AP Psychology Exam Review

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AP Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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  • 1. 
    In an experiment, which of the folowing variables refers to the outcome that is measured by the experimenter?
    • A. 

      Independent

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Control

    • D. 

      Random

    • E. 

      Stimulus


  • 2. 
    Drawing a random sample of people from a town for an interview study of social attitudes ensures that
    • A. 

      Each person in town has the same probability of being chosen for the study

    • B. 

      An equal number of males and females are selected for interviews

    • C. 

      The study includes at least some respondents from everay social class in town

    • D. 

      The study will uncover widely differing social attitudes among the respondents

    • E. 

      The sample will be large enough even though some people may refuse to be interviewed


  • 3. 
    The result of the evolutionary process that preserves traits that enhance the adaptation of an organism and suppresses traits that do not is called
    • A. 

      Habituation

    • B. 

      Accommodation

    • C. 

      Natural selection

    • D. 

      Eugenics

    • E. 

      Species assimilation


  • 4. 
    An important difference between humanistic and psychoanalytic approaches is that humanistic psychologists believe in the importance of
    • A. 

      Learning

    • B. 

      Free will

    • C. 

      Determinism

    • D. 

      Biological instincts

    • E. 

      Unconscious precessess


  • 5. 
    The most distinctive characteristic of the experimental method is that it
    • A. 

      Studies a few people in great depth

    • B. 

      Studies subjects in their natural environment

    • C. 

      Is an efficient way to discover how people feel

    • D. 

      Seeks to establish cause and effect relationships

    • E. 

      Provides a chronologcal basis for reaching conflusions


  • 6. 
    In experimental psychology, a significant difference refers to a
    • A. 

      Difference not likely due to change

    • B. 

      Difference not likely due to faulty design

    • C. 

      Result that indicates a correlation equal to 1.0

    • D. 

      Result that departs from previous findings

    • E. 

      Result that proves a new theory


  • 7. 
    A double-blind control is essential for which of the following?
    • A. 

      A study compairing the IQ scores of children from different educational systems

    • B. 

      A study of relationships among family members

    • C. 

      An experiment to determine the effect of a food reqard on the bar pressing rate of a rat

    • D. 

      Assessment of a treatment designed to reduce schizophrenic symptoms

    • E. 

      A survey of drug use among teenagers


  • 8. 
    In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ___________; from the 1920's to the 1960's, american psychologists emphasized the study of _________.
    • A. 

      Mental illness; effective psychotherapy

    • B. 

      Maladaptive behavior; adaptive behavior

    • C. 

      Unconscious motives; conscious thoughts and feelings

    • D. 

      Mental processes; obervable behavior

    • E. 

      Observable behavior; unconscious motives


  • 9. 
    Contemporary psychology is best defined aas the science of
    • A. 

      Conscious and unconscious mental activity

    • B. 

      Observable responses to the environment

    • C. 

      Behavior and mental processes

    • D. 

      Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions

    • E. 

      Maladaptive and adaptive behaviors


  • 10. 
    Sally believes that her husband's irritability toward her results from his unconscious feelings of hostility toward his own mother. she is interpreting her husband's behavior from a  _________ perspective.
    • A. 

      Biological

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Behavioral

    • D. 

      Socio-cultural

    • E. 

      Humanistic


  • 11. 
    The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
    • A. 

      Ignore disconfirming evidence

    • B. 

      Reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested

    • C. 

      Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events

    • D. 

      Assume that correlation proves causations

    • E. 

      Overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions


  • 12. 
    In order to verify a new scientific discovery, psychological researchers are most likely to engage in the process of
    • A. 

      Naturalistic observation

    • B. 

      Random sampling


  • 13. 
    Which kind of research would best enable you to predict academic success on the basis of performance on standard intelligence tests?
    • A. 

      Case study

    • B. 

      Naturalistic observation

    • C. 

      Experimentation

    • D. 

      Correlational research

    • E. 

      Survey


  • 14. 
    A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
    • A. 

      Self esteem and depression

    • B. 

      Financial poverty and physical health

    • C. 

      Intelligence and academic success

    • D. 

      School grades and school absences

    • E. 

      Weight and athletic ability


  • 15. 
    Sydney has gathered evicdence showing that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with reading skill. before she uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, she should first be reminded that
    • A. 

      Evens often seem more probably in hindsight

    • B. 

      Random sequences of events often don't look random

    • C. 

      Sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations

    • D. 

      Correlation doesn't prove causation

    • E. 

      The tendency to seek confirming information promotes illusory correlations


  • 16. 
    In order to minimize any preexisting differences between participants who are in differenct conditions of an experiment, psychologists make use of
    • A. 

      Correlation

    • B. 

      Replication

    • C. 

      Random sampling

    • D. 

      Random assignment

    • E. 

      Double-blind procedure


  • 17. 
    In order to study some effects of alcohol consuption, dr. chu tested the psychical coordination skills of 21 year old men who were first assigned to drink a beverage with either 4,2, or 0 ounces of alcohol in the lab. in this study, the independent variable consisted of
    • A. 

      The age of the research participants

    • B. 

      The amount of alcohol consumed

    • C. 

      The physical coordination skills of the research participants

    • D. 

      The effects of alcohol consumption

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 18. 
    In an experiment designed to determine whether watching violent scenes on television increases the frequency of aggressive behavior in children, one group of subjects saw a nonviolent cartoon and another group saw a violent cartoon. in the play period that followed, researchers observed the two groups of children together and counted instanced of aggressive behavior. the control group in the experiment is the group that
    • A. 

      The researchers thought would be most aggressive

    • B. 

      Performed the larger number of aggressive acts

    • C. 

      Performed the smaller number of aggressive acts

    • D. 

      Watched the violent cartoon

    • E. 

      Watched the nonviolent cartoon


  • 19. 
    Which of the following approaches to psychology emphasizes observable responses over inner experiences when accounting for behavior?
    • A. 

      Behaviorists

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Existentialist

    • D. 

      Psychodynamic

    • E. 

      Structuralist


  • 20. 
    Which of the following parts of the brain is most active in decision making?
    • A. 

      Reticular formation

    • B. 

      Corpus callosum

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Cerebral cortex

    • E. 

      Pituitary gland


  • 21. 
    A brain tumor that results in obesity would most likely be located in the
    • A. 

      Left frontal lobe

    • B. 

      Base of the brain stem

    • C. 

      Area of the hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Reticular activating system

    • E. 

      Somatosensory cortex


  • 22. 
    For most people, speech functions are primarily localized in the
    • A. 

      Right cerebral hemisphere

    • B. 

      Left cerebral hemisphere

    • C. 

      Occipital lobe

    • D. 

      Corpus callosum

    • E. 

      Cerebellum


  • 23. 
    People who have experienced severe damage to the frontal lobe of the brain seldom regain their abillity to
    • A. 

      Make and carry out plans

    • B. 

      Recognize visual patterns

    • C. 

      Process auditory information

    • D. 

      Process olfactory information

    • E. 

      Integrate their multiple personalities


  • 24. 
    Which of the following is the brain imaging technique that produces the most detailed picutre of brain structure?
    • A. 

      Electroencephalography (EEG)

    • B. 

      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    • C. 

      Positron emission tomography (PET)

    • D. 

      Computerized axial tomography (CAT)

    • E. 

      Electromyography (EMG)


  • 25. 
    Which of the folloqing areas of the body has the largest number of sensory neurons?
    • A. 

      Back

    • B. 

      Foot

    • C. 

      Ear

    • D. 

      Lips

    • E. 

      Wrist


  • 26. 
    The role of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is to
    • A. 

      Facilitate the body's fight or flight response

    • B. 

      Prepare the body to cope with stress

    • C. 

      Promote rapid cognitive processing

    • D. 

      Prompt the body to use its resources in responding to environmental stimuli

    • E. 

      Establish homeostasis after a flight or flight response


  • 27. 
    Which of the following occurs when a neuron is stimulated to its threshold?
    • A. 

      The movement of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane creates an action potential

    • B. 

      The neuron hyperpolarizes

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters are released from the dendrites

    • D. 

      The absolute refractory period of the neuron prevents it from responding

    • E. 

      The neuron's equilibrium potential is reached


  • 28. 
    The function of dendrites is to
    • A. 

      Release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons

    • B. 

      Receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or other neurons

    • C. 

      Coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic an sumpathetic nervous systems

    • D. 

      Control pain through the release of opiate like chemicals into the brain

    • E. 

      Control the electrical imbalance between the inside and outside neuron


  • 29. 
    Which of the following correctly describes the firing of neurons?
    • A. 

      A protoplasmic transfer of ions

    • B. 

      A finely graded response

    • C. 

      An all or non response

    • D. 

      An osmotic process

    • E. 

      A symbiotic function


  • 30. 
    Painkilling substances produced by the brain are known as
    • A. 

      Corisols

    • B. 

      Endorphins

    • C. 

      Glucocorticoids

    • D. 

      Phenormones

    • E. 

      Hormones


  • 31. 
    Actication of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system results in
    • A. 

      An increase in salivation

    • B. 

      An increase in digestion

    • C. 

      An increase in respiratory rate

    • D. 

      A decrease in heart rate

    • E. 

      A decrease in pupil dilation


  • 32. 
    Hunger and eating are primarily regulated by which of the following?
    • A. 

      Androgens

    • B. 

      Estrogens

    • C. 

      The hypothalamus

    • D. 

      The kidneys

    • E. 

      The medulla oblongata


  • 33. 
    Dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine are all
    • A. 

      Hormones excreted by the endocrine glands

    • B. 

      Secretions of the exocrine glands

    • C. 

      Drugs used in the tharapeutic treatment of memory disorders

    • D. 

      Enxymes involved with the degradation of interneuron signals

    • E. 

      Neurotransitters that excite or inhibit a neural signal across a synapse


  • 34. 
    The primary effect of the myelin sheath is to
    • A. 

      Increase the velocity of conduction of the action potential along the axon

    • B. 

      Increase the velocity of the conduction of the aciton potential across the synapse

    • C. 

      Facilitate the incoming stimulus signals at sensory receptors

    • D. 

      Reduce the amount of unused neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft

    • E. 

      Protect the terminal buttons of the neuron from destruction by enzymes


  • 35. 
    Which of the following is true of the reticular activating system?
    • A. 

      It is the major system in the brain for controlling emotions

    • B. 

      It functions primarily in the control of motor responses

    • C. 

      It regulates levels of arousal

    • D. 

      It regulates body temperature

    • E. 

      It controls the uptake of pituitary hormones


  • 36. 
    A brain lesion refers to _______________ of brain tissue
    • A. 

      Electrical stimulation

    • B. 

      X-ray photography

    • C. 

      Radioactive bombardment

    • D. 

      Destruction

    • E. 

      Magnetic stimulation


  • 37. 
    The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the _____________ nervous systems
    • A. 

      Autonomic

    • B. 

      Sympathetic

    • C. 

      Parasympathetic

    • D. 

      Peripheral

    • E. 

      Somatic


  • 38. 
    Hypnosis is best described as a state that
    • A. 

      Gives the hypnotist complete control over the thoughts and emotions of the hypnotized individual

    • B. 

      Induces heightened suggestibility in the hypnotized individual

    • C. 

      Is similar to an obsessive compulsive personality disorder

    • D. 

      Is similar to the condition produced by excessive alcohol consumption

    • E. 

      Is similar to the REM stage of sleep


  • 39. 
    Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?
    • A. 

      The ebb and flow of an individual's emotions during a 24 hour period

    • B. 

      Jet lag experienced after an airline flight from los angeles to tokyo

    • C. 

      A cycle of biological functioning that lasts about 25 hours

    • D. 

      The series of five states that people go through during a night's

    • E. 

      The systematic alteration between alpha waves and delta waves during the different sleep stages


  • 40. 
    Which of the following will not increase behavioral and mental activity?
    • A. 

      Cocaine

    • B. 

      Caffeine

    • C. 

      Benzedrine

    • D. 

      Amphetamines

    • E. 

      Barbiturates


  • 41. 
    REM sleep, generally an "active" state of sleep, is accompanied by which of the following paradoxical characteristics?
    • A. 

      Slowed heart rate

    • B. 

      Slowed respiration rate

    • C. 

      Lowered blood pressure

    • D. 

      Lowered muscle tone

    • E. 

      Reduced eye movements


  • 42. 
    The painful experience associated with the termination of the use of an addictive substance is known as
    • A. 

      Discontinuance

    • B. 

      Tolerance

    • C. 

      Withdrawal

    • D. 

      Forced independence

    • E. 

      Transduction


  • 43. 
    Sigmund freud believed that dream analysis was a useful device for
    • A. 

      Decreasing repression

    • B. 

      Sublimating the id

    • C. 

      Strengthening the superego

    • D. 

      Displacing instinctual forces

    • E. 

      Gaining insight into unconscious motives


  • 44. 
    In terms of the effect on the central nervous system, alcohol is most accurately classified as which of the following types of drug?
    • A. 

      Depressant

    • B. 

      Narcotic

    • C. 

      Psychoactive

    • D. 

      Stimulant

    • E. 

      Hallucinogen


  • 45. 
    The coiled tube in the inner ear that contains the auditory receptors is called the
    • A. 

      Semicircular canal

    • B. 

      Ossicle

    • C. 

      Pinna

    • D. 

      Cochlea

    • E. 

      Oval window


  • 46. 
    Climbing an irregular set of stairs is more difficult for an individual who wears a patch over one eye primarily because
    • A. 

      Some depth perception is lost

    • B. 

      Half of the visual field is missing

    • C. 

      The ability to perceive interposition is lost

    • D. 

      The patch disrupts the functioning of the vestibular system

    • E. 

      The patch alters the ability of the open eye to compensate


  • 47. 
    Gustatory receptors are sensitive to all of the following taste qualities EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Bitter

    • B. 

      Sweet

    • C. 

      Salty

    • D. 

      Spicy

    • E. 

      Sour


  • 48. 
    In psychology, gestalt principles are used to explain
    • A. 

      Statistical probabilities

    • B. 

      Somatic behavioral disorders

    • C. 

      Perceptual organization

    • D. 

      Stimulus detection thresholds

    • E. 

      Altered states or consciousness


  • 49. 
    The general function of the bones in the middle ear is to
    • A. 

      Convert the incoming sound from pounds per square inch to decibels

    • B. 

      Protect the cochlea

    • C. 

      Regulate changes in the air pressure of the inner ear

    • D. 

      Transfer sound information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window

    • E. 

      Provide information to the vestibular system


  • 50. 
    When participants in dichotic listening experiments are repeating aloud a message presented in one ear, they are most likely to notice information on the unattended channel if that channel
    • A. 

      Switches from one language to another

    • B. 

      Switches to a non-language

    • C. 

      Mention the participant's name

    • D. 

      Presents information similar to that on the attended channel

    • E. 

      Presents information in a foreign language


  • 51. 
    When a pair of lights flashing in quick succession seems to an observer to be one light moving from place to place, the effect referred to as
    • A. 

      Stroboscopic movement

    • B. 

      The phi phenomenon

    • C. 

      Autokinetic motion

    • D. 

      Binocular vision

    • E. 

      Induced displacement


  • 52. 
    When struck by light energy, cones and rods in the retina generate neural signals that then activate the
    • A. 

      Parietal lobe

    • B. 

      Ganglion cells

    • C. 

      Bipolar cells

    • D. 

      Ciliary muscle

    • E. 

      Optic nerve fibers


  • 53. 
    The first area of psychology to be studied as a science is known as
    • A. 

      Psychoanalysis

    • B. 

      Phrenology

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning

    • D. 

      Mesmerism

    • E. 

      Psychophysics


  • 54. 
    The thalamus processes information for all of the following senses EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Smell

    • B. 

      Hearing

    • C. 

      Taste

    • D. 

      Vision

    • E. 

      Touch


  • 55. 
    Receptors that are especially important for helping a person maintain balance are located in the
    • A. 

      Gyrus cinguli

    • B. 

      Inner ear

    • C. 

      Tendons

    • D. 

      Ossicles

    • E. 

      Ligaments


  • 56. 
    Eleanor gibson and her colleagues have used the visual cliff to measure an infant's ability to perceive
    • A. 

      Patterns

    • B. 

      Depth

    • C. 

      Size constancy

    • D. 

      Shape constancy

    • E. 

      Different hues


  • 57. 
    The most common form of color blindness is related to deficiencies in the
    • A. 

      Blue yellow system

    • B. 

      Red green system

    • C. 

      Process of visual summation

    • D. 

      Bipolar cells

    • E. 

      Secretion of rhodopsin


  • 58. 
    The intensity at which a sound becomes audible for an individual is known as the individual's
    • A. 

      Contrast sensitivity

    • B. 

      Absolute threshold

    • C. 

      Response threshold

    • D. 

      Critical frequency

    • E. 

      Just noticeable difference


  • 59. 
    The change in the curvature of the lens that enables the eye to focus on object at verious distances is called
    • A. 

      Accommodation

    • B. 

      Adaptation

    • C. 

      Conduction

    • D. 

      Convergence

    • E. 

      Consonance


  • 60. 
    The tendency of most people to identify a three sided figure as a triangle, even when one of its sides is incomplete, is the result of a perceptual process known as
    • A. 

      Closure

    • B. 

      Proximity

    • C. 

      Similarity

    • D. 

      Feature analysis

    • E. 

      Shape constancy


  • 61. 
    The place in the retina where the optic nerve exits to the brain is called the
    • A. 

      Lens

    • B. 

      Sclera

    • C. 

      Fovea

    • D. 

      Blind spot

    • E. 

      Aqueous humor


  • 62. 
    One major objection to the skinnerian approach to psychology is that it
    • A. 

      Did not take into account internal thoughts and feelings

    • B. 

      Did not take into account overt physical behaviors

    • C. 

      Did not take into account accumulated experiences

    • D. 

      Focused primarily on childhood experiences

    • E. 

      Focused primarily on the unconscious


  • 63. 
    Punishment is most effective in eliminating undesired behavior when the
    • A. 

      Behavior is complex

    • B. 

      Behavior was very recently acquired

    • C. 

      Punishment is delivered soon after the behavior

    • D. 

      Punishment is delivered by someone with authority

    • E. 

      Punishment is both mental and physical


  • 64. 
    Studies of learning have shown that animals develop an aversion for tastes associated with
    • A. 

      Electric shock

    • B. 

      Extinguished associations

    • C. 

      Sickness

    • D. 

      Novel stimuli

    • E. 

      Starvation


  • 65. 
    An individual's fear of dogs that is lost as the individual is exposed to dogs in nonthreatening situations is referred to by behaviorists as a fear that has been
    • A. 

      Satiated

    • B. 

      Suppressed

    • C. 

      Repressed

    • D. 

      Extinguished

    • E. 

      Punished


  • 66. 
    Taking a painkiller to relieve a toothache is behavior learned through wich of the following processes?
    • A. 

      Shaping

    • B. 

      Punishment

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • E. 

      Omission training


  • 67. 
    After several trials during which a dog is given a certain kind of food at the same time that a specific tone is sounded, there is evidence of conditioning if the dog salivates when
    • A. 

      The tone only is presented

    • B. 

      The food only is presented

    • C. 

      The food and tone are presented together

    • D. 

      A different tone is presented with the food

    • E. 

      A different kind of food is presented without a tone


  • 68. 
    Which of the following responses was most likely acquired through classical conditioning?
    • A. 

      The startle response of a baby the first time the baby hears thunder

    • B. 

      A child's fear of dogs after the child has been bitten by a dog

    • C. 

      The cry of pain expressed by a man whose had has been cut on a piece of broken glass

    • D. 

      The uncontrollable blinking of a woman who has just gotten dust in her eye

    • E. 

      The salivation of a dog that is halfway through a bowl of its favorite food


  • 69. 
    The terms "modeling" and "imitation" are most closely associated with which of the following?
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Gestalt theory

    • C. 

      Hypothesis testing

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning

    • E. 

      Social learning theory


  • 70. 
    In pavlov's experiments in classical conditioning, the dog's salivation was
    • A. 

      An unconditioned stimulus only

    • B. 

      An unconditioned response only

    • C. 

      A conditioned response only

    • D. 

      Both an unconditioned and a conditioned stimulus

    • E. 

      Both an unconditioned and a conditioned response


  • 71. 
    The technique of strengthening behaior by reinforcing successive approximations is called
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • C. 

      Distributed practice

    • D. 

      Modeling

    • E. 

      Shaping


  • 72. 
    Responses extinguish fastest when they are learned through which type of reinforcement schedule?
    • A. 

      Continuous

    • B. 

      Negative

    • C. 

      Variable interval

    • D. 

      Variable ratio

    • E. 

      Fixed interval


  • 73. 
    According to the information processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves
    • A. 

      Retrieval

    • B. 

      Storage

    • C. 

      Rehearsal

    • D. 

      Encoding

    • E. 

      Transfer


  • 74. 
    When a list of words is learned in order, the words most likely to be forgotten are
    • A. 

      At the beginning of the list

    • B. 

      At the end of the list

    • C. 

      In the middle of the list

    • D. 

      Hardest to pronounce

    • E. 

      Easiest to spell


  • 75. 
    The rules of gramer are rules of
    • A. 

      Phonemes

    • B. 

      Morphemes

    • C. 

      Syntax

    • D. 

      Semantics

    • E. 

      Pragmatics


  • 76. 
    An individual's ability to remember the day he or she first swam the length of a swimming pool is most clearly an example of which of the following kinds of memory?
    • A. 

      Semantic

    • B. 

      Flashbulb

    • C. 

      Procedural

    • D. 

      Priming

    • E. 

      Episodic


  • 77. 
    Processing every possible combination of letters dbri to arrive at bird is an example of the use of
    • A. 

      An algorithm

    • B. 

      An expert system

    • C. 

      An inference rule

    • D. 

      A hypothesis

    • E. 

      A heuristic


  • 78. 
    Metacognition refers to
    • A. 

      Amnesia

    • B. 

      Mental retardation

    • C. 

      Artificial intelligence

    • D. 

      Thinking without theory

    • E. 

      Thinking about thinking


  • 79. 
    Which of the following represent, respectively, superordinate and subordinate categories for the basic-level category of "automobile"?
    • A. 

      Vehicle, transportation

    • B. 

      Vehicle, convertible

    • C. 

      Station wagon, minivan

    • D. 

      Sedan, compact car

    • E. 

      Foreign car, domestic car


  • 80. 
    Noam chomsky's view of language proposes that
    • A. 

      There is a universal language acquisition device

    • B. 

      Thinking is merely subvocal language

    • C. 

      Different levels of language ability are hereditarily determined

    • D. 

      Language acquisition can be explained by social modeling

    • E. 

      Language is learned principally through verbal reinforcement


  • 81. 
    Wolfgang kohler considered a chimpanzee's sudden solving of a problem evidence of
    • A. 

      Instinct

    • B. 

      Modeling

    • C. 

      Learning set

    • D. 

      Insight

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery


  • 82. 
    An individual experiencing a low blood-glucose level would be best advised to do which of the following?
    • A. 

      Take a nap

    • B. 

      Eat a snack

    • C. 

      Drink a glass of water

    • D. 

      Drink a diet soda

    • E. 

      Get some exercise


  • 83. 
    One of the consistent research findings in the area of facial expressions and emotion is the
    • A. 

      Universality of facial expressions across cultures

    • B. 

      Vast differences in facial expressions between males and females

    • C. 

      Ease with which people can learn to change their facial expressions under differing circumstances

    • D. 

      Way children's facial expressions differ from adults'

    • E. 

      Way in which individuals' facial expressions change as they get older


  • 84. 
    Drive reduction as a motivational concept is best exemplified by which of the following?
    • A. 

      The sweet taste of chocolate

    • B. 

      Electric stimulation to the pleasure center of the brain

    • C. 

      A monkey using its tail as a fifth limb to climb higher in a tree

    • D. 

      The injection of heroin by an addict to avoid withdrawal systems

    • E. 

      The enjoyment of a frightening movie


  • 85. 
    A genetically programmed action pattern is athe ethologist's definition of
    • A. 

      Habit

    • B. 

      Instinct

    • C. 

      Adaptation

    • D. 

      Altruism

    • E. 

      Releasing mechanism


  • 86. 
    In the james-lange theory of emotion, which of the following immediately precedes an emotion?
    • A. 

      Observation of the external stimulus

    • B. 

      Recollection of similar past experiences

    • C. 

      Experience of physiological changes

    • D. 

      Appraisal of cognitive factors

    • E. 

      Initiation of a fixed-action pattern


  • 87. 
    Which of the following findings would support an interpretation of aggression as catharsis?
    • A. 

      Societies that value aggressive sports are generally less aggressive than societies that do not value aggressive sports

    • B. 

      On average, levels of aggression are about equal across all societies

    • C. 

      Aggressiveness in socities correlates highly with the average annual temperature

    • D. 

      Societies in which media content is particularly aggressive are more aggressive than societies that have less violent media content

    • E. 

      In most societies, aggression among individuals waxes and wanes with age


  • 88. 
    A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called _________ memory.
    • A. 

      Iconic

    • B. 

      Implicit

    • C. 

      Echoic

    • D. 

      Flashbulb

    • E. 

      Short term


  • 89. 
    The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory.
    • A. 

      Iconic

    • B. 

      Explicit

    • C. 

      Echoic

    • D. 

      Implicit


  • 90. 
    Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as "75 percent lean" than to ground beef described as "25 percent fat."  this illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • B. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

    • E. 

      The framing effect


  • 91. 
    Miss de jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy.  she enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. a tendency to conclude that she must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias

    • B. 

      The framing effect

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • D. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic


  • 92. 
    Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated wo watch horror movies?
    • A. 

      Instinct theory

    • B. 

      Drive-reduction theory

    • C. 

      Arousal theory

    • D. 

      Incentive theory

    • E. 

      James-lange theory


  • 93. 
    In a ring toss game, people with a high need for achievement prefer to stand ______ the stake on which the ring is to be tossed
    • A. 

      Close to

    • B. 

      At an intermediate distance from

    • C. 

      Far away from

    • D. 

      Either close to or far from


  • 94. 
    Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?
    • A. 

      Instinct theory

    • B. 

      Drive-reduction theory

    • C. 

      Arousal theory

    • D. 

      Incentive theory

    • E. 

      Gate control theory


  • 95. 
    Dr milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat.  this procedure is likely to
    • A. 

      Cause the rat to begin eating

    • B. 

      Decrease the rat's rate of metabolism

    • C. 

      Facilitate conversion of the rat's blood sugar to fat

    • D. 

      Permanently lower the rat's set point

    • E. 

      Cause the rat to stop eating


  • 96. 
    A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has just rolled underneath it.  according to jean piaget, the baby's action shows development of
    • A. 

      Conservation of mass

    • B. 

      Reversibility

    • C. 

      Object permanence

    • D. 

      Logical thinking

    • E. 

      Metacognition


  • 97. 
    Which of the following research methods os being used if the same subjects are tested at two, four, and six years of age?
    • A. 

      Cross-cultural

    • B. 

      Longitudinal

    • C. 

      Cross-sectional

    • D. 

      Correlational

    • E. 

      Projective


  • 98. 
    Sabrina plays on a rugby team and collects antique dolls.  peter is on a football team and loves to cook.  both sabrina and peters demonstrate a high degree of
    • A. 

      Sex-role stereotyping

    • B. 

      Sex-role confusion

    • C. 

      Gender constancy

    • D. 

      Androgyny

    • E. 

      Sex-role identity


  • 99. 
    Mary ainsworth's strange situation paradigm is typically used to test young children's
    • A. 

      Ego strength

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Reaction time

    • D. 

      Attachment

    • E. 

      Incidental learning


  • 100. 
    According to elisabeth kubler-ross, one of five stages frequently experienced by people
    • A. 

      Mistrust

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Bargaining

    • D. 

      Projection

    • E. 

      Sublimation


  • 101. 
    A nine-year-old girl first learning about her capabilities on the playground and in the classroom would be in which of Erikson's stages of development?
    • A. 

      Industry vs. inferiority

    • B. 

      Identity vs. role confusion

    • C. 

      Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

    • D. 

      Integrity vs. despair

    • E. 

      Trust vs. mistrust


  • 102. 
    Carol gilligan's criticism of lawrence kohlberg's developmental theory is based on the argument that kohlberg's
    • A. 

      Work has been invalidated by changes in the structure of families in the united states

    • B. 

      Stages are too limited in their critical-period parameters

    • C. 

      Theory underestimates the capabilities on infants and children

    • D. 

      Stages do not apply equally well to all racial and ethnic groups

    • E. 

      Theory fails to account sufficiently for differences between males and females


  • 103. 
    A normal functioning 65-year-old who cannot solve abstract logic puzzles as quickly as he did when he was younger is experiencing a
    • A. 

      Phenomenon that is uncommon for people his age

    • B. 

      Phenomenon predicted by erik erikson as part of the eight stages of psycho-social development

    • C. 

      Decrease in his crystallized intelligence

    • D. 

      Decrease in his fluid intelligence

    • E. 

      Difficulty with concrete operational thinking


  • 104. 
    In a famous series of experiments conducted by harry harlow, infant monkeys were seperated from their mothers at birth.  the infants were then given two surrogate mothers (a terry cloth "mother" and a wire "mother"), each of which alternately had a nursing bottle that provided food to the infants.  the experimental results showed that in frightening situations the infant monkeys
    • A. 

      Were more likely to become aggressive toward the wore monkey than the terry cloth monkey

    • B. 

      Failed to seek out either of the mothers because of their lack of experience in seeking contact comfort

    • C. 

      Preferred the wire mother, even when the terry cloth mother had the nursing bottle

    • D. 

      Preferred the terry cloth mother, even when the wire mother had the nursing bottle

    • E. 

      Would run and cling to whichever mother had the nursing bottle


  • 105. 
    The most well-adjusted and socially competent children tend to come from homes where parents employ which of the parenting styles?
    • A. 

      Minimal supervision

    • B. 

      Authoritarian

    • C. 

      Authoritative

    • D. 

      Indulgent

    • E. 

      Permissive


  • 106. 
    Lawrence kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning is best described by which of the following?
    • A. 

      Personal conscience is innate and all human beings develop it at the same rate

    • B. 

      By adulthood, all epole judge moral issues in terms of self-chosen principles

    • C. 

      Ethical principles are defined by ideals of reciprocity and human equality in individualistic societies, but by ideals of law and order in collectivist societies

    • D. 

      Children grow up with moral similar to those of their parents

    • E. 

      Children progress from a morality based on punishment and reward to one defined by convention, and ultimately to one defined by abstract ethical principles.


  • 107. 
    Which of the following is typically cited as a characteristic of autistic children?
    • A. 

      Minor development delays in academic achievement

    • B. 

      Above-average performance on tests of creativity

    • C. 

      Severely impaired interpersonal communication

    • D. 

      Tendency to seek younger playmates

    • E. 

      Paranoia comparable with that experienced in schizophrenia


  • 108. 
    Which of the following accurately describes a major change in perspective in the field of developmental psychology over the past twenty-five years?
    • A. 

      A shift from an emphisis on childhood and adolescence to an interest in development over the life span

    • B. 

      A shift from the cognitive to a psychoanalytic of developmental phenomena

    • C. 

      A shift in research focus from cognitive to personality development

    • D. 

      A decrease in interest in the physiological factors affecting growth and development

    • E. 

      A decrease in interest in the study of the cognitive components of intellect


  • 109. 
    According to piaget, what is the earliest stage at which a child is capable of using simple logic to think about objects and events?
    • A. 

      Sensorimotor

    • B. 

      Preoperational

    • C. 

      Symbolic

    • D. 

      Concrete operational

    • E. 

      Formal operational


  • 110. 
    In their discussion of the process of development, the advocates of nature in the nature-nuture controversy emphasize which of the following?
    • A. 

      Socialization

    • B. 

      Cognition

    • C. 

      Maturation

    • D. 

      Experience

    • E. 

      Information processing


  • 111. 
    The debate over whether development occurs gradually, without discernible shifts, or through a series of distinct stages is termed
    • A. 

      Nature vs. nurture

    • B. 

      Developmental vs. cognitive

    • C. 

      Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal

    • D. 

      Continuity vs. discontinuity

    • E. 

      Maturation vs. learning


  • 112. 
    Neural regulation of a child's language functioning is transferred to the right hemisphere if speech areas in the left hemisphere are damaged.  this best illustrates
    • A. 

      Plasticity

    • B. 

      Habituation

    • C. 

      Hemispherectomy

    • D. 

      Maturation

    • E. 

      Assimilation


  • 113. 
    Piaget held that egocentrism is a characteristic of the:
    • A. 

      Sensorimotor stage

    • B. 

      Preoperational stage

    • C. 

      Concrete operational stage

    • D. 

      Formal operational stage

    • E. 

      Preconventional stage


  • 114. 
    In sigmund freud's view, the role of the ego is to
    • A. 

      Make the individual feel superior to others

    • B. 

      Make the individual feel inferior to others

    • C. 

      Mediate among the id, the superego, and reality

    • D. 

      Serve the demands of the unconscious

    • E. 

      Serve the demands of the superego


  • 115. 
    Psychologists who emphasize the importance of personality traits are most often criticized for
    • A. 

      Being naive and overly optimistic

    • B. 

      Being subjective in interpreting unverifiable phenomena

    • C. 

      Overestimating the number of basic traits

    • D. 

      Underestimating the role of emotions

    • E. 

      Underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation


  • 116. 
    Montgomery prepares his resume carelessly and arrives late for his job interview. he is rejected by the prospective employer. montgomery concludes that "it's all a matter of dumb luck, anyway." montgomery's judgment of his situation most clearly reflects
    • A. 

      Delay of gratification

    • B. 

      The mechanism of reaction formation

    • C. 

      Unconscious inference

    • D. 

      Fixation and regression

    • E. 

      External locus of control


  • 117. 
    Learned helplessness is most likely to result when
    • A. 

      Responses have no effect on the environment

    • B. 

      Young organsisms fail to imprint at the critical period

    • C. 

      A response is reinforced independently

    • D. 

      Reinforcement occurs on an intermittent schedule

    • E. 

      An organism recieves negative reinforcement


  • 118. 
    According to freud, a child's early experience in coping with external demands leads to the development of the
    • A. 

      Unconscious

    • B. 

      Preconscious

    • C. 

      Oedipus complex

    • D. 

      Id

    • E. 

      Ego


  • 119. 
    According to albert bandura, people who believe that their efforts will be successful and that they are in control of events have a high level of
    • A. 

      Insight

    • B. 

      Self efficancy

    • C. 

      Social responsibility

    • D. 

      Reciprocal determinism

    • E. 

      Self monitoring skill


  • 120. 
    According to abraham maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Individuals may have peak experiences when meeting physiological needs

    • B. 

      Self actualization will always precede the meeting of needs for esteem

    • C. 

      There are cultural differences in the rate at which individuals attain self actualization

    • D. 

      Women are more likely to reach self actualization than men are

    • E. 

      Physiological needs must be met before an individual achieves self actualization


  • 121. 
    It is widely known in jerry's social circle that he is the most subborn and inflexible member of the group. yet jerry complains that all his friends are opinionated and rigid. jerry's complaints are most clearly a sign of
    • A. 

      Displacement

    • B. 

      Repression

    • C. 

      Projection

    • D. 

      Reaction formation

    • E. 

      Rationalization


  • 122. 
    One criticism of sigmund freud's psychosexual theory of development is that it
    • A. 

      Emphasizes developmental changes in the oral and anal stages

    • B. 

      Views adult disorders as adjustments to the environment

    • C. 

      Views fear of loss as motivating drive

    • D. 

      Is based on empirically unverifiable constructs

    • E. 

      Is based on ethnographic studies


  • 123. 
    According to the stanford binet formula for intelligence quotient (IQ), the IQ of a ten year old child with a mental age of eight and a half years is
    • A. 

      85

    • B. 

      95

    • C. 

      100

    • D. 

      105

    • E. 

      115


  • 124. 
    The performance of a group on which an IQ test is standardized sets the 
    • A. 

      Method of administration most suitable for the test

    • B. 

      Extent to which IQ is determined by environment

    • C. 

      Criteria for the diognostic significance of intelligence

    • D. 

      Degree of vailidiy of the IQ test

    • E. 

      Norms against which the performance of later test takers can be evaluated


  • 125. 
    A test that is labeled an achievement test is most likely to be given to
    • A. 

      Predict an individual's ability to succeed in a particular job

    • B. 

      Allow a student to be exempted from a college course

    • C. 

      Assess the mental age of a gifted eight year old

    • D. 

      Determine whether a person is an extrovert or an introvert

    • E. 

      Investigate an individual's cognitive style


  • 126. 
    Which of the following methods is used in studies designed to determine the primary components of ingelligence?
    • A. 

      Test retest

    • B. 

      Alternate forms

    • C. 

      Random sampling

    • D. 

      Factor analysis

    • E. 

      Standardization


  • 127. 
    Which of the following is the most appropriate criterion for evaluating the predictive validity of an intelligence test?
    • A. 

      Intelligence quotient

    • B. 

      Mental age

    • C. 

      Chronological age

    • D. 

      Scholastic aptitude

    • E. 

      School grades


  • 128. 
    The intelligence quotient IQ has traditionally been based on the relationship between an individual's mental age and his or her
    • A. 

      Stage of cognitive development

    • B. 

      Level of physiological development

    • C. 

      Reading ability

    • D. 

      Chronological age

    • E. 

      Quantitative aptitude


  • 129. 
    In a normal distribution of scores. the percentage that fall at or below the mean score is
    • A. 

      17.5

    • B. 

      25

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      66.6

    • E. 

      95


  • 130. 
    The mean will be higher than the median in any distribution that
    • A. 

      Is symmetrical

    • B. 

      Is not normal

    • C. 

      Is positively skewed

    • D. 

      Represents measures from a random sample

    • E. 

      Represents measures for a biased sample


  • 131. 
    The hypothesis that intelligence is in part inherited is best supported by the fact that the IQ correlation for
    • A. 

      Pairs of twins reared together is greater than the correlation for pairs of twins reared apart

    • B. 

      Pairs of identical twins is greated than for pairs of fraternal twins

    • C. 

      Pairs of fraternal twins is greater than the correlation for other pairs of siblings

    • D. 

      Adopted children and their adoptive parents is greater than zero

    • E. 

      Adopted children and their adoptive parents is greater than the correlation for the same children and their biological parents


  • 132. 
    For several weeks, ever since she did not receive a raise that was given to several colleagues, enid has lacked energy, has been unable to go to work, and has expected bad things to happen every day. of the following, she is most likely experiencing
    • A. 

      Posttraumatic stress

    • B. 

      Mania

    • C. 

      Hypochondria

    • D. 

      Depression

    • E. 

      Fague


  • 133. 
    Phobic and panic distrubances are examples of which of the following knds of disorder?
    • A. 

      Personality

    • B. 

      Schizophrenic

    • C. 

      Anxiety

    • D. 

      Somatoform

    • E. 

      Dissociative


  • 134. 
    Psychotic disorders frequently involve perceptions of nonexistent sensory stimulation, such as voices. symptoms such as these are called
    • A. 

      Delusions

    • B. 

      Paraphilias

    • C. 

      Hallucinations

    • D. 

      Paranormal images

    • E. 

      Psychic phenomena


  • 135. 
    John suffered a head injury in an accident five years ago. he now has clear memories of events that occurred vefore the accident, but he has difficulty remembering any of the experiences he has had since the accident. john's symptoms describe
    • A. 

      Anterograde amnesia

    • B. 

      Broca's aphasia

    • C. 

      Cue dependent learning

    • D. 

      Selevtice amnesia

    • E. 

      Retroactive interference


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