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AP Psychology Midterm Review

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1.  The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Generally, the four basic tastes are considered to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Which of the following is NOT considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  A rapid EEG (beta), dreaming, rapid eye movements, and profound muscle relaxation go with
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  The part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of neurons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The _______ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Random assignment of subjects occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The ______ is the junction between two neurons.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Negative reinforcement involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  You are sitting on a park bench in a major metropolitan area from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and you note the number of people who walk by, whether or not they litter, and their gender. You are engaging in
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  A sample is representative if
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Memory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The brain structure that appears to be the MOST important to sleep and wakefulness is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and subject are unaware of who is in the experimental and control group is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  When two variables are linked an their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The _______ effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  As the numbers of bystanders increases, people are less likely to help someone who is in distress. This suggests that the size of a crowd and helping behavior are
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Information can be maintained indefinitely in short-term memory through the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which of the following is NOT a common effect of hypnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  The two basic types of statistics are
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The EEG pattern associated with normal, waking, alert states is
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is the MOST widely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A schema is
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoke by another stimulus, the process is
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Technically, your absolute threshold is the point which you can detect
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Sampling bias is a problem because it
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Proactive interference occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in a loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The technique used to teach animal complex tricks, such as teaching pidgeons to play ping-pong, is
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  If you are looking at an object such as a book, the object itself can be referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  We wold expect the greatest degree of phenotypic similarity among
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Severing the ascending reticular activating system in cats caused them to
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Sleep apnea is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  The standard deviation
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Internal functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and stomach contractions are controlled by the _______ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Scores pile up at the low end of the scale in
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  If you have damaged your temporal lobe, you can expect to have problems with which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Research has shown that meditation can produce a physiological state similar to
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Parkinson's disease appears to be a function of
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  A hypothesis is
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the experimental method of conducting research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  The MOST widely used recreational drug in the United States is
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one color and slower to another color. This theory is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Sensory adaptation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Which of the following structures in NOT part of the hindbrain
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Destroying a piece of the brain tissue to observe its effect on behavior is referred to as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfum and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfum, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The correlational coefficient is a measure of
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is generally associated with non-REM sleep?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The system of glands that secret hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Researchers who were studying memory had participants learn a list of words after consuming a soft drink with caffeine or a decaffeinated version of the same soft drink. The researchers then counted the number of words that were recalled from the list. In this study, the type of beverage (caffeinated or decaffeinated) would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Diaz conducts a decision-making experiment to determine if people reason more logically when they have more time to decide. All the participants who are under 40 are allowed 15 minutes to reach a decision about a problem; all the participants who are over 40 are allowed 20 minutes to reach a decision about the same problem. Diaz has a problem with his experimental design because
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following can cause disruption of your vestibular system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Dr. Limmex is trying to win FDA approval for a new drug to treat anxiety. Dr. Limmex claims that 14% of the people who took this new drug reported reduced anxiety, however other researchers claim that 14% of patients who received no treatment also report reductions in their anxiety levels. It appears that the patients who improved after Dr. Limmex's drug
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  According to place theory, the ability to hear pitch corresponds to
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  When you are walking, the brain sends messages to the skeletal muscles in the legs by way of
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  The master gland of the endocrine system is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which level of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this quiz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The lobe of the brain with the primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be ________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Scarlett is a graduate student who is observing children playing together after watching a film. She knows that some children saw a film that contained graphic scenes of violence and some children saw a non-violent film, but she doesn't know which film each child she is observing watched. In this case, Scarlett is recording data for
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  If a key part of the ______ is destroyed, an animal will lose all interest in food and may well starve to death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  The dual-coding theory argues that memory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  A dependent variable in an experiment refers to the variable
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a "solid" line because of the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  People who suffer damage to the _______ often show deficits in attention, planning, and getting organized.
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Of the following, the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  The first two major "schools" of psychology were
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting as
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  The _______ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as fleeing from an attacker).
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Gestalt psychologists were primarily concerned with which of the following
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  A theory is
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  "Parallel processing" in the visual pathways suggests that separate neural channels
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement,
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Charity used to really enjoy potato salad and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately the potato sald had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following statements regarding short-term memory (STM) is NOT accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Food is an example of ______; praise is an example of ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  A disease characterized by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods is
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Of the following correlation coefficients, the one that would yield the LEAST accurate predictions of one variable based on the other variable would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  A variable, other than the independent variable, that appears to have influenced the dependent variable in a study is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Imagine that the personality traits of openness and extroversion are positively correlated. If Andrea's score in openness is extremely low
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Scripts are
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Dissociation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Negative reinforcement ______ the rate of a response; punishment _______ the rate of a response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the _________ lobe of the cerebrum.
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Glia cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The delta wave EEG pattern is associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in his chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half of his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in the way they have always done in the past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  The median is
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  "Early-selection" theories of attention propose that
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Which of the following techniques can be used with the functioning, working brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The "magic number seven" describes the
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  ________ nerves receive information, while ________ nerves carry out instructions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The primary visual cortex is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  For MOST persons the _______ cerebral hemisphere controls _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  A conditioned stimulus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for every three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  The ______ is the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  By definition, a sample
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Stage 1 sleep is represented by EEG brain-wave patterns referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  To discover whether residents of a city are in favor of building a new sports stadium, the team's owner randomly selected and interviewed 500 of the city's 500,000 residents. In this instance, the 500 people that the owner interviewed would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Which theory of color vision best explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The blind spot in the eye is
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  The retina is to the eye as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Placebo effects occur when
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  ______ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  The initial stage of learning a response is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  ________ code is a memory code that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Maria plans to study the relationship between self-esteem and being raise in a single-parent or a two-parent family. She decides she must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem because correlational studies
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The lens in the eye
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The blood-brain barrier is a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  The mean in a set of scores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Mary woke up one night with a spider dangling in front of her face. She screamed, and from that point on she could not stand to be near spiders. Mary's fear of spiders is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  The kinesthetic system relates to
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Voluntary muscle activity
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  The "tip of the tongue" phenomenon refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Consciousness includes awareness of
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  An advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  A perceptual set implies
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  The conservation of body resources, including blood pressure reduction and the promotion of digestion, is handled by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television, and then counts the number of times they hit each other afterward in a one-hour play period as a measure of aggression. The researcher concludes that television violence influences aggression. However, this conclusion is invalid because
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  With _______, personally relevant information is recalled better in the future relative to other forms of encoding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated, people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Light is converted into neural energy that travels to the brain to produce visual experience by the
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  The FDA found that people who used a particular diet drug combination that more heart valve defects than people who had not taken the die drug combination. This suggests that the use of the diet drug combination and heart valve defects are
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on
A.
B.
C.
D.
195.  Robert has just taken a drug that has made him feel euphoric. He has probably taken
A.