AP Biology Test #2 Molecules And Cells

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 AP biology test #2 molecules and cells
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  • 1. 
    Carbohydrate-containing layer at the surface of the plasma membrane
    • A. 

      Glycocalyx

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Triglyceride

    • D. 

      Phospholipid

    • E. 

      Protein


  • 2. 

    The process taking place in the diagram below is
    • A. 

      Osmosis

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • C. 

      Cyclosis

    • D. 

      Pinocytosis

    • E. 

      Exocytosis


  • 3. 

    Refer to the molecule below
    • A. 

      This molecule is used to transport oxygen in the blood

    • B. 

      Starch is a polymer of this molecule

    • C. 

      This is a sterol found in cell membranes and is associated with atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 4. 

    Refer to the molecule below
    • A. 

      This molecule is used to transport oxygen in the blood

    • B. 

      Starch is a polymer of this molecule

    • C. 

      This is a sterol found in cell membranes and is associated with atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 5. 

    Refer to the molecule below
    • A. 

      This molecule is used to transport oxygen in the blood

    • B. 

      Starch is a polymer of this molecule

    • C. 

      This is a sterol found in cell membranes and is associated with atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 6. 

    Refer to the molecule below
    • A. 

      This molecule is used to transport oxygen in the blood

    • B. 

      Starch is a polymer of this molecule

    • C. 

      This is a sterol found in cell membranes and is associated with atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 7. 

    Refer to the molecule below
    • A. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • B. 

      This molecule is used to transport oxygen in the blood

    • C. 

      This is a sterol found in cell membranes and is associated with atherosclerosis

    • D. 

      This molecule could result from the hydrolysis of a protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 8. 

    The process taking place below is called
    • A. 

      Endocytosis

    • B. 

      Pinocytosis

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis

    • D. 

      Exocytosis

    • E. 

      Cyclosis


  • 9. 

    The process taking place below is called
    • A. 

      Endocytosis

    • B. 

      Exocytosis

    • C. 

      Active transport

    • D. 

      Passive transport

    • E. 

      Facilitated diffusion


  • 10. 

    From the appearance of the TURGID CELL, it can be concluded that
    • A. 

      The environment is hypertonic to the cell

    • B. 

      The environment is hypotonic to the cell

    • C. 

      The cell is hypotonic to the environment

    • D. 

      Solute concentration of the environment is greater than the solute concentration of the cell

    • E. 

      The cell and the environment are isotonic to each other


  • 11. 

    If the concentration of the FLACCID CELL is 2% then the solute concentration in the environment of the cell may be
    • A. 

      1.0%

    • B. 

      5.0%

    • C. 

      0.5%

    • D. 

      2.0%

    • E. 

      0.2%


  • 12. 
    When the cell membrane disconnects from the cell wall due to loss of fluid this process is know as
    • A. 

      Crenation

    • B. 

      Cyclosis

    • C. 

      Plasmolysis

    • D. 

      Hemolysis

    • E. 

      Autolysis


  • 13. 

    Refer to the EVENTS listed below and the DIAGRAM that follows: 1 - Guard cells become turgid 2 - Stomata close 3 - Guard cells become flaccid 4 - Stomata open 5 - Ions move into guard cells increasing the solute concentration 6 - Ions leave guard cells decreasing the solute concentration 7 - Water enters guard cells from the epidermal cells 8 - Water leaves guard cells and enters epidermal cells DIAGRAM When the sun rises and a leaf begins the process of photosynthesis, which sequence of events results in the appearance of the stomata as open
    • A. 

      2,1,6,7

    • B. 

      6,8,3,2

    • C. 

      1,6,4,5

    • D. 

      5,7,1,4

    • E. 

      3,7,5,2


  • 14. 
    The ions, whose movement into and out of the guard cells cause the stomata and guard cells to open or close are
    • A. 

      Na+ ions

    • B. 

      OH- ions

    • C. 

      Ca++ ions

    • D. 

      I- ions

    • E. 

      K+ ions


  • 15. 
    Human hair is an example of this type of secondary level protein
    • A. 

      Beta pleated sheet

    • B. 

      Globular protein

    • C. 

      Alpha helix

    • D. 

      Tertiary protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 16. 
    All of the following are considered proteins EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Antibodies

    • B. 

      Enzymes

    • C. 

      Collagen

    • D. 

      Dehydrogenase

    • E. 

      Steroids


  • 17. 
    All of the following are true amino acids EXCEPT
    • A. 

      They compose all enzymes and some hormones

    • B. 

      They contain an amino group and a carboxyl group

    • C. 

      They can act as buffers

    • D. 

      They are building blocks of steroids

    • E. 

      They are found in hemoglobin


  • 18. 
    Carbon 13 and Carbon 14 are isotopes and therefore have different numbers of
    • A. 

      Electrons

    • B. 

      Neutrons

    • C. 

      Protons

    • D. 

      Electrons and neutrons

    • E. 

      Protons and electrons


  • 19. 
    The biochemical process by which most organisms extract energy from food is known as
    • A. 

      Anabolism

    • B. 

      Saprophytism

    • C. 

      Parasitism

    • D. 

      Commensalism

    • E. 

      Catabolism


  • 20. 
    Cyanide poisoning is fatal within minutes since it binds irreversibly with the active sites of respiratory enzymes.  Cyanide acts as a(an)
    • A. 

      Competitive inhibitor

    • B. 

      Coenzyme

    • C. 

      Allosteric inhibitor

    • D. 

      Allosteric stimulator

    • E. 

      Enzyme cofactor


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is a structural polysaccaride
    • A. 

      Amylose

    • B. 

      Cellulose

    • C. 

      Glycogen

    • D. 

      Amylopectin

    • E. 

      Starch


  • 22. 
    During the synthesis of a polypeptide chain from 40 amino acids, the number of water molecules released is
    • A. 

      40

    • B. 

      42

    • C. 

      25

    • D. 

      39

    • E. 

      80


  • 23. 
    Humans lack the enzyme necessary to digest which of the following carbohydrates?
    • A. 

      Cellulose

    • B. 

      Amylose

    • C. 

      Sucrose

    • D. 

      Lactose

    • E. 

      Maltose


  • 24. 
    The major component of the fluid bilayer of a plasma membrane.
    • A. 

      Glycocalyx

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Triglyceride

    • D. 

      Phospholipid

    • E. 

      Protein


  • 25. 
    Carrier molecule in the plasma membrane.
    • A. 

      Glycocalyx

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Triglyceride

    • D. 

      Phospholipid

    • E. 

      Protein


  • 26. 
    Steroid affecting the fluidity of the plasma membrane.
    • A. 

      Glycocalyx

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Triglyceride

    • D. 

      Phospholipid

    • E. 

      Protein


  • 27. 
    It is believed that an increase in the CO2 in the earth's atmosphere is causing
    • A. 

      A decrease in the earth's temperature

    • B. 

      A depletion of the ozone layer

    • C. 

      An increase in the U-V radiation reaching the earth

    • D. 

      The greenhouse effect

    • E. 

      The pollution of our rivers


  • 28. 
    Lipid molecules are also known as triglycerides since they contain three
    • A. 

      Glycerol molecules

    • B. 

      Fatty acids

    • C. 

      Hydroxy alcohols

    • D. 

      Phosphates

    • E. 

      Polar groups


  • 29. 
    The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells contain DNA-histone complexes known as
    • A. 

      Chromoplasts

    • B. 

      Nucleosomes

    • C. 

      Nucleoli

    • D. 

      Centrosomes

    • E. 

      Leucoplasts


  • 30. 
    A complex polysaccharide that forms the exoskeleton of insects,crustaceans and other invertebrates is
    • A. 

      Cellulose

    • B. 

      Glycogen

    • C. 

      Bone

    • D. 

      Chitin

    • E. 

      Pectin


  • 31. 
    According to the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane all of the following constitute the membrane EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Glycolipids

    • B. 

      Glycoproteins

    • C. 

      Monosaccharides

    • D. 

      Oligosaccharides

    • E. 

      Transmembranal proteins


  • 32. 
    Unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ in that the former have...
    • A. 

      More oxygen atoms

    • B. 

      Fewer carboxyl groups

    • C. 

      Carbon to carbon double bonds

    • D. 

      More hydrogen atoms

    • E. 

      Amino groups


  • 33. 
    Strontium 90 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 28 years. Starting with 12g. of 90Sr,approximately how much of the isotope will remain in 84 years.
    • A. 

      1.5 grams

    • B. 

      3.0 grams

    • C. 

      6.0 grams

    • D. 

      12.5 grams

    • E. 

      24.0 grams


  • 34. 
    All of the following are found in prokaryotic cells EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      The plasma membrane

    • B. 

      Circular DNA

    • C. 

      Ribosomes

    • D. 

      A nuclear envelope

    • E. 

      Plasmids


  • 35. 
    MItochondria are referred to as the "power-houses"ofthe cell. Which of the following best supports this statement:
    • A. 

      Mitochondria are present in almost all plant and animal cells

    • B. 

      Mitochondria are self-replicating

    • C. 

      ATP is found in mitochondria

    • D. 

      The Calvin cycle occurs in mitochondria

    • E. 

      Mitochondria have cristae


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is an structural isomer of glucose?
    • A. 

      Lactose

    • B. 

      Starch

    • C. 

      Maltose

    • D. 

      Fructose

    • E. 

      Sucrose


  • 37. 
    Buffers are important in living systems since they...
    • A. 

      Tend to prevent drastic changes in pH

    • B. 

      Help to produce a pH of more than 14

    • C. 

      Help to produce a pH of less than 1

    • D. 

      Tend to produce drastic changes in pH

    • E. 

      Help to maintain a pH of 4 in all cells


  • 38. 
    An organism could be classified as a bacterium based upon the presence of...
    • A. 

      A nuclear membrane

    • B. 

      Chloroplasts

    • C. 

      A circular chromosome

    • D. 

      Mitochrondia

    • E. 

      Golgi complexes


  • 39. 
    Which of the following is an organic compound?
    • A. 

      Calcium phosphate

    • B. 

      Sucrose

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      Sodium chloride

    • E. 

      Ammonia


  • 40. 
    Human red blood cells were placed into a solution isotonic to the cells. Which of the following resulted?
    • A. 

      The cells hemolyzed

    • B. 

      The cells crenated

    • C. 

      The cells remained unchanged

    • D. 

      The cells increased in volume

    • E. 

      The cells decreased in volume


  • 41. 
    An organism that has a nutritional mutation preventing the synthesis of necessary metabolities is known as a(n) ...
    • A. 

      Autotroph

    • B. 

      Heterotroph

    • C. 

      Chemotroph

    • D. 

      Auxotroph

    • E. 

      Phototroph


  • 42. 
    The inorganic cofactor found in the chlorophyll molecule
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Zinc

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Calcium

    • E. 

      Sulfur


  • 43. 
    Required in ionic form for the activity of many enzymes,the maintenance of bone,and the contraction of muscle fibers. 
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Zinc

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Calcium

    • E. 

      Sulfur


  • 44. 
    Which of the following is a stereoisomer of glucose
    • A. 

      Sucrose

    • B. 

      Fructose

    • C. 

      Galactose

    • D. 

      Maltose

    • E. 

      Amylase


  • 45. 

    The diagram below shows a plasmodesmata connection between two adjacent plant cells, what is the type of pathway of fluid from living plant cell to another living plant cell called:
    • A. 

      Apoplastic pathway

    • B. 

      Symplastic pathway

    • C. 

      Kinetic pathway

    • D. 

      Ergonomic pathway

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 46. 

    The diagram below shows three types of cell junctions. The ones near the top of the diagram are called:
    • A. 

      Tight junctions

    • B. 

      Desmosomes

    • C. 

      Gap junctions

    • D. 

      Plasmodesmata

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 47. 
    Why is the phospholipid molecule so appropriate as the primary structural component of plasma membranes?
    • A. 

      Phospholipids are completely insoluble in water.

    • B. 

      Phospholipids form strong chemical bonds between the molecules, forming a stable structure.

    • C. 

      Phospholipids form a selectively permeable structure.

    • D. 

      Phospholipids form chemical bonds with membrane proteins that keep the proteins within the membrane.


  • 48. 
    Which increases the fluidity of the plasma membrane?
    • A. 

      Having a large number of membrane proteins

    • B. 

      The tight alignment of phospholipids.

    • C. 

      Cholesterol present in the membrane.

    • D. 

      Double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acid tails.


  • 49. 
    Which best describes the structure of a plasma membrane?
    • A. 

      Proteins embedded within two layers of phospholipids.

    • B. 

      Phospholipids sandwiched between two layers of proteins.

    • C. 

      Proteins sandwiched between two layers of phospholipids.

    • D. 

      A layer of proteins on top of a layer of phospholipids.


  • 50. 
    The movement of sodium ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called...
    • A. 

      Active transport

    • B. 

      Osmosis

    • C. 

      Diffusion

    • D. 

      Phagocytosis


  • 51. 
    Sucrose cannot pass through the membrane of a red blood cell (RBC), but water and glucose can. Which solution would cause the RBC to shrink the most?
    • A. 

      A hyperosmotic sucrose solution

    • B. 

      A hyperosmotic glucose solution

    • C. 

      A hypoosmotic sucrose solution

    • D. 

      A hypoosmotic glucose solution


  • 52. 
    Which of the following processes requires membrane proteins?
    • A. 

      Exocytosis

    • B. 

      Phagocytosis

    • C. 

      Receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • D. 

      Pinocytosis


  • 53. 
    Which of the following is not a second messenger?
    • A. 

      Adenylyl cyclase

    • B. 

      Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    • C. 

      Calcium ions

    • D. 

      CAMP


  • 54. 
    MHC proteins are...
    • A. 

      Molecules that determine a person's blood type.

    • B. 

      Large molecules that pass through the membrane many times.

    • C. 

      Identity markers present on the surface of an individual's cells.

    • D. 

      Different for each type of tissue in the body.


  • 55. 
    Plasmodesmata are a type of...
    • A. 

      Gap junction

    • B. 

      Anchoring junction

    • C. 

      Communicating junction

    • D. 

      Tight junction


  • 56. 

    Refer to the cell diagram below.  The organelle labelled 8 is:
    • A. 

      Responsible for the production of tRNA

    • B. 

      Responsible for the production of mRNA

    • C. 

      Responsible for the production of rRNA

    • D. 

      Responsible for the production of DNA

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 57. 

    Refer to the cell diagram below.  The organelle labelled 6 is:
    • A. 

      Responsible for the production of DNA

    • B. 

      Responsible for the production of ATP

    • C. 

      Responsible for the production of rRNA

    • D. 

      Responsible for the production of water

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 58. 
    A scientist chemically analyzes the plasma membrane of a cell.  He determines that it is an animal cell because he finds that it contains
    • A. 

      Cholesterol molecules

    • B. 

      Phospholipids

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Cellulose

    • E. 

      Chitin


  • 59. 
    Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make soft drinks.  Which of the following is the solute
    • A. 

      Only the water

    • B. 

      Only the CO2

    • C. 

      Only the sugar

    • D. 

      Both the sugar and the CO2

    • E. 

      Both the sugar and the water


  • 60. 
    A researcher is observing a cell through a microscope.  She determines that it is a plant cell because she observes a
    • A. 

      Mitochondrion

    • B. 

      Lysosomes

    • C. 

      Centriole

    • D. 

      Central vacuole

    • E. 

      Nucleus


  • 61. 
    All of the following may be functions of proteins in the plasma membrane EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Transport of substances across the membrane

    • B. 

      Catalysis of substances inside the cell

    • C. 

      Transmission of a signal recieved from a hormone outside the cell into chemical activity inside the cell

    • D. 

      Formation of junctions between the cell membranes of two adjacent cells

    • E. 

      Replication of DNA


  • 62. 
    Two molecules with the same molecular formula have different biological effects.  This can be best explained if 
    • A. 

      One of the molecules has a greater molecular weight

    • B. 

      Both of the molecules have carbon chains that are unbranched

    • C. 

      The two molecules are isomers

    • D. 

      The two molecules are isotopes

    • E. 

      The two molecules are inorganic


  • 63. 
    What would be the effect on an atom if the number of protons of the atom were changed?
    • A. 

      The ionic charge would change

    • B. 

      The pH would decrease

    • C. 

      The pH would increase

    • D. 

      An isotope of the atom would be created

    • E. 

      The atom would change to an atom of a different element


  • 64. 
    What would be the effect on an atom if the number of neutrons of the atom were changed?
    • A. 

      The ionic charge would change

    • B. 

      The pH would decrease

    • C. 

      The pH would increase

    • D. 

      An isotope of the atom would be created

    • E. 

      The atom would change to an atom of a different element


  • 65. 
    What would be the effect on an atom if the number of electrons of the atom were changed?
    • A. 

      The ionic charge would change

    • B. 

      The pH would decrease

    • C. 

      The pH would increase

    • D. 

      An isotope of the atom would be created

    • E. 

      The atom would change to an atom of a different element


  • 66. 

    How is a saturated fatty acid different from an unsaturated fatty acid?
    • A. 

      Saturated fatty acids contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.

    • B. 

      Saturated fatty acids are found only in oils.

    • C. 

      Carbons in saturated fatty acids are bonded together only with covalent bonds.

    • D. 

      Saturated fatty acids contain only carbon-carbon single bonds.

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 67. 

    What is the correct term for the graph below?
    • A. 

      Endothermic

    • B. 

      Exothermic

    • C. 

      Kinetic

    • D. 

      Passive

    • E. 

      Noneof the above


  • 68. 

    The graph below shows a catalyzed reaction vs. an uncatalyzed reaction.  Which of the following statements is true about the graph?
    • A. 

      The Catalyst lowers the energy needed for the reaction to proceed.

    • B. 

      The Catalyst raises the energy needed for the reaction to proceed.

    • C. 

      The Catalyst does not affect the reaction.

    • D. 

      The reaction will not work without the catalyst

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 69. 
    The function of desmosomes is to
    • A. 

      Connect the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells

    • B. 

      Connect the plasmodesmata of plants

    • C. 

      Act as an intermediate filament in all cells

    • D. 

      Act as a membrane enzyme protein

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 70. 
    Each of the following is a polymer EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Protein

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Cellulose

    • D. 

      Starch

    • E. 

      Glycogen


  • 71. 

    The diagram below shows a plant cell.  This can easily determined because of the presence of:
    • A. 

      A cell wall

    • B. 

      A large vacuole

    • C. 

      Chloroplasts

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 72. 

    The diagram below shows a prokaryotic cell.  This can easily determined because:
    • A. 

      The cell lacks DNA

    • B. 

      The cell lacks a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles

    • C. 

      The cell has a flagellum

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 73. 

    Refer to the diagram below.  The energy provided to run the pump comes from
    • A. 

      The phosphorylation of ATP molecules

    • B. 

      The dephosphorylation of ATP molecules

    • C. 

      The phosphorylation of GTP molecules

    • D. 

      The dephosphorylation of GTP molecules

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 74. 

    In a laboratory a student found a cell under high power of the microscope.  In order to calculate the correct power of magnification she would:
    • A. 

      Add the power of the eyepiece with the power of the objective

    • B. 

      multiply the power of the eyepiece with the power of the objective

    • C. 

      Add the power of the iris with the power of the condense

    • D. 

      Multiply the power of the iris to the power of the condenser


  • 75. 
    A person is diagnosed as having anemia characterized by the lack of red blood cells.  An insufficient amount of which inorganic cofactor could be the cause
    • A. 

      Ca++

    • B. 

      Mg++

    • C. 

      Fe++

    • D. 

      Pb++

    • E. 

      None of the above


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