two basic types of statistics are
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B.
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D.
227.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
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D.
228.  The idea that dreams are the cortex's attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of _____ theory of dreaming.
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D.
229.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
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D.
230.  The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
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C.
D.
231.  A theory is
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D.