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AP Final Exam

143 Questions  I  By Emilyqsmith
AP final exam
Immune, Respiratory, Digestive, Fluids, Reproductive

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1.  All of the following are considered innate body defenses EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in response to inflammatory signals is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Which of the following antibodies can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Which antibody class is abundant in body secretions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Small molecules that must combine with large proteins to become immunogenic are called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the bone marrow are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Cells that can directly attack target cells include all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Which of the following is involved in activation of a B cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The cell tyoe most often invaded by HIV is a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Complement fixation promotes all of the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Cutting the phrenic nerves will result in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following laryngeal cartilages is/are not paired?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Under ordinary circumstances, the inflation reflex is initiated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The detergent-like substance that keeps the alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces the surface tension of the water film in the alveoli is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following determines the direction of gas movement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  When the respiratory muscles contract,
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The nutrient blood supply of the lungs is provided by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following would normally NOT be treated by 100% oxygen therapy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Most oxygen in the blood is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following has the greatest stimulatory effect on respiratory centers in the brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  In mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration, the rescuer blows air from his or her own respiratory system into that of the victim.  Which of the following statements are correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  A baby holding its breath will:
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Under ordinary circumstances, which of the following blood componenets is of no physiological signifigance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Damage to which of the following would most likely result in cessation of breathing?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The bulk of carbon dioxide is carried:
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The peritoneal cavity:
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Obstruction of the hepatopancreatic sphincter impairs digestion by reducing the availability of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The action of an enzyme is influenced by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Carbohydrates are acted on by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The parasymphathetic nervous system influences digestion by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  The digestive juice product containing enzymes capable of digesting all four major foodstuff categories is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The vitamin associated with calcium absorption is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Someone has eaten a meal of buttered toast, cream and eggs.  Which of the following would you expect to happen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  The site of production of VIP and cholecytokinin is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the colon?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The gallbladder:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  A molecule of protein will be digested by enzymes secreted by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The protein molecule must be digested before it can be transported to and utilized by the cells because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The products of protein digestion enter the bloodstream largely through cells lining:
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Before the blood carrying the products of protein digestion reaches the heart, it first passes through capillary networks in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Having passed through the regulatory organ selected above, the products of protein digestion are circulated throughout the body.  They will enter individual cells by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following reactions would liberate the most energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The formation of glucose from glycogen is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  The net gain of ATP from the complete metabolism (aerobic) of glucose is closest to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following best defines cellular respiration?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  What is formed during aerobic respiration when electrons are passed down the electron transport chain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Metabolic rate is relatively low in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  In a temperate climate under ordinary conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Amino acids are essential (and important) for the body for all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  A person has been on a hunger strike for seven days  Compared to normal, he has:
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Transamination is a chemical process by which:
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Three days after removal of the pancreas from an animal, the researcher finds a persistant increase in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Hunger, appetite, obesity and physical activity and interrelated.  Thus:
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Body temperature regulation is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  WHich of the following yields the greatest caloric value per gram?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The lowest blood concentration of nitrogenous waste occurs in the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The glomerular capillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body because they:
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Glucose is not normally found in the urine because it:
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely related to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Tubular reabsorption:
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  If a freshly voided urine sample contains excessive amounts of urochrome, it has:
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Conditions such as diabetes mellitus and starvation are closely linked to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following is/are true about ADH?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Body water content is greatest in:
A.
B.
C.
71.  Potassium, magnesium and phosphate ions are the predominant electrolytes in:
A.
B.
C.
72.  Sodium balance is regulated primarily by control of amount(s):
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Water balance is regulated by control of amount(s):
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which three substances are regulated (at least in part) by the influence of aldosterone on the kidney tubules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
75.  Which two substances are regulated by parathyroid hormone?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
76.  Which two substances are secreted into the proximal convoluted tubules in exchange for sodium ions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
77.  Which substance is part of an important chemical buffer system in plasma?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Which two ions are produced during catabolism of glutamine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which substance is regulated by ADH's effects on the renal tubules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Which of the following factors will enhance ADH release?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The pH of the blood varies directly with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  In an individual with metabolic acidosis, a clue that the respiratory system is compensating is provided by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The structures that draw an ovulated oocyte into the female duct system are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  The usual site of embryo implantation is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The male homologue of the female clitoris is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Which of the following is correct relative to female anatomy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Secondary sex characteristics are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following produces the male sex hormones?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Which will occur as a result of nondescent of the testes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The normal diploid number of human chrosomes is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Relative to differences between mitosis and meiosis, choose the statements that apply ONLY to events of meiosis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
92.  Which hormones directly regulate the ovarian cycle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
93.  Which chemicals in males inhibit the pituitary-testicular axis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
94.  Which hormone makes the cervical mucous viscous?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Which hormone potentiates the activity of testosterone on spermatogenic cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  In females, which hormones exert feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
97.  Which hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous phases.  Starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive order is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Spermatozoa are to seminferous tubules as oocytes are to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which of the following does NOT add a secretion that makes a major contribution to semen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The corpus luteum is formed at the site of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The sex of a child is determined by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  FSH is to estrogen as estrogen is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  A drug that "reminds" the pituitary to produce gonadotropins might be useful as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  "The period during which a morula forms" is describing ...
A.
B.
106.  "The period when t amounts of vast amounts of cell migration occur" is describing ...
A.
B.
107.  "The period when the three embryonic germ layers appear" is describing ...
A.
B.
108.  "The period during which the blastocyst is formed" is describing ...
A.
B.
109.  Most systems are operational in the fetus by four to six months.  Which system is the exception to this generalization, affecting premature infants?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The zygote contains chromsomes from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The outer layer of the blastocyst, which later attaches to the uterus, is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The fetal membrane that forms the basis of the umbilical cord is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Which of the following changes occur in the baby's cardiovascular system after birth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Following delivery of the infant, the delivery of the afterbirth includes the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  The umbilical vein carries:
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The germ layer from which the skeletal muscles, heart and skeleton are derived is the:
A.
B.
C.
117.  Which of the following cannot pass through placental barriers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  The most important hormone in initiating and maintaining lactation after birth is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The initial stage of labor, during which the neck of the uterus is stretched, is the:
A.
B.
C.
120.  Which adult structure is derived from the notochord?
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Which adult structure is derived from the ectoderm (not neural tube)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Which adult structure is derived from the intermediate mesoderm?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Which adult structure is derived from the sphlanchnic mesoderm?
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Which adult structure is derived from the sclerotome?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Which adult structure is derived from the coelom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Which adult structure is derived from the neural tube?
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Which adult structure is derived from the somatic mesoderm?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which adult structure is derived from the endoderm?
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Genetic makeup is the:
A.
B.
C.
130.  How genetic makeup is expressed is the:
A.
B.
C.
131.  Chromosomes that dictate most body characteristics are:
A.
B.
C.
132.  Alternate forms of the same gene are:
A.
B.
C.
133.  An individual bearing two alleles that are the same for a particular trait is a:
A.
B.
C.
134.  An allele that is expressed whether in single or double dose is:
A.
B.
C.
135.  An individual bearing two alleles that differ for a particular trait is a:
A.
B.
C.
136.  An allele that must be present in double dose to be expressed is:
A.
B.
C.
137.  A trait shown only by sons is:
A.
B.
C.
138.  A gene which produces the same phenotype in both homozygotes and heterozygotes is:
A.
B.
C.
139.  Heterozygotes may exhibit a phenotype intermediate between those of the homozygotes due to:
A.
B.
C.
140.  A phenotype of the offspring which is more varied than those of the parents is a result of:
A.
B.
C.
141.  Inheritance of ABO blood types is considered:
A.
B.
C.
142.  Inheritance of stature is:
A.
B.
C.
143.  The activity of mitochondrial DNA is:
A.
B.
C.
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