Anatomy And Physiology Questions - The Urinary System

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 Anatomy And Physiology Questions - The Urinary System
Questions about the kideny and the associated organs. Related to the "Old Age 1" case unit that we have just covered.

  
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  • 1. 
    Which is not a major function of the kidney?
    • A. 

      Regulation of blood ionic composition

    • B. 

      Regulation of blood cell size

    • C. 

      Regulation of blood volume

    • D. 

      Reulation of blood pressure

    • E. 

      Regulation of blood pH


  • 2. 
    This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.
    • A. 

      Glycolysis

    • B. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • C. 

      Glucosamine

    • D. 

      Glucagon

    • E. 

      Glycine


  • 3. 
    Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Urea

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Insulin

    • D. 

      Cholesterol

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide


  • 4. 
    This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter.
    • A. 

      Adipose capsule

    • B. 

      Renal capsule

    • C. 

      Renal hilus

    • D. 

      Renal cortex

    • E. 

      Renal medulla


  • 5. 
    The protion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the
    • A. 

      Renal columns

    • B. 

      Renal medulla

    • C. 

      Renal pelvis

    • D. 

      Calyces

    • E. 

      Renal papilla


  • 6. 
    Which is the correct order of the blood flow?
    • A. 

      Renal artery - segmental artery - interlobular artery - peitubular capillaries - afferent arterioles

    • B. 

      Interlobular areteries - arcuate arteries - glomerular capillaries - arcuate veins

    • C. 

      Arcuate veins - arcuate arteries - glomerular capillaries - renal vein

    • D. 

      Interlobar veins - afferent arterioles - efferent arterioles - glomerular capillaries

    • E. 

      Renal vein - segmental arteries - interlobar arteries - efferent arterioles


  • 7. 
    Wihch is the correct order of the filtrate flow?
    • A. 

      Glomerular capsule - PCT - loop of Henle - DCT - collecting duct

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle - glomerular capsule - PCT - DCT - collecting duct

    • C. 

      Ascending limb of the loop - PCT - DCT - collecting duct

    • D. 

      Collecting duct - DCT - PCT - loop of Henle - glomerular capsule

    • E. 

      PCT - glomerular capsule - DCT - collecting duct - loop of Henle


  • 8. 
    Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
    • A. 

      Glomerular capsule

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle

    • C. 

      Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

    • D. 

      Collecting duct

    • E. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule


  • 9. 
    This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.
    • A. 

      Glomerular capsule

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle

    • C. 

      Ascending limb

    • D. 

      Collecting duct

    • E. 

      Renal corpuscle


  • 10. 
    This term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate.
    • A. 

      Reabsorption

    • B. 

      Filtration

    • C. 

      Secretion

    • D. 

      Excretion

    • E. 

      Absorption


  • 11. 
    This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.
    • A. 

      Reabsorption

    • B. 

      Filtration

    • C. 

      Secretion

    • D. 

      Excretion

    • E. 

      Absorption


  • 12. 
    This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibres and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix.
    • A. 

      Glomerular endothelial cells

    • B. 

      Basal lamina

    • C. 

      Pedicels

    • D. 

      Filtration slites

    • E. 

      Slit membrane


  • 13. 
    This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles.
    • A. 

      Glomerular filtration

    • B. 

      Tubuloglomerular feedback

    • C. 

      Myogenic mechanism

    • D. 

      Renal autoregulation

    • E. 

      Capsular hydrostatic pressure


  • 14. 
    This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid.
    • A. 

      Paracellular reabsorption

    • B. 

      Transcellular reabsorption

    • C. 

      Apical reapsorption

    • D. 

      Basolateral reabsorption

    • E. 

      Active transport


  • 15. 
    Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule
    • A. 

      It becomes less dense

    • B. 

      It has a higher K+ concentration

    • C. 

      It is called tubular fluid

    • D. 

      All the Na+ is removed

    • E. 

      It is headed to the ascending loop


  • 16. 
    The proximal convoluted tubules reabsrob what percentage of filtered water?
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      40%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      65%

    • E. 

      90%


  • 17. 
    Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?
    • A. 

      It increases the GFR

    • B. 

      It decreases the GFR

    • C. 

      It enhances reabsorption of certain ions

    • D. 

      It suppresses the release of aldosterone

    • E. 

      It stimulates the release of calcitriol


  • 18. 
    Urea recycling can cause a build up of urea in the
    • A. 

      Renal capsule

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle

    • C. 

      Ascending tubule

    • D. 

      Renal medulla

    • E. 

      Renal pelvis


  • 19. 
    Increased secretion of hydrogen ions would result in a ________________ of blood ________________.
    • A. 

      Constant, pH

    • B. 

      Decrease, volume

    • C. 

      Increase, sodium levels

    • D. 

      Decrease, pH

    • E. 

      Increase, pH


  • 20. 
    Increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a ____________ of blood _____________.
    • A. 

      Increase, potassium

    • B. 

      Decrease, volume

    • C. 

      Increase, calcium

    • D. 

      Decrease, pH

    • E. 

      Increase, sodium


  • 21. 
    The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to
    • A. 

      Urea

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Albumin

    • D. 

      Sodium

    • E. 

      Glucose


  • 22. 
    An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called
    • A. 

      Urinalysis

    • B. 

      Microscopy, culture, sensitivity

    • C. 

      Dipstick urine test

    • D. 

      Midstream urine sample

    • E. 

      Diuretic


  • 23. 
    In average, water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      70%

    • D. 

      80%

    • E. 

      95%


  • 24. 
    This is a test to measure kidney function.
    • A. 

      Plasma creatinine

    • B. 

      Renal study

    • C. 

      Kidney assay

    • D. 

      Renal clearance

    • E. 

      Hilus study


  • 25. 
    This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.
    • A. 

      Urethra

    • B. 

      Ureter

    • C. 

      Descending loop of Henle

    • D. 

      Renal hilus

    • E. 

      Renal hilum


  • 26. 
    This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibres.
    • A. 

      Mucosa

    • B. 

      Transitional epithelium

    • C. 

      Lamina propria

    • D. 

      Adventitia

    • E. 

      Lamina elastica


  • 27. 
    This lies in the anterior corner of the trigone of the bladder.
    • A. 

      Urethral sphincter

    • B. 

      Adventitia bundle

    • C. 

      Ureter

    • D. 

      Internal urethral orifice

    • E. 

      Ureteral opening


  • 28. 

    This is composed of dense irregular tissue that runs continuous with the ureter.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C


  • 29. 

    This layer's main funciton is to protect the kidney from trauma and hold it in place within the abdominal cavity.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C


  • 30. 

    This layer runs deep to the peritoneum on the anterior surface of the kidneys.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C


  • 31. 

    This can be divided into the corticla zone and the juxtamedullary zone.
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      G


  • 32. 

    Where is the parenchyma?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      M

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      F


  • 33. 

    Each kidney can have anywhere from 8 to 18 of these.
    • A. 

      I

    • B. 

      J

    • C. 

      K

    • D. 

      L

    • E. 

      H


  • 34. 

    This is where the hilum extends into the kidney.
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      K

    • E. 

      L


  • 35. 

    Urine formed by the nephrons first drains into these.
    • A. 

      H

    • B. 

      I

    • C. 

      J

    • D. 

      K

    • E. 

      L


  • 36. 

    What two structures comprise the renal corpuscle?
    • A. 

      A and B

    • B. 

      C and D

    • C. 

      E and F

    • D. 

      K and L

    • E. 

      N and O


  • 37. 

    Where is the distal convoluted tubule?
    • A. 

      D

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      J

    • D. 

      K

    • E. 

      L


  • 38. 

    Where is the arcuate vein?
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 39. 

    Where is the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      J

    • D. 

      K

    • E. 

      L


  • 40. 

    Where is the corticomedullary junction?
    • A. 

      G

    • B. 

      J

    • C. 

      M

    • D. 

      N

    • E. 

      O


  • 41. 

    Where is the papillary duct?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      H

    • D. 

      N

    • E. 

      O


  • 42. 

    What does line 'M' point to?
    • A. 

      DCT

    • B. 

      PCT

    • C. 

      Collecting duct

    • D. 

      Descending loop of Henle

    • E. 

      Ascending loop of Henle


  • 43. 

    What is line 'C' pointing to?
    • A. 

      Afferent arteriole

    • B. 

      Interlobular artery

    • C. 

      Efferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Arcuate artery

    • E. 

      Glomerulus


  • 44. 

    What is line 'A' pointing to?
    • A. 

      Fenestrations

    • B. 

      Pedicels

    • C. 

      Filtration slit

    • D. 

      Basal lamina

    • E. 

      Lumen of the glomerulus


  • 45. 

    What is line 'B' pointing to?
    • A. 

      Fenestrations

    • B. 

      Pedicels

    • C. 

      Filtration slit

    • D. 

      Basal lamina

    • E. 

      Lumen of the glomerulus


  • 46. 

    What is line 'C' pointing to?
    • A. 

      Fenestrations

    • B. 

      Pedicels

    • C. 

      Filtration slit

    • D. 

      Basal lamina

    • E. 

      Lumen of the glomerulus


  • 47. 

    What is line 'D' pointing to?
    • A. 

      Fenestrations

    • B. 

      Pedicels

    • C. 

      Filtration slit

    • D. 

      Basal lamina

    • E. 

      Lumen of the glomerulus


  • 48. 
    What pathological condition is NOT something that can be caused by renal failure?
    • A. 

      Vitamin D deficiency

    • B. 

      Anaemia

    • C. 

      Itchiness

    • D. 

      Ankle oedema

    • E. 

      Gynaecomastia


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