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Anatomy And Physiology II Final Review Of Exam 2 Questions

48 Questions
Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The human body harbors about 10,000 times as many bacterial cells as human cells
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stikiness of the mucus and the presence of lysozymes
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    Interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    The upper respiratory tract extends
    • A. 

      From the nose through trachea

    • B. 

      From the nose to through pharynx

    • C. 

      From the nose through the larynx

    • D. 

      From the nose through alveoli

    • E. 

      From nose through lungs

  • 6. 
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly
    • A. 

      Helper T cells

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Plasma cells

    • D. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • E. 

      Natural killer cells

  • 7. 
    Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by 
    • A. 

      The aorta

    • B. 

      The pulmonary artery

    • C. 

      The pulmonary vein

    • D. 

      The inferior vena cava

    • E. 

      The superior vena cava

  • 8. 
    Interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Officials at the CDC said that AIDS research had been hindered by budget cuts made by the Reagan administration 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    _____________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma
    • A. 

      IgD

    • B. 

      IgE

    • C. 

      IgA

    • D. 

      IgM

    • E. 

      IgG

  • 12. 
    Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    One benefit from air passing by the turbinates is
    • A. 

      Turbinates separate air from food and drink

    • B. 

      The lower respiratory tract stays humidified

    • C. 

      Turbinates filter CO2 from the air

    • D. 

      They increase its oxygen concentration

    • E. 

      This is where odors are detected

  • 14. 
    Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
    • A. 

      The pharynx

    • B. 

      The epiglottis

    • C. 

      The oral cavity

    • D. 

      The tongue

    • E. 

      The lips

  • 15. 
    Among its other purposes, the valsalva maneuver is used
    • A. 

      To aid in defecation and urination

    • B. 

      As part of the procedure for giving CPR to a person in respiratory arrest

    • C. 

      To ventilate the lungs during eupena

    • D. 

      To expel more than the tusual tidal volume from the lungs

    • E. 

      To clear carbon monoxide from the body and replace it with oxygen

  • 16. 
    Lymphatic vessels recover about ________ of the fluid filtered by capillaries
    • A. 

      5%

    • B. 

      15%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      50%

    • E. 

      85%

  • 17. 
    Each immunoglobin (Ig) has ________ antigen bonding sites
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      6

    • D. 

      1

    • E. 

      3

  • 18. 
    The ________ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures in children
    • A. 

      Adenoid

    • B. 

      Lingual

    • C. 

      Palatine

    • D. 

      Pharyngeal

    • E. 

      Nasopharyngeal

  • 19. 
    All these forces help lymph to flow EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels

    • B. 

      Thoracic pump

    • C. 

      Skeletal muscle pump

    • D. 

      Lymphatic node pump

    • E. 

      Arterial pulsations squeezing lymphatic vessels

  • 20. 
    _______ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ________
    • A. 

      Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts

    • B. 

      Lymphatic trunks; subclavian arteries

    • C. 

      Lymphatic trunks; subclavian veins

    • D. 

      Collecting ducts; sunclavian veins

    • E. 

      Collecting ducts; subclavian arteries

  • 21. 
    Immune surveillance is a process which ______ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells
    • A. 

      T lymphocytes (T cells)

    • B. 

      Reticular cells

    • C. 

      Dendritic cells

    • D. 

      Macrophages

    • E. 

      Natural killer cells (NK cells)

  • 22. 
    Mucous plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ______ of the respiratory tract.
    • A. 

      Squamous alveolar cells

    • B. 

      Great alveolar cellls

    • C. 

      The pleurae

    • D. 

      Ciliated cells

    • E. 

      Goblet cells

  • 23. 
    The blood transports more CO2 in the form of _____ than in any other form.
    • A. 

      Carbaminohemoglobin

    • B. 

      Carboxyhemoglobin

    • C. 

      Bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      Dissolved CO2 gas

    • E. 

      Biphosphocarbonate

  • 24. 
    In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
    • A. 

      Atmospheric pressure

    • B. 

      Respiratory rate

    • C. 

      Bronchiole diameter

    • D. 

      Quantity of surfactant

    • E. 

      The diaphragm

  • 25. 
    All there belong to the second line of defense EXCEPT
    • A. 

      The macrophage system

    • B. 

      Natural killer cells

    • C. 

      Inflammation

    • D. 

      The gastric juices

    • E. 

      Interferon and the complement system

  • 26. 
    ________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.
    • A. 

      Monocytes

    • B. 

      Lymphocytes

    • C. 

      Basophils

    • D. 

      Neutrophils

    • E. 

      Eosinophils

  • 27. 
    Vital capacity consists of
    • A. 

      Inspiratory reserve vol + expiratory vol

    • B. 

      Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal vol

    • C. 

      Expiratory reserve vol + tidal vol

    • D. 

      Expiratory reserve vol + tidal vol + inspiratory reserve vol

    • E. 

      Respiratory vol + tidal vol

  • 28. 
    Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    ________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
    • A. 

      Complement system globulins

    • B. 

      Interferons

    • C. 

      Granzymes

    • D. 

      Pyrogens

    • E. 

      Perforins

  • 30. 
    Most common allergies are the result of 
    • A. 

      Autoimmune diseases

    • B. 

      Type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity

    • C. 

      Type III (immune-complex) hyper sensitivity

    • D. 

      Type II (antibody-dependant cytotoxic) hypersensitivity

    • E. 

      Type I (acute) hypersensitivity

  • 31. 
    Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
    • A. 

      An increase in membrane thickness

    • B. 

      An increase in alveolar surface area

    • C. 

      An increase in respiratory rate

    • D. 

      A decrease in membrane thickness

    • E. 

      A decrease in nitrogen solubility

  • 32. 
    The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ____ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen
    • A. 

      Sodium

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Nitrogen

    • D. 

      Hydrogen

    • E. 

      Chloride

  • 33. 
    Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Lymph nodes

    • C. 

      Thymus

    • D. 

      Red bone marrow

    • E. 

      Liver

  • 34. 
    Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
    • A. 

      Oxygen

    • B. 

      Water vapor

    • C. 

      Nitrogen

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Hydrogen

  • 35. 
    Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to ____ oxygen molecules
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      5

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      2,400

    • B. 

      3,000

    • C. 

      3,800

    • D. 

      4,700

    • E. 

      5,800

  • 37. 
    Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks down H2CO3 to water and carbon dioxide?
    • A. 

      Hemoglobin

    • B. 

      Carboxyhemoglobin

    • C. 

      Carbonic anhydrase

    • D. 

      Biphosphoglycerate

    • E. 

      Carbaminoreductase

  • 38. 
    Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    Vaccination stimulates
    • A. 

      Natural active immunity

    • B. 

      Artificial active immunity

    • C. 

      Natural passive immunity

    • D. 

      Artificial passive immunity

    • E. 

      Artificial specific immunity

  • 40. 
    Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
    • A. 

      Apoxia

    • B. 

      Hypoxia

    • C. 

      Anoxia

    • D. 

      Cyanosis

    • E. 

      Eupnea

  • 41. 
    Which of the following is not used to treat lupus?
    • A. 

      Anti-inflammatories

    • B. 

      Antimalarias

    • C. 

      Antivirals

    • D. 

      Immunosupressants

    • E. 

      Anticoagulants

  • 42. 
    Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
    • A. 

      Sickle-cell disease

    • B. 

      Emphysema

    • C. 

      Squamous-cell carcinoma

    • D. 

      Asthma

    • E. 

      Atelectasis

  • 43. 
    A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is 
    • A. 

      Cor pulmonale

    • B. 

      Pulmonary hemosiderosis

    • C. 

      Emphysema

    • D. 

      Atelectasis

    • E. 

      Collapsed lung

  • 44. 
    Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for the same binding site
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 45. 
    Which of the following were not considered a high risk group for HIV infection in the 1980's?
    • A. 

      Hemophiliacs

    • B. 

      Hackers

    • C. 

      Hatians

    • D. 

      Homosexuals

    • E. 

      Heroin addicts

  • 46. 
    Autoimmune disease are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ______ from foreign ones.
    • A. 

      Self-immunoglobins

    • B. 

      Self-antibodies

    • C. 

      Self-antigens

    • D. 

      Self-interleukins

    • E. 

      Self-complement proteins

  • 47. 
    Helper T cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a/an
    • A. 

      Hapten

    • B. 

      Immunoglobulin

    • C. 

      Natural killer cell

    • D. 

      Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein

    • E. 

      Basophil

  • 48. 
    Scuba divers breathe nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
    • A. 

      The bends

    • B. 

      Oxygen toxicity

    • C. 

      Rapture of the deep

    • D. 

      Caisson disease

    • E. 

      Hypoxemic hypoxia