Chapter 38

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 Chapter 38
The Nervous System

  
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  • 1. 
    A neuron's nucleus is located in its _____.
    • A. 

      Cell body

    • B. 

      Axon

    • C. 

      Myelin sheath

    • D. 

      Dendrite

    • E. 

      Synaptic terminals


  • 2. 
    A nerve impulse moves toward a neuron's cell body along _____.
    • A. 

      Dendrites

    • B. 

      Synaptic terminals

    • C. 

      Oligodendrocytes

    • D. 

      Axons

    • E. 

      Nodes of Ranvier


  • 3. 
    A nerve impulse moves away from a neuron's cell body along _____.
    • A. 

      Dendrites

    • B. 

      Nissl bodies

    • C. 

      Synapses

    • D. 

      Axons

    • E. 

      Glia


  • 4. 
    An impulse relayed along a myelinated axon "jumps" from _____ to _____.
    • A. 

      Oligodendrocyte ... Schwann cell

    • B. 

      Node of Ranvier ... Schwann cell

    • C. 

      Node of Ranvier ... node of Ranvier

    • D. 

      Schwann cell ... Schwann cell

    • E. 

      Schwann cell ... node of Ranvier


  • 5. 
    Axons insulated by a(n) _____ are able to conduct impulses faster that those not so insulated.
    • A. 

      Node of Ranvier

    • B. 

      Synaptic terminal

    • C. 

      Myelin sheath

    • D. 

      Layer of asbestos

    • E. 

      Astrocytes


  • 6. 
    What type of cell makes up the myelin sheath of a motor neuron?
    • A. 

      Astrocytes

    • B. 

      Microglial cells

    • C. 

      Ranvier cells

    • D. 

      Ependymal cells

    • E. 

      Schwann cells


  • 7. 
    What part of a neuron relays signals from one neuron to another neuron or to an effector?
    • A. 

      Dendrite

    • B. 

      Axon hillock

    • C. 

      Synaptic terminal

    • D. 

      Axon

    • E. 

      Node of Ranvier


  • 8. 
    Which of these causes the release of neurotransmitter molecules?
    • A. 

      The receipt of a signal from the postsynaptic neuron

    • B. 

      The opening of voltage-regulated calcium channels and the diffusion of calcium ions out of the neuron

    • C. 

      An action potential reaching the end of the cell body

    • D. 

      An action potential reaching the end of the axon

    • E. 

      An action potential reaching the end of the dendrite


  • 9. 
    The space between an axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is called a(n) _____.
    • A. 

      Synaptic cleft

    • B. 

      Node of Ranvier

    • C. 

      Internodes

    • D. 

      Synapse

    • E. 

      Synaptic terminal


  • 10. 
    Neurons store neurotransmitter molecules in vesicles located within _____.
    • A. 

      The cell body

    • B. 

      Myelin

    • C. 

      The synaptic cleft

    • D. 

      Dendrites

    • E. 

      Synaptic terminals


  • 11. 
    A neuron has a resting potential of about _____ millivolts.
    • A. 

      +50

    • B. 

      +35

    • C. 

      –55

    • D. 

      –70

    • E. 

      –80


  • 12. 
    An action potential moves along a(n) _____.
    • A. 

      Myelin sheath

    • B. 

      Axon

    • C. 

      Dendrite

    • D. 

      Synapse

    • E. 

      Cell body


  • 13. 
    At rest, which of these plays a role in establishing the charge differential across a neuron's plasma membrane?
    • A. 

      The sodium-potassium pump moving sodium ions into the neuron and potassium ions out of the neuron

    • B. 

      The diffusion of sodium ions out of the neuron

    • C. 

      The diffusion of potassium ions into the neuron

    • D. 

      The sodium-potassium pump moving sodium ions out of the neuron and potassium ions into the neuron

    • E. 

      The diffusion of sodium ions into the neuron


  • 14. 
    The transmission of a nerve impulse first triggers the _____.
    • A. 

      Action of the sodium-potassium pump

    • B. 

      Opening of voltage-gated sodium channels and the diffusion of sodium ions into the neuron

    • C. 

      Opening of voltage-gated sodium channels and the diffusion of sodium ions out of the neuron

    • D. 

      Opening of voltage-gated potassium channels and the diffusion of potassium ions out of the neuron

    • E. 

      Opening of voltage-gated potassium channels and the diffusion of potassium ions into the neuron


  • 15. 
    A stimulus has opened the voltage-gated sodium channels in an area of a neuron's plasma membrane. As a result, _____ rushes into the neuron and diffuses to adjacent areas; this in turn results in the _____ in the adjacent areas.
    • A. 

      Potassium ... opening of voltage-gated potassium channels

    • B. 

      Sodium ... opening of voltage-gated potassium channels

    • C. 

      Sodium ... opening of voltage-gated sodium channels

    • D. 

      Sodium ... closing of voltage-gated sodium channels

    • E. 

      Potassium ... opening of voltage-gated sodium channels


  • 16. 

    • A. 1
    • A.
    • B. 2
    • B.
    • C. 3
    • C.
    • D. 4
    • D.
    • E. 5
    • E.
    • F. 6
    • F.
    • G. 7
    • G.
    • H. 8
    • H.
    • I. 9
    • I.
    • J. 10
    • J.
    • K. 11
    • K.

  • 17. 

    What type of nervous system is exhibited by the flatworm?
    • A. 

      No nervous system

    • B. 

      Diffuse nervous system

    • C. 

      Bilateral nervous system

    • D. 

      Peripheral nervous system

    • E. 

      Centralized nervous system


  • 18. 
    The stronger the stimulus, the more powerful the action potential. True or False?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 19. 
    Addictive drugs that make people feel good, such as cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine, affect the parts of the brain that use which neurotransmitter(s)?
    • A. 

      Serotonin and GABA

    • B. 

      Nitric oxide

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine

    • D. 

      GABA

    • E. 

      Serotonin and dopamine


  • 20. 
    If I step on a shard of glass while playing volleyball barefoot, which path will the reflex to pull my foot up follow?
    • A. 

      Motor nerve - sensory nerve - spinal cord - brain

    • B. 

      Sensory nerve - spinal cord - brain - spinal cord - motor nerve - effector

    • C. 

      Sensory nerve - motor nerve - spinal cord - brain

    • D. 

      Motor nerve - spinal cord - brain - spinal cord - sensory nerve - effector

    • E. 

      Sensory nerve - spinal cord - motor nerve - effector


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is part of the peripheral nervous system?
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Autonomic nervous system

    • C. 

      Thalamus

    • D. 

      Brain

    • E. 

      Spinal cord


  • 22. 
    The autonomic nervous system consists of two parts: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The sympathetic division is responsible for which type of response?
    • A. 

      Involuntary responses to extreme danger or stress

    • B. 

      "Rest and digest" responses

    • C. 

      Constriction of the air passages in the respiratory system

    • D. 

      Slowing of the heart rate


  • 23. 
    Most brain cells are
    • A. 

      Motor neurons.

    • B. 

      Sensory neurons.

    • C. 

      Interneurons.

    • D. 

      Saltatory neurons.

    • E. 

      Parasympathetic neurons.


  • 24. 
    Which of these parts of the brain controls breathing and heart rate?
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Cerebellum

    • C. 

      Medulla

    • D. 

      Cerebrum

    • E. 

      Thalamus


  • 25. 
    Memory, sensory processing, motor responses, creativity, and higher intellectual functions are carried out by the
    • A. 

      Cerebrum.

    • B. 

      Amygdala.

    • C. 

      Medulla.

    • D. 

      Cerebellum.

    • E. 

      Hypothalamus.


  • 26. 
    It is possible that brain damage from a stroke or other injury could leave a person with the ability to comprehend written language but not spoken language (assume the person's hearing is fine). Which statement best explains this?
    • A. 

      Different aspects of language comprehension are controlled by different parts of the brain.

    • B. 

      All aspects of language are processed by the same cell.

    • C. 

      All aspects of language are processed in the same part of the brain.

    • D. 

      Different aspects of language comprehension are controlled by different cells.


  • 27. 
    What is the primary function of a neuron?
    • A. 

      Neurons integrate electrical signals that it receives from the dendrites.

    • B. 

      Neurons receive, process, and transmit information.

    • C. 

      Neurons wrap themselves around axons to insulate them.

    • D. 

      Neurons provide nutrients, regulate composition of the extracellular fluid in the brain and spinal cord, and speed up the movement of electrical signals.


  • 28. 
    Which part of the neuron is responsible for responding to stimuli?
    • A. 

      Synapse

    • B. 

      Cell body

    • C. 

      Axon

    • D. 

      Dendrites


  • 29. 
    The site where a neuron communicates with another cell is called the _____.
    • A. 

      Synapse

    • B. 

      Cell body

    • C. 

      Axon

    • D. 

      Dendrites


  • 30. 
    What is the purpose of action potentials in nerve cells?
    • A. 

      Action potentials are responsible for synthesis of neurotransmitters.

    • B. 

      Action potentials initiate endocytosis of neurotransmitters.

    • C. 

      Action potentials allow synaptic terminals to release neurotransmitters that stimulate another nerve cell.

    • D. 

      Action potentials integrate signals and coordinate the neuron's metabolic activities.


  • 31. 
    What can you conclude from the fact that single axons may stretch from your spinal cord to your toes?
    • A. 

      Action potentials are generated in the synaptic terminal.

    • B. 

      The axon can conduct action potentials over long distances.

    • C. 

      Because of their length,neurons must be the most important cells in the body.

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitters are soluble molecules.


  • 32. 

    • A. 1
    • A.
    • B. 2
    • B.
    • C. 3
    • C.
    • D. 4
    • D.
    • E. 5
    • E.

  • 33. 
    When a neuron is at its resting potential
    • A. 

      Sodium-potassium pumps transport both sodium and potassium ions out of the cell.

    • B. 

      Gated sodium channels are open.

    • C. 

      Sodium-potassium pumps transport sodium ions into the cell.

    • D. 

      The inside of the cell is positively charged relative to the outside.

    • E. 

      There are more potassium ions inside the neuron than outside.


  • 34. 
    Which of the following events is the first to occur during an action potential?
    • A. 

      Potassium channels open.

    • B. 

      Sodium ions flow into the neuron, making the inside of the neuron positively charged relative to the outside.

    • C. 

      Sodium channels close.

    • D. 

      Sodium channels open.

    • E. 

      Potassium ions flow out of the neuron.


  • 35. 
    Sodium-potassium pumps
    • A. 

      Do not require energy from ATP.

    • B. 

      Are open all the time, allowing potassium ions to leave the cell.

    • C. 

      Move both sodium and potassium ions into the cell.

    • D. 

      Move only sodium ions into the cell.

    • E. 

      Restore the distribution of ions inside and outside a neuron's membrane following an action potential.


  • 36. 
    During an action potential
    • A. 

      Sodium ions move into the neuron, then potassium ions move in.

    • B. 

      Potassium channels open first, followed by sodium channels.

    • C. 

      The inside of the neuron becomes positively charged relative to the outside.

    • D. 

      Potassium ions move into the neuron.

    • E. 

      The inside of the neuron becomes negatively charged relative to the outside.


  • 37. 
    What causes an action potential to be conducted along a neuron's axon?
    • A. 

      The change in charge difference across the membrane spreads from open sodium channels, causing the sodium-potassium pumps to move ions across the neuron's membrane.

    • B. 

      The change in charge difference across the membrane spreads from open sodium channels, causing sodium channels farther along the axon to open.

    • C. 

      The change in charge difference across the membrane spreads from open potassium channels, causing sodium channels farther along the axon to open.

    • D. 

      The change in charge difference across the membrane spreads from open potassium channels, causing potassium channels farther along the axon to open.

    • E. 

      The axon returns to its resting potential.


  • 38. 
    The small space between the sending neuron and the receiving neuron is the
    • A. 

      Synaptic terminal.

    • B. 

      Calcium channel.

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitter.

    • D. 

      Synaptic cleft.

    • E. 

      Vesicle


  • 39. 
    A molecule that carries information across a synaptic cleft is a
    • A. 

      Sending neuron.

    • B. 

      Receiving neuron

    • C. 

      Synaptic cleft.

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitter.

    • E. 

      Synapse.


  • 40. 
    When calcium ions enter the synaptic terminal,
    • A. 

      The inside of the receiving neuron becomes more negative.

    • B. 

      They cause vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules to fuse to the plasma membrane of the sending neuron.

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitter molecules are quickly removed from the synaptic cleft.

    • D. 

      The inside of the receiving neuron becomes more positive.

    • E. 

      They cause an action potential in the sending neuron.


  • 41. 
    When neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron,
    • A. 

      The receiving neuron becomes more negative inside.

    • B. 

      Ion channels in the plasma membrane of the sending neuron open.

    • C. 

      The receiving neuron becomes more positive inside.

    • D. 

      Vesicles in the synaptic terminal fuse to the plasma membrane of the sending neuron.

    • E. 

      Ion channels in the plasma membrane of the receiving neuron open.


  • 42. 
    If a signal from a sending neuron makes the receiving neuron more negative inside,
    • A. 

      The receiving neuron is less likely to generate an action potential.

    • B. 

      The receiving neuron is more likely to generate an action potential.

    • C. 

      The receiving neuron immediately generates an action potential

    • D. 

      The sending neuron becomes more positive inside.

    • E. 

      The sending neuron becomes more negative inside.


  • 43. 
    Which of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      The receiving neuron has receptors that bind to the cell body of the sending cell

    • B. 

      The message is sent from the synaptic terminal of a neuron to the axon of a receiving cell.

    • C. 

      As action potentials are transmitted over distances within the cell, the voltage drops.

    • D. 

      A neuron transmits information from its dendrites to its synaptic terminals with an electrical signal.


  • 44. 
    What increases the speed of conduction of an action potential from the cell body to the dendrites of another cell?
    • A. 

      A fatty insulation called myelin covering the axon

    • B. 

      Making the axon thinner

    • C. 

      Stimulation of the neuron to become less negative

    • D. 

      Insulating the nodes formed along the axon with glial cells


  • 45. 
    What is the name of the neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle cells?
    • A. 

      Norepinephrine

    • B. 

      Acetylcholine

    • C. 

      Glycine

    • D. 

      Nitric oxide


  • 46. 
    How do our brains determine what stimulus is stimulating it, such as light, sound, or hunger?
    • A. 

      The stimuli are integrated.

    • B. 

      The brain measures the rate at which the neuron fires action potentials.

    • C. 

      The brain responds to ganglia.

    • D. 

      The brain determines which neurons are firing action potentials.


  • 47. 
    Which of the following are the four elements controlled by the nervous system of humans?
    • A. 

      Sensory neurons (for stimuli), interneurons (to receive signals for sensory neurons), motor neurons (to receive instructions from sensory neurons), effectors (tissue to perform the response)

    • B. 

      Sensory neurons (for stimuli), nerve net (to receive signals for sensory neurons), motor neurons (to receive instructions from sensory neurons), effectors (tissue to perform the response)

    • C. 

      Sensory neurons (for stimuli), ganglia (to receive signals for sensory neurons), motor neurons (to receive instructions from sensory neurons), effectors (tissue to perform the response)

    • D. 

      Sensory neurons (for stimuli), nerve cords (to receive signals for sensory neurons), motor neurons (to receive instructions from sensory neurons), effectors (tissue to perform the response)


  • 48. 
    What are the two parts of the nervous system of all mammals?
    • A. 

      Neurons outside of the central nervous system and the axons that connect them with the CNS

    • B. 

      Brain and spinal cord

    • C. 

      Somatic and autonomic nervous system

    • D. 

      Central and peripheral


  • 49. 
    Which of the following defines the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    • A. 

      The parasympathetic division carries signals to the CNS from sensory organs.

    • B. 

      The parasympathetic division conducts signals to and from the brain.

    • C. 

      The parasympathetic division dominates during times of "rest and digest."

    • D. 

      The parasympathetic division receives and processes sensory information.


  • 50. 
    Which part of the nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord with the digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, and circulatory systems?
    • A. 

      Nerves of the central nervous system

    • B. 

      Spinal cord

    • C. 

      Nerves of the peripheral nervous system

    • D. 

      Brain


  • 51. 
    What part of the nervous system is responding if you are experiencing nervousness just before taking an exam?
    • A. 

      The brain

    • B. 

      The spinal cord

    • C. 

      The sympathetic division

    • D. 

      The parasympathetic division


  • 52. 
    Which of the following is an accurate statement?
    • A. 

      The blood–brain barrier consists of the cell bodies of motor neurons that control voluntary muscles and the autonomic nervous system, plus interneurons that communicate with the brain and other parts of the spinal cord.

    • B. 

      The blood–brain barrier is a diverse group of structures, including the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, as well as nearby regions of the cerebral cortex, located in a ring between the thalamus and cerebral cortex.

    • C. 

      The blood–brain barrier selectively transports needed materials into the brain, while keeping many dangerous substances out.

    • D. 

      The blood–brain barrier contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons.


  • 53. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of the pain-withdrawal reflex?
    • A. 

      The signal is transmitted to a motor neuron and then to an interneuron

    • B. 

      The dorsal root stimulates the effector muscle.

    • C. 

      Action potentials in the axon of the motor neuron leave the spinal cord through a ventral root and travel in a spinal nerve to a skeletal muscle.

    • D. 

      The signal is transmitted by the interneuron to the spinal cord.


  • 54. 
    Why are reflexes usually involuntary and rapid?
    • A. 

      An action potential is generated, which causes you to quickly respond to the signal.

    • B. 

      Reflexes do not involve the integration of sensory input by the interneurons.

    • C. 

      Many reflexes are produced by the spinal cord and peripheral neurons, and do not use the brain.

    • D. 

      Reflexes occur without changing the resting potential of the neurons


  • 55. 
    Which of the following lists the three major parts of the brain?
    • A. 

      Hindbrain, middlebrain, forebrain

    • B. 

      Midbrain, forebrain, lastbrain

    • C. 

      Forebrain, midbrain, backbrain

    • D. 

      Hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain


  • 56. 
    Which part of the human brain is the largest in size?
    • A. 

      Basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Cerebellum

    • C. 

      Cerebrum

    • D. 

      Midbrain


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