AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  Primary reinforcers ______, while secondary reinforcers ______.
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B.
C.
D.
2.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Negative reinforcement involves
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B.
C.
D.
9.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
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B.
C.
D.
10.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The experimental group
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D.
12.  Sydney had an operate on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following devices monitors the electrical activity of the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  If you were attempt to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is
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B.
C.
D.
17.  A hormone is
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B.
C.
D.
18.  The endocrine system
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
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B.
C.
D.
20.  A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
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B.
C.
D.
21.  Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ________, that portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas which contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
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B.
C.
D.
28.  A rapid EEG (beta), dreaming, rapid eye movements, and profound muscle relaxation go with
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B.
C.
D.
29.  Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
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B.
C.
D.
30.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
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D.
31.  In order for a memory to be stored, it must first be
A.
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D.
32.  If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ________ variable would be the cause, and the ________ variable would be the effect.
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B.
C.
D.
33.  The kinesthetic system relates to
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D.
34.  The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are
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35.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
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D.
36.  The retina is to the eye as the
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D.
37.  The production of language for most persons resides in the
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D.
38.  Hering's opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. His opposed pairs were
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D.
39.  A memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus is called a(n) _____ code.
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B.
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D.
40.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
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B.
C.
D.
41.  Going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording boy-girl exchanges would be an example of
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B.
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D.
42.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
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B.
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D.
43.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
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D.
44.  A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the group of rats that is fed the high-protein diet is _________ group; the group that receives ordinary rat chow is ________ group.
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
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B.
C.
D.
46.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
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D.
47.  The three basic processes in memory are
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D.
48.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
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D.
49.  Hypotheses are typically expressed as
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D.
50.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
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D.
51.  A group of researchers want to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direction to a parking spot by an individual wearing blue jeans and a t-shirt. In this study, the dependent variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
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B.
C.
D.
53.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
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B.
C.
D.
55.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
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D.
56.  The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the
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D.
57.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
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B.
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D.
58.  Proactive interference occurs when
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D.
59.  The circadian rhythm operates around a
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D.
60.  Which of the following is (are) characteristic of REM sleep?
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B.
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D.
61.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
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D.
62.  Which of the following usually occurs in REM sleep?
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B.
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D.
63.  The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the
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D.
64.  Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
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B.
C.
D.
65.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
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B.
C.
D.
66.  Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The primary function of the cerebellum is to
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B.
C.
D.
68.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  An EEG would indicate primarily _____ activity in a person who is meditating with eyes closed.
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B.
C.
D.
70.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
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D.
72.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
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C.
D.
73.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
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D.
74.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
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B.
C.
D.
75.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
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B.
C.
D.
76.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
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B.
C.
D.
77.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
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B.
C.
D.
79.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was
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B.
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D.
84.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
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B.
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D.
85.  Which of the following statements regarding the EEG patterns of a hypnotized person is MOST accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Inferential statistics help us determine whether __________ played a role in an experiment.
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
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B.
C.
D.
92.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
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B.
C.
D.
94.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
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B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
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96.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The specific pattern of genes inherited at conception defines an individual's
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D.
98.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
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B.
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D.
99.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
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D.
100.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
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B.
C.
D.
101.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
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B.
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D.
104.  When a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene, the gene pair is said to be
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D.
105.  The "magic number seven" describes the
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D.
106.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
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D.
107.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
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B.
C.
D.
109.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called
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B.
C.
D.
111.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
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B.
C.
D.
112.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
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B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
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C.
D.
117.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
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D.
118.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
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D.
119.  Dissociation refers to
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D.
120.  By definition, a sample
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D.
121.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
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B.
C.
D.
122.  A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
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B.
C.
D.
124.  The social desirability bias is a tendency to answer questions about oneself
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B.
C.
D.
125.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
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B.
C.
D.
126.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
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B.
C.
D.
127.  Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
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B.
C.
D.
129.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
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D.
130.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
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B.
C.
D.
131.  ______ receive information from other neurons; ______ transmit information to other neurons.
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B.
C.
D.
132.  An electric potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an
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C.
D.
133.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ______; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
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B.
C.
D.
136.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the
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B.
C.
D.
137.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
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B.
C.
D.
138.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
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B.
C.
D.
139.  The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the _____ view of dreams.
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
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B.
C.
D.
146.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
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B.
C.
D.
147.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
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B.
C.
D.
149.  The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate
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B.
C.
D.
150.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as
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B.
C.
D.
155.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
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B.
C.
D.
156.  A schema is
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B.
C.
D.
157.  The median is
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C.
D.
158.  The two basic types of statistics are
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B.
C.
D.
159.  The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
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B.
C.
D.
160.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
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B.
C.
D.
162.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
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B.
C.
D.
163.  The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
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B.
C.
D.
164.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
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B.
C.
D.
165.  Flashbulb memories are
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B.
C.
D.
166.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
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B.
C.
D.
167.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
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D.
168.  Mary woke up one night with a spider dangling in front of her face. She screamed, and from that point on she could not stand to be near spiders. Mary's fear of spiders is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.