AP Bio Midterm

19 Questions  I  By Lizpaschal
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AP Biology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements regarding events in the functioning of photosystem II is false?
    • A. 

      The splitting of water yields molecular oxygen as a by-product.

    • B. 

      The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+

    • C. 

      Light energy excites electrons in an antenna pigment in a photosynthetic unit.

    • D. 

      The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.

    • E. 

      The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P680 chlorophyll in the photsynthetic unit.


  • 2. 
    Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
    • A. 

      Dehydration

    • B. 

      Metabolism

    • C. 

      Catabolism

    • D. 

      Catalysis

    • E. 

      Anabolism


  • 3. 
    The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is:
    • A. 

      The final transfer of electrons to oxygen

    • B. 

      Oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water

    • C. 

      The thermodynamically favorable transfer to phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP

    • D. 

      The difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    • E. 

      The thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transport carriers


  • 4. 
    Which of the following is most likely to have a small protein called ubiquitin attached to it?
    • A. 

      A cell surface protein that requires transport from the ER

    • B. 

      An mRNA produced by an egg cell that will be retained until after fertilization

    • C. 

      An mRNA that is leaving the nucleus to be translated

    • D. 

      A regulatory protein that requires sugar residues to be attached

    • E. 

      A cyclin that usually acts in G1, now that the cell is in G2


  • 5. 
    Yeast cells are frequently used as hosts for cloning because
    • A. 

      They are easy to grow.

    • B. 

      They have multiple restriction sites.

    • C. 

      They have plasmids.

    • D. 

      A and B are correct.

    • E. 

      A and C are correct.


  • 6. 
    Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
    • A. 

      The absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

    • B. 

      The synthesis of ATP

    • C. 

      The flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

    • D. 

      The reduction of NADP+

    • E. 

      The splitting of water


  • 7. 
    Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?
    • A. 

      Insufficient cofactors

    • B. 

      Saturation of the enzyme activity

    • C. 

      Denaturization of the enzyme

    • D. 

      Competitive inhibition

    • E. 

      The activation energy of the reaction


  • 8. 
    What is proton-motive force?
    • A. 

      The addition of hydrogen to NAD+

    • B. 

      The force required to remove an electron from hydrogen

    • C. 

      The transmembrane proton concentration gradient

    • D. 

      Movement of hydrogen into the mitochondrion

    • E. 

      Movement of hydrogen into the intermembrane space


  • 9. 
    Transcription factors in eukaryotes usually have DNA binding domains as well as other domains also specific for binding. In general, which of the following would you expect many of them to be able to bind?
    • A. 

      Other transcription factors

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      TRNA

    • D. 

      Repressors

    • E. 

      Protein-based hormones


  • 10. 
    Which enzyme is used to make complementary DNA (cDNA) from RNA?
    • A. 

      Restriction enzyme

    • B. 

      DNA ligase

    • C. 

      Reverse transcriptase

    • D. 

      RNA polymerase

    • E. 

      DNA polymerase


  • 11. 
    Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.What did he conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
    • A. 

      Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light.

    • B. 

      Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas.

    • C. 

      Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis.

    • D. 

      Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths.

    • E. 

      Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.


  • 12. 
    The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is known as:
    • A. 

      Noncooperative inhibition

    • B. 

      Metabolic inhibition

    • C. 

      Feedback inhibition

    • D. 

      Allosteric inhibition

    • E. 

      Reversible inhibition


  • 13. 
    Which of the folllowing intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?
    • A. 

      Oxaloacetate

    • B. 

      Citrate

    • C. 

      Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

    • D. 

      Acetyl CoA

    • E. 

      Lactate


  • 14. 
    At the beginning of this century there was a general announcements regarding the sequencing of the human genome and the genomes of many other multicellular eukaryotes. There was surprise expressed by many that the number of protein-coding sequences is much smaller than they had expected, Which of the following accounts for most of the rest?
    • A. 

      RRNA and tRNA coding sequences

    • B. 

      Non-protein coding DNA that is transcribed into several kinds of small RNAs without biological function

    • C. 

      DNA that is translated directly without being transcribed

    • D. 

      "junk" DNA that serves no possible purpose

    • E. 

      Non-protein coding DNA that is transcribed into several kinds of small RNAs with biological function


  • 15. 
    Which enzyme is used to produce RFLPs?
    • A. 

      Restriction enzyme

    • B. 

      DNA ligase

    • C. 

      Reverse transcriptase

    • D. 

      RNA polymerase

    • E. 

      DNA polymerase


  • 16. 
    If you ran the same experiment without passing light through a prism, what would you predict?
    • A. 

      The number of bacteria present would decrease due to an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration.

    • B. 

      The number of bacteria present would increase due to an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration.

    • C. 

      The number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of the water.

    • D. 

      The bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments.

    • E. 

      There would be no difference in results.


  • 17. 
    Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
    • A. 

      Some reactants will be converted to products.

    • B. 

      The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

    • C. 

      The products have more total energy than the reactants.

    • D. 

      A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.

    • E. 

      The reactions are nonspontaneous.


  • 18. 
    A molecule that is phosphorylated:
    • A. 

      Has been oxidized as a result of a redox reaction involving the gain of an inorganic phosphate.

    • B. 

      Has been reduced as a result of a redox reaction involving the loss of an inorganic phosphate.

    • C. 

      How less energy than before its phosphorylation and therefore less energy for cellular work.

    • D. 

      Has a decreased chemical reactivity; it is less likely to provide energy for cellular work.

    • E. 

      Has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work.


  • 19. 
    One of the hopes for use of recent knowledge gained about non-coding RNAs lies with the possibilities for their use in medicine. Of the following scenarios for future research, which would you expect to gain most from RNAs?
    • A. 

      Exploring a way to turn on the expression of pseudogenes.

    • B. 

      Targeting siRNAs to disable the expression of an allele associated with autosomal recessive disease

    • C. 

      Looking for a way to prevent viral DNA from causing infection in humans

    • D. 

      Creating knock-out organisms that can be useful for pharmaceutical drug design

    • E. 

      Targeting siRNAS to disable the expression of an allele associated with autosomal dominant disease


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