Anatomy And Physiology Exam #3

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia
Nerves, endocrine, hormones

  
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  • 1. 
    The cytoplasmic extensions that, together with the cell body, provide the main receptive surfaces for neurons are
    • A. 

      Neurofibrils

    • B. 

      Nissil fibers

    • C. 

      Axons

    • D. 

      Dendrites


  • 2. 
    Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear
    • A. 

      White

    • B. 

      Gray

    • C. 

      Brown

    • D. 

      Transparent


  • 3. 
    Which of the following is a type of neuroglial cell?
    • A. 

      Bipolar neuron

    • B. 

      Multipolar neuron

    • C. 

      Ependymal cell

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 4. 
    Which of the following lists the parts of a reflex arc in the correct sequence
    • A. 

      Receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron, effector

    • B. 

      Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector

    • C. 

      Effector, sensory neuron, receptor, interneuron, motor neuron

    • D. 

      Effector, receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron


  • 5. 
    Whena nerve fiber is polarized, the concentration of
    • A. 

      Sodium and potassium ions in higher on the inside of its membrane

    • B. 

      Sodium and potassium ions is higher on the outside of its membrane

    • C. 

      Sodium ions are higher on the inside, potassium ions are higher on the outside

    • D. 

      Sodium ions are higher on the outside, potassium ions higher on the inside


  • 6. 
    Saltatroy propagation
    • A. 

      Occurs only if the myelin sheath is continuous

    • B. 

      Occurs only if the nodes of ranvier are lacking

    • C. 

      Is faster than propagation on an unmyelinated fiber

    • D. 

      Is slower than propagation on an unmyelinated fiber


  • 7. 
    What produces myelin in the brain and spinal cord
    • A. 

      Schwann cells

    • B. 

      Axons

    • C. 

      Microlglia

    • D. 

      Oligodendrocites


  • 8. 
    The nervous system
    • A. 

      Detects changes in the internal or external environment

    • B. 

      Controls the movement of muscles and secretions of glands

    • C. 

      Integrates information from several sources and uses it to make an appropriate response

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 9. 
    Which of the following ions passes through cell membranes of resting neurons most readily
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Calcium

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 10. 
    If a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is said to be
    • A. 

      Depolarizing

    • B. 

      Hyperpolarizing

    • C. 

      Repolarizing

    • D. 

      Summating


  • 11. 
    What is the correct sequence of events that follow a threshold potential?(1)the membrane becomes depolarized(2)Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward(3)the membrane becomes repolarized(4)potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward
    • A. 

      3,2,4,1

    • B. 

      2,1,4,3

    • C. 

      1,2,4,3

    • D. 

      4,1,3,2


  • 12. 
    When an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the presence of
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Sodium ions

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters

    • D. 

      Neuropeptides


  • 13. 
    Most neurons in the brain and spinal cord are
    • A. 

      Bipolar

    • B. 

      Unipolar

    • C. 

      Multipolar

    • D. 

      Nonpolar


  • 14. 
    If a neuron receives a series of stimuli whose effect is excitatory but subthreshold, the neuron is more excitable to incoming stimulation than before and is said to be
    • A. 

      Graded

    • B. 

      Amplified

    • C. 

      Facilitated

    • D. 

      Converged


  • 15. 
    The expected response to the triceps jerk reflex is
    • A. 

      Flexion of the forearm

    • B. 

      Extension of the forearm

    • C. 

      plantar flexion

    • D. 

      Plantar extension


  • 16. 
    A nerve cell membrane may become depolarized as a result of
    • A. 

      The sudden opening of leak channels for sodium ions

    • B. 

      The sudden opening of voltage regulated sodium channels

    • C. 

      The sudden opening of leak channels for potassium ions

    • D. 

      The sudden opening of voltage regulated potassium channels


  • 17. 
    Neurons are ____________, whereas neuroglial cells are __________.
    • A. 

      Nerve cells ; nerves

    • B. 

      Nerves ; nerve cells

    • C. 

      Structural and functional unit sof the nervous system; accessory cells in the nerve tissue

    • D. 

      Cells that conduct nerve impulses, fill spaces and support parts; cells that connect nerve tissue to surrounding organs


  • 18. 
    The process of transmitting a nerve impulse from one neuron to another involves a
    • A. 

      Nerve impulse stimulating presynaptic dendrites to release a neurotrasmitter in to a synaptic cleft

    • B. 

      Nerve impulse stimulating presynaptic axons to release a neurotransmitter into a synaptic cleft

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitter traveling from presynaptic dendrites across a synapse to postsynaptic axons or a cell body

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitter traveling from postsynaptic axons across a synapse to pretsynaptic dendrites or a cell body


  • 19. 
    Which if the following cells is only found in the PNS? (peripheral)
    • A. 

      Oligodendrocyte

    • B. 

      Astrocyte

    • C. 

      Micrglial cells

    • D. 

      Scwann cells


  • 20. 
    Myelin is rich in what type of molecule
    • A. 

      Porteins

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates

    • C. 

      Lipids

    • D. 

      Salts


  • 21. 
    Skeltal muscle contration is under the control of the
    • A. 

      Autonomic nervous system

    • B. 

      Somatic nervous system

    • C. 

      Parasympathetic nervous system

    • D. 

      Sympathetic nervous system


  • 22. 
    Which of the following in under voluntary control of the nervous system
    • A. 

      Smooth muscles

    • B. 

      Glands

    • C. 

      Cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      Skeletal muscle


  • 23. 
    Clusters of neuron cell bodies are called
    • A. 

      Soma

    • B. 

      Axons

    • C. 

      Ganglia

    • D. 

      Nuclei


  • 24. 
    Which of the following cells is not part of the CNS?(central)
    • A. 

      Ependymal cells

    • B. 

      Astrocytes

    • C. 

      Satellite cells

    • D. 

      Microglia


  • 25. 
    When astimulus is sufficently great enough to chenge the membrane potential and propagate an axon potential, it is
    • A. 

      EPSP

    • B. 

      IPSP

    • C. 

      Threshold

    • D. 

      Tetanus


  • 26. 
    Axon branches are called collaterals
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 27. 
    Since the response of a nerve fiber is all or none, a greater intensity of stimulation does not produce a stronger impulse
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 28. 
    Neve impulses are usually transmitted from a dendrite to an axon or nerve cell body
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 29. 
    Nodes of Ranvier occur between adjacent neurons
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 30. 
    Convergence involves 2 or more incoming fibers converging on a single neuron, whereas divergence involves impulses leaving a neuron and passing into several output fibers
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 31. 
    A mixed nerve is a nerve composed of different neuroglial cells
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 32. 
    The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a resting nerve cell membrane is called the ______ _______.

  • 33. 
    The additive phenomena by which a series of similar stimuli cause an increasing amount of change in the local membrane potential is called _______.

  • 34. 
    The part of the brain that functions to coordinate voluntary muscular movement is the
    • A. 

      Cerebrum

    • B. 

      Brain stem

    • C. 

      Cerebellum

    • D. 

      Corpus callosum


  • 35. 
    Which of the following is most closely associated with the decaphalon?
    • A. 

      Thalamus

    • B. 

      Cerebral aqueduct

    • C. 

      Cerebral peduncles

    • D. 

      Red nucleus


  • 36. 
    Which of the following are generally adrenergic fibers
    • A. 

      Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers

    • B. 

      Sympathetic postganglionic fibers

    • C. 

      Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers

    • D. 

      Sympathetic preganglionic fibers


  • 37. 
    If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damaged, what is teh result?
    • A. 

      Memory is lost

    • B. 

      Motor control to the right is impaired

    • C. 

      Eyesight is lost

    • D. 

      Motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost


  • 38. 
    The primary motor area of the brain are located in the
    • A. 

      Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe

    • B. 

      Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe

    • C. 

      Posterior sulcus of the temporal lobe

    • D. 

      Lateral portion of the occipital lobe


  • 39. 
    What is the function of cerebral association areas?
    • A. 

      Analyze and interpret sensory experiences

    • B. 

      Memory

    • C. 

      Reasoning and judgement

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 40. 
    The structure that contains nerve tracts connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the
    • A. 

      Basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal nuclei

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 41. 
    The cerebrum is separated from the cerebellum by the
    • A. 

      Lateral sulcus

    • B. 

      Central sulcus

    • C. 

      Longitudinal fissure

    • D. 

      Transverse fissure


  • 42. 
    Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus
    • A. 

      Regulation of body temperature

    • B. 

      Control of hunger

    • C. 

      Production of hormones

    • D. 

      Control of postural reflexes


  • 43. 
    In the case of a subdural hematoma resulting from a blow to the head, blood accumulates between the
    • A. 

      Dura mater and skull

    • B. 

      Dura mater and the arachnoid mater

    • C. 

      Pia mater and the brain

    • D. 

      Arachnoid mater and brain


  • 44. 
    The structure of the spinal cord can be described as (pick only the ones that apply)(1)composed of 31 segments(2)having a cervical and lumbar enlargement, and 2 deep longitudinal grooves(3)a central core of gray matter that is surrounded by white matter(4)arachnoid mater and brain
    • A. 

      1,2,3

    • B. 

      1,3

    • C. 

      2,4

    • D. 

      4


  • 45. 
    The consequnce of cutting the first cranial nerve would be that
    • A. 

      You would be unable to see

    • B. 

      You be unable to hear

    • C. 

      You would be unable to move your eyes

    • D. 

      You would be unable to smell


  • 46. 
    Which of the following cranial nerves carries autonomic motor impulses that influence heart rate
    • A. 

      Trigeminal

    • B. 

      Abducens

    • C. 

      Vagus

    • D. 

      Accessory


  • 47. 
    A strictly sensory nerve which is also cranial nerve VIII is the
    • A. 

      Vestibulocochlear nerve

    • B. 

      Optic nerve

    • C. 

      Facial nerve

    • D. 

      Occulomotor nerve


  • 48. 
    The area of skin supplied by sensory nerve fibers from particular dorsal root is called a
    • A. 

      Dermatome

    • B. 

      Microtome

    • C. 

      Sensory body

    • D. 

      Nerve body


  • 49. 
    Which of the following terms with accompanying definitions is correct
    • A. 

      Cerebral cortex: a thin layer of gray matter constituting the outermost portion of the cerbrum

    • B. 

      Hemisphere dominance: the largest cerbral hemisphere with the thickest cerebral cortex

    • C. 

      Limbic system: a group of interconnected brain structures that function to activate skeletal muscles

    • D. 

      Cauda equina: a network of anterior branches of spinal nerves


  • 50. 
    The consequence of sensory nerve fibers crossing over is that the
    • A. 

      Brain becomes confused as to which side of the body a sensory impulse originated

    • B. 

      Right hemisphere or the cerebrum receives sensory impulses originating on the left and vice versa

    • C. 

      Left hemisphere or the cerebrum receives sensory impulses originating on the left and vice versa

    • D. 

      Impulses never reach the appropriate lobe of the brain to be interpreted


  • 51. 
    The somatic nervous system consists of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the ________, whereas the autonomic nervous system consists of fibers that connect the ________.
    • A. 

      Skin and skeletal muscles; brain and spinal cord

    • B. 

      Visceral organs; CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles

    • C. 

      Heart and intestines; CNS to the cardiac and smooth muscles

    • D. 

      Skin and skeletal muscles; CNS to the visceral organs


  • 52. 
    Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by ________ and it functions to _________.
    • A. 

      Dura mater; maintain a stable ionic concentration in the CNS

    • B. 

      Choroid plexuses in the ventricles; protect the brain from blows to the skull

    • C. 

      Arachnoid villi in the dura sinus; provide a pathway to the blood for waste substances

    • D. 

      Capillaries in the dura mater of the ventricles; provide moisture to the surface of the brain tissue


  • 53. 
    The subarachnoid space within the meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 54. 
    The epineurium is composed of nervous tissue
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 55. 
    If the fibers in the ascending tract of the cord are cut, the affected person will have a loss of motor functions below the injusry
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 56. 
    Nerve fibers of the ___________ division of the autonomic nervous system arise from the brain stem and the sacral region of the spinal cord.

  • 57. 
    The interconnected, fluid filled cavities within the brain are called _________.

  • 58. 
    The part of the brain stem that includes the cardia and vasomotor centers is the ____ ____.

  • 59. 
    Pain receptors
    • A. 

      Are generally stimulated by factors that can cause tissue damage

    • B. 

      Tend to adapt rapidly

    • C. 

      Are among the most specialized of the receptors

    • D. 

      Are widely distributed in the nerve tissues of the brain


  • 60. 
    The olfactory receptors are examples of
    • A. 

      Thermoreceptors

    • B. 

      Mechanoreceptors

    • C. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • D. 

      Porprioreceptors


  • 61. 
    Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
    • A. 

      Sweet

    • B. 

      Salty

    • C. 

      Pungent

    • D. 

      Bitter


  • 62. 
    The hearing receptors are most closely associated with the
    • A. 

      Ampulla

    • B. 

      Organ of corti

    • C. 

      Utricle

    • D. 

      Saccule


  • 63. 
    Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye
    • A. 

      Ciliary body

    • B. 

      Retina

    • C. 

      Choroid coat

    • D. 

      Sclera


  • 64. 
    The lens of the eye thickens when the
    • A. 

      Suspensory ligaments pull on the lens capsule

    • B. 

      Cilliary processes relax

    • C. 

      Ciliary muscles relax

    • D. 

      Ciliary muscles contract


  • 65. 
    Temperature senses employ 2 types of
    • A. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • B. 

      Proprioreceptors

    • C. 

      Meissners corpuscles

    • D. 

      Free nerve endings


  • 66. 
    A sensation is ___________, and projection of a sensation is the _________.
    • A. 

      The stimulation of a receptor cell; transmission of an impulse to the brain

    • B. 

      A feeling that results from sensory stimulation; the brain causing it to seem to come from the receptors being stimulated.

    • C. 

      A good feeling from a stimulation; right side of the brain projecting the sensation to the left side or vice versa

    • D. 

      A change in membrane permeability of a receptor; transmission of impulses into a sensory area of the brain


  • 67. 
    Which is paired correctly?
    • A. 

      Chemoreceptors: stimulated by changes in concentration of chemical substances

    • B. 

      Pain receptors: stimulated by tissue damage

    • C. 

      Thermoreceptors: stimulated by temperature changes

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 68. 
    Pain receptors differ from other somatic receptors by
    • A. 

      Being stimulated only when pain is occurring in skeletal muscle.

    • B. 

      Adapting very little, if at all.

    • C. 

      Not being able to project impulses back to their origin

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 69. 
    Where are the specialized sense found
    • A. 

      Primarily the head

    • B. 

      Through the integumentary system

    • C. 

      In the finger tips

    • D. 

      In internal organs


  • 70. 
    The auditory ossicles are located within the inner ear
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 71. 
    Receptors that are stimulted by changes in chemical concentrations are called thermoreceptors
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 72. 
    When the radial muscles of the iris contract the diameter of the pupil decreases.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 73. 
    The iris functions to provide color to the eye
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 74. 
    The optic disk is located medial to fovea centralis and is the site from which nerve fibers from the the retina leave the eye and become part of the optic nerve
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 75. 
    Nerve impulses from the organ of corti travel on the vestibulocochlear nerve
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 76. 
    The auditory ossicles are the ________, _________ & _________.

  • 77. 
    Pain that feels like it is coming from a part other than the part actually stimulated is called ______ _______.

  • 78. 
    The ______ ________ connects the middle ear and the pharynx.

  • 79. 
    The transparent, anterior portion of the eye's outer tunic is called the _______.

  • 80. 
    The adjustment of the thickness of the lens to make close vision possible is called _______.

  • 81. 
    The _________ ___________ is the region of the sharpest vision within the retina.

  • 82. 
    Steroid hormones
    • A. 

      Are soluble in lipids

    • B. 

      Combine with protein receptor mlecules

    • C. 

      Act by causing the synthesis of mRNA molecules

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 83. 
    Nonsteroid hormones act upon their target cells by causing
    • A. 

      Cyclic AMP to become ATP

    • B. 

      Cyclic AMP to be decomposed

    • C. 

      The activation of adenylate cyclase

    • D. 

      The inactivation of adenylate cyclase


  • 84. 
    Growth hormone
    • A. 

      Enhances the movement of amino acids into cells

    • B. 

      Increases the rate of protein synthesis

    • C. 

      Increases the rate of fat metabolism

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 85. 
    The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Concentration of blood calcium

    • C. 

      Thyroid gland

    • D. 

      Pituitary gland


  • 86. 
    Insulin causes
    • A. 

      A decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

    • B. 

      A decrease in the permeability of a cell membranes to glucose

    • C. 

      An increase in the production of glucose from glycogen

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 87. 
    Target cells for releasing hormones are in the
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Anterior pituitary

    • C. 

      Posterior pituitary

    • D. 

      Thyroid gland


  • 88. 
    Which of the following hormones requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus for its secretion
    • A. 

      Oxytocin

    • B. 

      Prolactin

    • C. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • D. 

      Calcitonin


  • 89. 
    The hormone that causes calcium to be deposited in bone is
    • A. 

      Calcitonin

    • B. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Thyroxine

    • D. 

      Insulin


  • 90. 
    Various anti-inflammatory drugs, like aspirin, that are used to treat symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis act by inhibiting the production of
    • A. 

      Synovial fluid

    • B. 

      Prostosglandins

    • C. 

      Articular cartilage

    • D. 

      Bone tissue


  • 91. 
    Where are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary made?
    • A. 

      Posterior pituitary

    • B. 

      Hypothalamus

    • C. 

      Thalamus

    • D. 

      Anterior pituitary


  • 92. 
    Triiodothronine is a hormone secreted by the
    • A. 

      Adrenal gland

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Parathyroid gland

    • D. 

      Thyroid gland


  • 93. 
    ADH and oxycytocin are secreted by
    • A. 

      Neuromuscular cells

    • B. 

      Neurons

    • C. 

      Neuroendocrine cells

    • D. 

      Neurosecretory cells


  • 94. 
    Releasing hormones are substances whose target cells are in the anterior pituitary gland
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 95. 
    Parathyroid hormone stimulates the activity of bone resorbing osteoblasts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 96. 
    Cells of the adrenal medulla are closely associated with preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 97. 
    A group of lipids called ________ have powerful, regulating effects on a variety of cells.

  • 98. 
    Releasing hormones are transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland by vessles called _____ _____ ______.

  • 99. 
    The central portion of the adrenal gland is the adrenal

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