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Ans Questions
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  • 1. 
    The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Kidneys

    • C. 

      Parotid gland

    • D. 

      Gallbladder

  • 2. 
    The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
    • A. 

      Split brain studies

    • B. 

      Stress-induced hypertension

    • C. 

      Biofeedback

    • D. 

      Nightmares

  • 3. 
    Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
    • A. 

      Lateral horn of the spinal cord

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Lateral geniculate of the thalamus

    • D. 

      Inferior colliculus

  • 4. 
    All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
    • A. 

      Dopamine

    • B. 

      Serotonin

    • C. 

      The same transmitter as the only one release by the sympathetic post ganglionic axons

    • D. 

      The same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

  • 5. 
    Parasympathetic functions include ________.
    • A. 

      A stimulation of heart rate and force of contration

    • B. 

      Allowing the body to cope with an external threat

    • C. 

      Constriction of bronchioles

    • D. 

      Mobilizing storage energy sources

  • 6. 
    The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
    • A. 

      Sympathetic trunk

    • B. 

      Phrenic nerve

    • C. 

      Vagus nerve

    • D. 

      Sacral nerve

  • 7. 
    The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
    • A. 

      Lumbar splanchnic nerves

    • B. 

      Cephalic plexus

    • C. 

      Pelvic nerves

    • D. 

      Tenth cranial nerve

  • 8. 
    Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
    • A. 

      Decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

    • B. 

      Increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

    • C. 

      Increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

    • D. 

      Decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

  • 9. 
    Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
    • A. 

      In the head

    • B. 

      In the cervical region

    • C. 

      Close to the visceral effectors they serve

    • D. 

      In the armpit

  • 10. 
    Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
    • A. 

      Craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

    • B. 

      Thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

    • C. 

      Craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

    • D. 

      Thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

  • 11. 
    In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
    • A. 

      Clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

    • B. 

      Cerebral hemorrhage

    • C. 

      Major loss of axons

    • D. 

      Peripheral vascular changes

  • 12. 
    In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprungʹs disease) ________.
    • A. 

      Sympathetic innervation of a segment of the colon fails to develop

    • B. 

      Feces are forced out of the colon prematurely

    • C. 

      Medication usually returns the abnormal segment of the colon to normal

    • D. 

      The distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation

  • 13. 
    The mass reflex reaction ________.
    • A. 

      Is also known as autonomic areflexia

    • B. 

      Represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers

    • C. 

      Usually precedes spinal shock

    • D. 

      Results from overexcitatory input from the cortex

  • 14. 
    Raynaudʹs disease ________.
    • A. 

      Is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

    • B. 

      Is induced by heat stress

    • C. 

      Occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord

    • D. 

      Is frequently life-threatening

  • 15. 
    Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
    • A. 

      Regulation of pupil size

    • B. 

      Regulation of cardiac rate

    • C. 

      Regulation of respiratory rate

    • D. 

      Regulation of body temperature

  • 16. 
    Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
    • A. 

      Is primarily under sympathetic control

    • B. 

      Is primarily under parasympathetic control

    • C. 

      Is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input

    • D. 

      Depends very little on autonomic activation

  • 17. 
    Beta-blockers ________.
    • A. 

      Increase a dangerously low heart rate

    • B. 

      Attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle

    • C. 

      Have widespread sympathetic effects

    • D. 

      Have widespread sympathetic effects

  • 18. 
    The white rami ________.
    • A. 

      Are found only in the C1‐T1 cord segments

    • B. 

      Are unmyelinated

    • C. 

      Carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

    • D. 

      Carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery

  • 19. 
    The autonomic nervous system ________.
    • A. 

      Cannot be self-controlled

    • B. 

      Has one primary division

    • C. 

      Is not affected by drugs

    • D. 

      Is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

  • 20. 
    The parasympathetic tone ________.
    • A. 

      Prevents unnecessary heart deceleration

    • B. 

      Accelerates activity of the digestive tract

    • C. 

      Determines normal activity of the urinary tract

    • D. 

      Causes blood pressure to rise

  • 21. 
    Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
    • A. 

      Visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons

    • B. 

      Somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess

    • C. 

      Visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

    • D. 

      Visceral arcs do not use integration centers

  • 22. 
    Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
    • A. 

      Cardiac

    • B. 

      Pulmonary

    • C. 

      Celiac

    • D. 

      Esophageal

  • 23. 
    Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
    • A. 

      White rami communicantes

    • B. 

      Gray rami communicantes

    • C. 

      Spinal nerves

    • D. 

      Splanchnic nerves

  • 24. 
    The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
    • A. 

      Optic

    • B. 

      Oculomotor

    • C. 

      Trochlear

    • D. 

      Abducens

  • 25. 
    Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
    • A. 

      An outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons

    • B. 

      Synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors

    • C. 

      The cell bodies of motor neurons

    • D. 

      Both somatic afferent and efferent neurons

  • 26. 
    Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
    • A. 

      Second cervical

    • B. 

      Third lumbar

    • C. 

      First coccyx

    • D. 

      First thoracic

  • 27. 
    Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
    • A. 

      Inactivation of ACh is fairly slow

    • B. 

      Single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons

    • C. 

      Preganglionic fibers are short

    • D. 

      Preganglionic fibers are long

  • 28. 
    The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.
    • A. 

      Thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord

    • B. 

      Higher brain centers

    • C. 

      Sympathetic chain

    • D. 

      Brain stem and the sacral region of the cord

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
    • A. 

      Salivation

    • B. 

      Dilation of the pupils

    • C. 

      Increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

    • D. 

      Relaxation of the urethral sphincter

  • 30. 
    Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
    • A. 

      Smooth muscle

    • B. 

      Cardiac muscle

    • C. 

      Skeletal muscle

    • D. 

      Most glands

  • 31. 
    Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Cerebellum

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    • D. 

      Thalamus

  • 32. 
    The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
    • A. 

      Parasympathetic division

    • B. 

      Sympathetic division

    • C. 

      Somatic division

    • D. 

      Peripheral nervous system

  • 33. 
    Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
    • A. 

      V

    • B. 

      VII

    • C. 

      X

    • D. 

      XII

  • 34. 
    Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
    • A. 

      Constriction of most blood vessels

    • B. 

      Dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles

    • C. 

      Increase of heart rate and force

    • D. 

      Dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

  • 35. 
    The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
    • A. 

      Ciliary ganglion

    • B. 

      Pterygopalatine ganglion

    • C. 

      Submandibular ganglion

    • D. 

      Otic ganglion

  • 36. 
    A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
    • A. 

      Anticholinesterase

    • B. 

      Epinephrine

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine

    • D. 

      A beta-blocker

  • 37. 
    The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.
    • A. 

      Organs and by short postganglionic fibers

    • B. 

      Organs and by long postganglionic fibers

    • C. 

      Spinal cord and by short postganglionic fibers

    • D. 

      Spinal cord and by long postganglionic fibers

  • 38. 
    Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
    • A. 

      Sympathetic nervous system

    • B. 

      Cerebrum

    • C. 

      Parasympathetic nervous system

    • D. 

      Somatic nervous system

  • 39. 
    In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.
    • A. 

      Has two efferent neurons

    • B. 

      Has two afferent neurons

    • C. 

      Stimulates its effector cells

    • D. 

      Has both afferent and efferent fibers

  • 40. 
    The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
    • A. 

      Parasympathetic innervation

    • B. 

      Sympathetic stimulation

    • C. 

      Vagus nerve activity

    • D. 

      Neurosecretory substances