AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Scripts are
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pidgeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Positive reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The MOST widely used recreational drug in the United States is
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Experimenter bias occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  General knowledge that is NOT tied to the time when the information was learned is contained in ______ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  If you were attempt to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  A hypothesis is
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  By definition, a sample
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Pitch perception can best be explained by _______ for very low-pitched sounds, ________ for very high-pitched sounds, and ________ for pitches in middle range.
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  A split-brain person has a severed
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The three basic processes in memory are
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The mode in a group of scores describes the ______ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Caffeine is to alcohol as
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The experimental group
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  The volley principle suggests that
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  In descriptive/correlational research, the investigator
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Dreaming typically goes with which sleep stage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  If the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged, which part of the body would be most directly affected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Pleasure centers in the brain appear to be concentrated most heavily in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  The subjects who participate in an experiment should
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The optic disk is
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Neurotransmitters are stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  Synaptic vesicles are structures that
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The basic parts of a neuron are
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  The regulation of the sleep-wake cycle has been linked to
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  An agonist
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.