Chapter 33

37 Questions  I  By RiseAsOne
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 Chapter 33
Respiration

  
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  • 1. 
    Voice sounds are produced by the _________.
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Diaphragm

    • C. 

      Bronchioles

    • D. 

      Larynx

    • E. 

      Lungs


  • 2. 
    The primary functions of the ______ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.
    • A. 

      Lungs

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Bronchus

    • D. 

      Nasal cavity

    • E. 

      Alveoli


  • 3. 
    During inhalation,
    • A. 

      The diaphragm relaxes

    • B. 

      The diaphragm and rib muscle contract

    • C. 

      The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases

    • D. 

      Air moves up the trachea

    • E. 

      Oxygen molecules move into the lungs, and carbon dioxide molecules move out of the lungs


  • 4. 
    From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Bronchi

    • C. 

      Nose

    • D. 

      Bronchioles

    • E. 

      Alveoli


  • 5. 
    Which statement is correct?
    • A. 

      Oxygen is released from the mitochondria as a product of cellular respiration.

    • B. 

      In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.

    • C. 

      As oxygen diffuses from the lungs into capillaries, blood becomes deoxygenated.

    • D. 

      Oxygen diffuses from large blood vessels into the body's cells.

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries.


  • 6. 
    After blood becomes oxygenated,
    • A. 

      It returns to the heart,and is then pumped to body cells.

    • B. 

      It returns to the heart,and is then pumped to the lungs.

    • C. 

      It does not return to the heart,but goes to the nose and mouth.

    • D. 

      It does not return to the heart,but goes directly to capillaries that supply the body's cells with oxygen.

    • E. 

      It does not return to the heart, but goes directly to the lungs.


  • 7. 
    Hemoglobin
    • A. 

      Has five subunits.

    • B. 

      Uses ATP to move oxygen from blood to body cells.

    • C. 

      Is found in blood plasma.

    • D. 

      Is the site of cellular respiration.

    • E. 

      Is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.


  • 8. 
    Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
    • A. 

      As bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)

    • B. 

      Combined with hemoglobin

    • C. 

      By the trachea

    • D. 

      As hydrogen ions (H+)

    • E. 

      Dissolved in blood plasma


  • 9. 
    By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.
    • A. 

      Acidic

    • B. 

      Basic

    • C. 

      Thick

    • D. 

      Low in oxygen concentration

    • E. 

      Red


  • 10. 
    In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.
    • A. 

      As bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)

    • B. 

      Combined with hemoglobin

    • C. 

      By the trachea

    • D. 

      Water (H2O)

    • E. 

      Dissolved in blood plasma


  • 11. 

    • A. 1
    • A.
    • B. 2
    • B.
    • C. 3
    • C.
    • D. 4
    • D.
    • E. 5
    • E.
    • F. 6
    • F.
    • G. 7
    • G.
    • H. 8
    • H.

  • 12. 
    Insect respiratory systems contain all of these structures EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Parabronchi

    • B. 

      Spiracles

    • C. 

      Tracheoles

    • D. 

      Tracheae


  • 13. 

    As shown in this figure, blood flows and water flow are
    • A. 

      In opposite directions (countercurrent).

    • B. 

      Not moving anywhere near the capillaries.

    • C. 

      In the same direction (concurrent).

    • D. 

      Perpendicular to the cross-section of the lamellae.


  • 14. 
    If a respiratory surface dries out, gas exchange will
    • A. 

      Not be affected

    • B. 

      Stop.

    • C. 

      Decrease for oxygen but increase for carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Decrease for carbon dioxide but increase for oxygen

    • E. 

      Increase


  • 15. 
    The movement of a large amount of air from the atmosphere to a respiratory surface is an example of
    • A. 

      Osmosis.

    • B. 

      Diffusion.

    • C. 

      Bulk flow.

    • D. 

      Active transport.

    • E. 

      Facilitated diffusion.


  • 16. 
    Birds are able to sustain long flights at high altitudes because they
    • A. 

      Have thicker blood than other animals, with many more red blood cells.

    • B. 

      Are able to lower their body temperature during flight.

    • C. 

      Use anaerobic metabolism during flight.

    • D. 

      Decrease their heart rate during flight.

    • E. 

      Can extract oxygen during both inhalation and exhalation.


  • 17. 
    During inhalation, the diaphragm
    • A. 

      Relaxes and is dome-shaped.

    • B. 

      Relaxes and moves downward.

    • C. 

      Contracts and is dome-shaped.

    • D. 

      Contracts and moves downward.


  • 18. 
    The respiratory center is located in the
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus.

    • B. 

      Spinal cord.

    • C. 

      Cortex.

    • D. 

      Medulla.

    • E. 

      Midbrain


  • 19. 
    The function of the epiglottis is to
    • A. 

      Assist the vocal cords.

    • B. 

      Cover fish gills.

    • C. 

      Produce the alveolar surfactant.

    • D. 

      Close insect trachea.

    • E. 

      Prevent food from entering the larynx.


  • 20. 
    Why do smokers cough?
    • A. 

      Smoking affects the respiratory center neurons in the medulla.

    • B. 

      Carbon monoxide in the smoke triggers the cough reflex.

    • C. 

      Smoking damages the cilia that normally remove mucus and debris from the respiratory tract.

    • D. 

      Nicotine irritates the lining of the lung.


  • 21. 
    Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it
    • A. 

      Prevents the SA node from functioning.

    • B. 

      Slows the cilia in the respiratory tract.

    • C. 

      Prevents hemoglobin from carrying oxygen.

    • D. 

      Is toxic to the brain.

    • E. 

      Causes breathing to stop.


  • 22. 
    For smokers who quit smoking, when does healing begin?
    • A. 

      After 5 years

    • B. 

      Immediately

    • C. 

      After a year

    • D. 

      After 6 months


  • 23. 
    What happens during countercurrent exchange?
    • A. 

      Steep concentration gradients are created.

    • B. 

      Plasma is removed from blood, leaving only the solid red blood cells.

    • C. 

      There is a transfer of heat or solute from fluids flowing in the same direction.

    • D. 

      Active transport moves solutes across a membrane via transport proteins.

    • E. 

      There is a transfer of heat or solute from fluids flowing in opposite directions.


  • 24. 
    What is the purpose of respiration?
    • A. 

      It causes the buildup of lactic acid.

    • B. 

      It increases the heart rate.

    • C. 

      It is to exchange gases with the environment, taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.

    • D. 

      It increases the flow of blood to individual cells.


  • 25. 
    Why are respiratory surfaces, such as living cell membranes, moist?
    • A. 

      Moisture prevents cell dehydration.

    • B. 

      Moisture increases the surface area for gas diffusion.

    • C. 

      Gases are dissolved in water, so to be able to diffuse into a living cell, the cell's membrane must be moist.

    • D. 

      Moisture seals the cell so that gases cannot escape.


  • 26. 
    What choice below is the reason that there are respiratory systems in animals?
    • A. 

      Respiratory systems provide transport of oxygen for direct diffusion into cells.

    • B. 

      Respiratory systems provide bulk storage for oxygen.

    • C. 

      Respiratory systems facilitate gas exchange by diffusion.

    • D. 

      Respiratory systems provide the sites for ATP synthesis.


  • 27. 
    What causes gases,such as oxygen and carbon dioxide,to be exchanged between the tissues and the circulatory system exclusive of the lungs?
    • A. 

      Diffusion along diffusion gradients

    • B. 

      Pressure differentials

    • C. 

      Bulk flow

    • D. 

      Active transport


  • 28. 
    Which of the following stages of gas exchange is the final stage?
    • A. 

      Gases are transported between the respiratory system and the tissues by bulk flow.

    • B. 

      Gases are exchanged between the tissues and the circulatory system by diffusion

    • C. 

      Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the respiratory surface by diffusion.

    • D. 

      Air or water moves past a respiratory surface by bulk flow.


  • 29. 
    What is the purpose of the epiglottis in the respiratory system of humans?
    • A. 

      When exhaling,air can be forced through the epiglottis to produce sounds.

    • B. 

      The epiglottis serves as the "conducting" portion of the respiratory system.

    • C. 

      The epiglottis monitors the exchange of gases with the blood.

    • D. 

      When swallowing,the epiglottis prevents food from entering the airway and damaging delicate respiratory surfaces.


  • 30. 
    How many bronchi does the human have?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      1

    • D. 

      2


  • 31. 
    In what part of the lung does gas exchange occur?
    • A. 

      Bronchi

    • B. 

      Bronchioles

    • C. 

      Alveoli

    • D. 

      Larynx


  • 32. 
    The epithelial cells of the alveolus and the endothelial cells that form the wall of each capillary are called the __________.
    • A. 

      Alveoli

    • B. 

      Respiratory membrane

    • C. 

      Tracheae

    • D. 

      Larynx


  • 33. 
    Which of the following describes the conditions for gas exchange in body cells outside the lungs?
    • A. 

      In body cells,carbon dioxide concentration is high and oxygen concentration is low.

    • B. 

      In the lungs,oxygen concentration is high and carbon dioxide concentration is low.

    • C. 

      Body cells must be able to uptake oxygen by osmosis.

    • D. 

      Erythrocytes carrying oxygen must have a nucleus for exchange to occur.


  • 34. 
    Carbon dioxide leaves the red blood cell in the lung and diffuses to the __________.
    • A. 

      Hemoglobin

    • B. 

      Alveolus

    • C. 

      White blood cell

    • D. 

      Pharynx


  • 35. 
    What is the greatest cause of emphysema,a disease of the lungs that results in oxygen depletion throughout the body?
    • A. 

      Drinking too many carbonated beverages

    • B. 

      Too much exercise

    • C. 

      Smoking

    • D. 

      Working in a dusty environment

    • E. 

      Alcohol abuse


  • 36. 
    What is the purpose of the diaphragm,a large sheet of muscle that forms the lower boundary of the chest cavity?
    • A. 

      It facilitates inhalation and exhalation.

    • B. 

      It controls oxygenation of the blood.

    • C. 

      Along with the ribs it protects the heart and lungs.

    • D. 

      As it contracts,it assists the heart in moving blood to the lungs.


  • 37. 
    Breathing impulses originate in the respiratory center,which is located in the __________.
    • A. 

      Cells

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Spinal cord

    • D. 

      Lungs


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