Anatomy And Physiology Questions - The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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 Anatomy And Physiology Questions - The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Questions about the heart. Related to the 'Maturity 1' case unit. One or two questions from the "Fetal" case unit as well.

  
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  • 1. 
    This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs.
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Parietal layer

    • C. 

      Pericardial tissue

    • D. 

      Mediastinum

    • E. 

      Fibrous cardium


  • 2. 
    This is the layer that protects the heart.
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Parietal layer

    • C. 

      Myocardial tissue

    • D. 

      Mediastinum

    • E. 

      Endocardium


  • 3. 
    To the which side of the body is the apex of heart pointed?
    • A. 

      At the midline

    • B. 

      To the left

    • C. 

      To the right

    • D. 

      Different for males and females

    • E. 

      Posteriorly


  • 4. 
    Which of the following consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue?
    • A. 

      Parietal layer of pericardium

    • B. 

      Serous pericardium

    • C. 

      Fibrous pericardium

    • D. 

      Epicardium

    • E. 

      Pericardial cavity


  • 5. 
    This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart.
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Endocardium layer

    • C. 

      Pericardium

    • D. 

      Pericardial (serous) fluid

    • E. 

      Pericardial cavity


  • 6. 
    This consists of mesothelium and connective tissue.
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Myocardium

    • C. 

      Endocardium

    • D. 

      Pericardial cavity

    • E. 

      Fibrous pericardium


  • 7. 
    This is used to increase the capacity of the atrium.
    • A. 

      Ventricle

    • B. 

      Coronary sulcus

    • C. 

      Fossa ovalis

    • D. 

      Interatrial septum

    • E. 

      Auricle


  • 8. 
    Which layer consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Pericardium

    • C. 

      Myocardium

    • D. 

      Endocardium

    • E. 

      Hypocardium


  • 9. 
    This marks the boundarybetween the ventricles.
    • A. 

      Coronary sulcus

    • B. 

      Anterior interventricular sulcus

    • C. 

      Posterior interventricular sulcus

    • D. 

      Coronary sulcus and posterior interventricular sulcus

    • E. 

      Anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus


  • 10. 
    These extend into the auricle.
    • A. 

      Pectinate muscles

    • B. 

      Interatrial septum

    • C. 

      Coronary sulcus

    • D. 

      Ventricle

    • E. 

      Chordae tendinae


  • 11. 
    Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
    • A. 

      Bicuspid valve

    • B. 

      Interventricular septum

    • C. 

      Tricuspid valve

    • D. 

      Mitral valve

    • E. 

      Ascending aorta


  • 12. 
    What types of tissue comprises the vavles of the heart?
    • A. 

      Dense regular connective tissue

    • B. 

      Dense irregular connective tissue

    • C. 

      Areolar connective tissue

    • D. 

      Hyaline cartilage

    • E. 

      Cardiac muscle tissue


  • 13. 
    From the left ventricle, where does blood pass?
    • A. 

      Right atrium

    • B. 

      Right ventricle

    • C. 

      Bicuspid valve

    • D. 

      Aortic semilunar valve

    • E. 

      Pulmonary trunk


  • 14. 
    In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
    • A. 

      Fossa ovalis

    • B. 

      Foramen ovale

    • C. 

      Trabeculae carnae

    • D. 

      Descending aorta

    • E. 

      Ductus arteriosus


  • 15. 
    As each ventricle contracts where does blood move?
    • A. 

      Into an artery

    • B. 

      Into the apex

    • C. 

      Into a vein

    • D. 

      Through an atrioventricular valve

    • E. 

      Through the apex


  • 16. 
    As each atrium contracts where does blood move?
    • A. 

      Into an auricle

    • B. 

      Into an artery

    • C. 

      Into a vein

    • D. 

      Through an atrioventricular valve

    • E. 

      Through a semilunar valve


  • 17. 
    Which of the below structures prevents blood from flowing back from the lungs?
    • A. 

      Tricuspid valve

    • B. 

      Bicuspid valve

    • C. 

      Pulmonary valve

    • D. 

      Aortic valve

    • E. 

      Pulmonary vein


  • 18. 
    In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed.
    • A. 

      Aortic insufficiency

    • B. 

      Rheumatic fever

    • C. 

      Mitral valve prolapse

    • D. 

      Aortic stenosis

    • E. 

      Aortic regurgitation


  • 19. 
    This heart structure carries deoxygenated blood.
    • A. 

      Left atrium and ventricle

    • B. 

      Left atrium

    • C. 

      Right atrium and ventricle

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

    • E. 

      Left atrium and right ventricle


  • 20. 
    This vessel distributes oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
    • A. 

      Coronary artery

    • B. 

      Coronary vein

    • C. 

      Right ventricle

    • D. 

      Left auricle

    • E. 

      Myocardial vein


  • 21. 
    Cardiac muscle fibres electrically connect to neighbouring fibres by
    • A. 

      Desmosomes

    • B. 

      Intermediate discs

    • C. 

      Gap junctions

    • D. 

      Contractile fibres

    • E. 

      Chordae tendinae


  • 22. 
    Which of the following contains the largest amount of mitochondria?
    • A. 

      Smooth muscle

    • B. 

      Skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      Cardiac muscle

    • D. 

      Hepatocytes

    • E. 

      Leukocytes


  • 23. 
    This is a network of specialised cardiac muscle fibres that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
    • A. 

      Pacemaker

    • B. 

      Sinoatrial node

    • C. 

      Purkinje fibres

    • D. 

      Conduction system

    • E. 

      Bundle of His


  • 24. 
    This is the correct sequence of structures that allows the normal sequence of excitation to progress through the heart.
    • A. 

      Bundle of His - Purkinje fibres - AV node

    • B. 

      SA node - Purkinje fibres - AV node - Bundle of His

    • C. 

      Purkinje fibres - AV node - SA node - Bundle of His

    • D. 

      SA node - AV node - Bundle of His - Purkinje fibres

    • E. 

      Bundle of His - SA node - AV node - Purkinje fibres


  • 25. 
    By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have _____________________ contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.
    • A. 

      A shorter

    • B. 

      A longer

    • C. 

      No difference in


  • 26. 
    This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      Cardiac input

    • C. 

      Stroke volume

    • D. 

      Heart rate

    • E. 

      Auscultation


  • 27. 
    This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises.
    • A. 

      Filling

    • B. 

      Systole

    • C. 

      Repolarization

    • D. 

      Diastole

    • E. 

      Fibrillation


  • 28. 
    Which of these periods represents greatest cardiac output?
    • A. 

      Atrial diastole

    • B. 

      Ventricular diastole

    • C. 

      Atrial systole

    • D. 

      Ventricular systole

    • E. 

      Septal systole


  • 29. 
    The second heart sound represents which of the below events?
    • A. 

      Valvular stenosis

    • B. 

      Semilunar valves opening

    • C. 

      Atrioventricular valves closing

    • D. 

      Semilunar valves closing

    • E. 

      Atrioventricular valves opening


  • 30. 
    This part of the heart can initiate a contraction and can set a constant heart rate of about 100 beats per minute.
    • A. 

      Cardiac accelerator nerves

    • B. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • C. 

      Cardiovascular centre

    • D. 

      Sinoatrial node

    • E. 

      Proprioceptors


  • 31. 
    Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.
    • A. 

      Cardiac accelerator nerve

    • B. 

      Hypoglossal nerve

    • C. 

      Medulla oblongata nerve

    • D. 

      Vagus nerve

    • E. 

      Phrenic nerve


  • 32. 
    Which of the below reduces heart rate?
    • A. 

      Increased noradrenaline hormone

    • B. 

      Increased thyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Increased potassium levels

    • D. 

      Increased calcium levels

    • E. 

      Increased sympathetic stimulation


  • 33. 
    This part of the brain regulates heart rate.
    • A. 

      Cardiac accelerator nerves

    • B. 

      Chemoreceptors

    • C. 

      Medulla oblongata

    • D. 

      Vagus nerve

    • E. 

      Proprioceptors


  • 34. 
    This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle.
    • A. 

      R wave

    • B. 

      T wave

    • C. 

      S wave

    • D. 

      P wave

    • E. 

      Q wave


  • 35. 
    Which of the below factors would increase stroke volume?
    • A. 

      Increased preload, increased afterload, increased contractility

    • B. 

      Decreased preload, decreased afterload, decreased contractility

    • C. 

      Increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility

    • D. 

      Decreased preload, increased afterload, increased contractility

    • E. 

      Increased preload, increased afterload, decreased contractility


  • 36. 
    This electrical event triggers contraction of the atria.
    • A. 

      R wave

    • B. 

      T wave

    • C. 

      S wave

    • D. 

      P wave

    • E. 

      Q wave


  • 37. 

    This portion of the heart wall is responsible for the pumping action.
    • A. 

      E

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 38. 

    This is comprised of a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      G


  • 39. 

    Which layer of the pericardium consists of dense irregular connective tissue?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 40. 

    In the diagram, where is the trabeculae carnae?
    • A. 

      D

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      F

    • D. 

      G

    • E. 

      H


  • 41. 

    In the diagram, where is the coronary sulcus?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      E

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 42. 

    In the diagram, where is the left auricle of left atrium?
    • A. 

      C

    • B. 

      F

    • C. 

      G

    • D. 

      H

    • E. 

      I


  • 43. 

    In the diagram, where is the ascending aorta?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      H


  • 44. 

    In the diagram, these contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.
    • A. 

      F and H

    • B. 

      A and B

    • C. 

      C and G

    • D. 

      E and I

    • E. 

      D and F


  • 45. 

    In the diagram, where does the blood pass from the right atrium into the right ventricle?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 46. 

    In the diagram, where is the semilunar valve?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      A

    • E. 

      A and C


  • 47. 

    In the diagram, where is the atrioventricular valve?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      A

    • D. 

      B and D

    • E. 

      B, D and A


  • 48. 

    In the diagram, this supplies the walls of the ventricles with oxygenated blood.
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      C

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      E

    • E. 

      F


  • 49. 

    In the diagram, all of the following carry oxygenated blood.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      F

    • D. 

      E

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 50. 

    In the diagram, where is hte marginal branch?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      E

    • E. 

      F


  • 51. 

    In the diagram, where is the posterior interventricular branch?
    • A. 

      B

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      E

    • D. 

      F

    • E. 

      C


  • 52. 

    What is happening at #2?
    • A. 

      Sodium channels close, calcium channels open, potassium channels open

    • B. 

      Sodium channels close, calcium channels open, potassium channels close

    • C. 

      Sodium channels open, calcium channels open, potassium channels open

    • D. 

      Sodium channels close, calcium channels close, potassium channels open

    • E. 

      Sodium channels open, calcium channels close, potassium channels close


  • 53. 

    Where in the figure does depolarization events occur?
    • A. 

      2 and 4

    • B. 

      1 and 3

    • C. 

      2, 4 and 6

    • D. 

      1, 3 and 5

    • E. 

      4 and 6


  • 54. 

    Which of above represents coarctation of the aorta?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 55. 

    Which of above represents an atrial septal defect?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 56. 

    Which of above represents the formation of the primitive heart tube?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


  • 57. 

    Which of the following represents formation of the endocardial tubes?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E


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