1920-1960

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1920-1960
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  • 1. 
    All of the following were notable trends and movements of the 1920s except
    • A. 

      Increase in union membership

    • B. 

      Increase in productivity

    • C. 

      Urbanization

    • D. 

      Consumerism

    • E. 

      Business prosperity


  • 2. 
    Which of the following was the LEAST important consideration in US foreign policy during the 1920s?
    • A. 

      Repayment of debts by European nations

    • B. 

      Negotiating disarmament treaties

    • C. 

      Developing strong alliances

    • D. 

      Promoting worldwide peace efforts

    • E. 

      Promoting US business interests


  • 3. 
    During the 1920s, the group who generally did not prosper were
    • A. 

      Owners of small businesses

    • B. 

      Farmers

    • C. 

      Wall Street brokers

    • D. 

      Professionals

    • E. 

      Residents of western cities


  • 4. 
    Which of the following was the focus of a dispute between modernists and traditionists in the 1920s?
    • A. 

      Ford assembly lines

    • B. 

      Washington Conference

    • C. 

      Scopes trial

    • D. 

      Teapot Dome Scandal

    • E. 

      Welfare capitalism


  • 5. 
    Which of the following had contrasting points of view on events and issues of the 1920s?
    • A. 

      Calvin Coolidge—Herbert Hoover

    • B. 

      Charles Lindbergh—Henry Ford

    • C. 

      William Jennings Bryan—Clarence Darrow

    • D. 

      Billy Sunday—Aimee Semple McPherson

    • E. 

      Sinclair Lewis—F. Scott Fitzgerald


  • 6. 
    Which source would be most important to a historian investigating the effects of the protective tariff from 1922-1930?
    • A. 

      Memoirs of Henry Ford

    • B. 

      Commerce Department statistics on imports and exports

    • C. 

      Editorial pages of major city newspapers

    • D. 

      Election data from the various states

    • E. 

      Encyclopedia articles on modern commerce


  • 7. 
    Prohibition led to all of the following except
    • A. 

      Defiance of the law by large numbers of people

    • B. 

      Rise of organized crime

    • C. 

      Divisions in the Democratic party

    • D. 

      Widespread smuggling

    • E. 

      Greater tolerance among temperance reformers


  • 8. 
    “We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land.” This statement by the presidential candidate Herbert Hoover in 1928 could best be supported by
    • A. 

      The speeches of Al Smith

    • B. 

      Statistics on the US automobile industry

    • C. 

      The novels of Sinclair Lewis

    • D. 

      Graphs on farm income

    • E. 

      Editorials on Sacco and Vanzetti


  • 9. 
    “Isolationism characterized US foreign policy in the 1920s.” Which of the following might be used to refute the above claim?
    • A. 

      Harding’s championing of the League of Nations

    • B. 

      Landslide victory of Herbert Hoover in 1928

    • C. 

      US leadership in calling the Washington Conference

    • D. 

      US military and naval buildup

    • E. 

      Increased US military intervention in Latin America


  • 10. 
    In combating the depression, President Herbert Hoover favored all of the following except
    • A. 

      Federal relief programs for the unemployed

    • B. 

      State and local relief programs

    • C. 

      Businesses maintaining wages and employment

    • D. 

      Private volunteer efforts

    • E. 

      Emergency financing for banks and railroads


  • 11. 
    “The New Deal brought sweeping changes in American politics and society.” Each of the following actions supports this statement except
    • A. 

      Roosevelt’s use of federal deficit spending

    • B. 

      A majority of African Americans voting for Democratic candidates

    • C. 

      Passage of the Social Security Act

    • D. 

      Increased spending by consumers

    • E. 

      Increased power of labor unions


  • 12. 
    The New Deal legislation that has had the widest impact over the past 60 years is the
    • A. 

      Wagner Act

    • B. 

      National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA)

    • C. 

      Banking Act (FDIC)

    • D. 

      National Housing Act (FHA)

    • E. 

      Social Security Act


  • 13. 
    “Economic indicators during Hoover’s presidency reached new lows.” Which of these indicators went up instead of down?
    • A. 

      Farm prices

    • B. 

      Unemployment

    • C. 

      National income

    • D. 

      GNP

    • E. 

      Earnings


  • 14. 
    Of the following, the greatest threat to Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal was
    • A. 

      Huey Long

    • B. 

      A. Philip Randolph

    • C. 

      Father Coughlin

    • D. 

      Mary McLeod Bethune

    • E. 

      Herbert Hoover


  • 15. 
    Which of the following pairs of people is closely identified with the bonus march?
    • A. 

      Herbert Hoover and Douglas MacArthur

    • B. 

      Franklin Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt

    • C. 

      Harry Hopkins and Frances Perkins

    • D. 

      John L. Lewis and John Maynard Keynes

    • E. 

      Alf Landon and Al Smith


  • 16. 
    All of the following were passed or created by Congress during the second New Deal except
    • A. 

      The Social Security Act

    • B. 

      The Wagner Act

    • C. 

      The Works Progress Administration

    • D. 

      The Resettlement Administration

    • E. 

      The National Recovery Administration


  • 17. 
    All of the following played a role in causing the Great Depression except
    • A. 

      Uneven distribution of wealth

    • B. 

      Weak farm economy

    • C. 

      Overproduction of consumer goods

    • D. 

      Low tariffs

    • E. 

      Practice of buying stocks with borrowed money


  • 18. 
    The New Deal implemented theories of John Maynard Keynes that stressed the importance of
    • A. 

      A balanced federal budget

    • B. 

      Deficit spending for “pump priming"

    • C. 

      A laissez-faire policy toward business

    • D. 

      “trickle-down” economic theory

    • E. 

      High-tariff protectionism


  • 19. 
    In response to conservative rulings of the Supreme Court, President Roosevelt took action that resulted in
    • A. 

      His first major legislative defeat

    • B. 

      Passage of a law reorganizing the judicial branch

    • C. 

      His reelection in 1936

    • D. 

      New Deal laws being declared unconstitutional

    • E. 

      Enactment of legislation known as the third New Deal


  • 20. 
    Which of the following phrases accurately describes Roosevelt’s good-neighbor policy?
    • A. 

      Search for improved relations with Canada

    • B. 

      Abandonment of the Open Door policy in China

    • C. 

      US pledge not to intervene in Latin America

    • D. 

      Diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union

    • E. 

      Commitment to the democracies of Europe


  • 21. 
    “It was like lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house was burning.” This statement by President Roosevelt is consistent with all of the following US policies except
    • A. 

      The Neutrality Acts

    • B. 

      The destroyers-for-bases deal

    • C. 

      The Lend-Lease Act

    • D. 

      The Atlantic Charter

    • E. 

      “sink-on-sight”


  • 22. 
    Which of the following was an expression of isolationism in the 1930s?
    • A. 

      Roosevelt’s “quarantine” speech

    • B. 

      The good-neighbor policy

    • C. 

      The Nye Committee

    • D. 

      Recognition of the Soviet Union

    • E. 

      “cash and carry“ policy


  • 23. 
    In the 1930s, the foreign policies of Japan and the United States were chiefly in conflict over
    • A. 

      US control of the Philippines

    • B. 

      Japanese invasion of China

    • C. 

      US isolationism

    • D. 

      Ideological differences

    • E. 

      Internment of Japanese Americans


  • 24. 
    On the home front, US involvement in World War II brought about
    • A. 

      Increased labor violence

    • B. 

      Increased spending on consumer goods

    • C. 

      Increased employment of women

    • D. 

      Strict limits on corporate profits

    • E. 

      An end to deficit spending by the federal government


  • 25. 
    In Korematsu v. US the Supreme Court upheld the government’s practice of
    • A. 

      Placing quotas on Japanese immigration

    • B. 

      Embargoing trade with Japan

    • C. 

      Providing financial compensation for victims of discrimination

    • D. 

      Placing Japanese Americans in internment camps

    • E. 

      Drafting men into the armed services in peacetime


  • 26. 
    Consequences of Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan included all of the following except
    • A. 

      The surrender of Japan

    • B. 

      The end of World War II

    • C. 

      Full-scale invasion of Japan by US troops

    • D. 

      Destruction of two Japanese cities

    • E. 

      The deaths of thousands of civilians


  • 27. 
    At which of the following conferences did Stalin agree to hold free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe?
    • A. 

      London

    • B. 

      Casablanca

    • C. 

      Teheran

    • D. 

      Yalta

    • E. 

      San Francisco


  • 28. 
    Which is an accurate characterization of how US foreign policy changed from 1938 to early 1941?
    • A. 

      From neutrality to support for Britain

    • B. 

      From isolationism to neutrality

    • C. 

      From intervention in Latin America to the good-neighbor policy

    • D. 

      From hostility to Japan to diplomatic efforts to appease Japan

    • E. 

      From pro-German policies to anti-Japanese policies


  • 29. 
    From 1942 to 1945, the United States was allied with
    • A. 

      Great Britain only

    • B. 

      Great Britain and the Soviet Union

    • C. 

      France, Spain, and the Soviet Union

    • D. 

      Italy and Great Britain

    • E. 

      No other nation


  • 30. 
    US economic expansion after World War II was encouraged by all of the following except
    • A. 

      Office of Price Administration

    • B. 

      Veterans’ loans

    • C. 

      Increased savings from the war years

    • D. 

      High demand for consumer goods

    • E. 

      Increase in per capita income


  • 31. 
    President Truman’s domestic policies included support for all of the following except
    • A. 

      A full-employment bill

    • B. 

      Increase in the minimum wage

    • C. 

      National health care insurance

    • D. 

      Desegregating the armed forces

    • E. 

      The Taft-Hartley Act


  • 32. 
    Which of the following was not a major issue between the Soviet Union and the United States in the postwar years 1945-1950?
    • A. 

      Establishment of Communist governments in Eastern Europe

    • B. 

      Occupation zones in Japan

    • C. 

      Access to Berlin

    • D. 

      Marshall Plan aid

    • E. 

      Development and control of atomic weapons


  • 33. 
    “In these circumstances, it is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient, but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies. It is important to note, however, that such a policy has nothing to do with outward histrionics, with threats or blustering or superfluous gestures of outward ‘toughness.’ ” This statement is taken from
    • A. 

      President Roosevelt’s speech at the Yalta conference

    • B. 

      Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech

    • C. 

      George Marshall’s introduction to his Marshall Plan

    • D. 

      George Kennan’s article, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct”

    • E. 

      General MacArthur’s letter to Congressman Joseph Martin


  • 34. 
    The primary purpose of the Marshall Plan was to
    • A. 

      End the rift between the United States and the Soviet Union

    • B. 

      Establish a uniform world currency

    • C. 

      Aid the economic recovery of war-devastated Europe

    • D. 

      Set up a military alliance of anticommunist nations

    • E. 

      Hinder the economic recovery of nations under Soviet control


  • 35. 
    Which US action is not correctly paired with an event in international politics?
    • A. 

      Airlift-Soviet blockade of Berlin

    • B. 

      Troops sent to Korea-Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech

    • C. 

      Truman Doctrine-civil war in Greece

    • D. 

      Marshall Plan-growing popularity of communism in Western Europe

    • E. 

      Development of hydrogen bomb- A-bomb tested in Soviet Union


  • 36. 
    Which of the following was not an issue during the Korean War?
    • A. 

      Whether to expand the war by attacking China

    • B. 

      Whether North Korea had committed aggression

    • C. 

      Whether Congress should have declared war

    • D. 

      The removal of General Douglas MacArthur

    • E. 

      The policies of containment and “limited war”


  • 37. 
    Which of the following contributed the least to the growth of the Red Scare in the 1950s?
    • A. 

      Loss of atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets

    • B. 

      Army-McCarthy hearings

    • C. 

      Alger Hiss case

    • D. 

      Fall of China to the Communists

    • E. 

      Investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee


  • 38. 
    Which of the following best describes Truman’s foreign policy from 1945 to 1952?
    • A. 

      Reluctance to involve the United States in foreign conflicts

    • B. 

      Willingness to negotiate differences with the Soviet Union

    • C. 

      Aggressive use of US troops in Europe and Asia

    • D. 

      Commitment to containing Communist expansion

    • E. 

      Extending foreign aid only with UN approval


  • 39. 
    The principal reason for the defeat of most Fair Deal programs was
    • A. 

      Opposition by Republicans in Congress

    • B. 

      Outbreak of the Second Red Scare

    • C. 

      McCarthy’s accusations

    • D. 

      Truman’s lack of experience in domestic policy

    • E. 

      Dewey’s speeches in the election of 1948


  • 40. 
    President Eisenhower’s “modern Republicanism” can best be described as
    • A. 

      A return to the economic policies of Coolidge and Hoover

    • B. 

      A general acceptance of the New Deal programs and a balanced budget

    • C. 

      An effort to shift taxes from the wealthy to lower income Americans

    • D. 

      Opposition to all liberal causes, including civil rights

    • E. 

      The return of social and welfare programs to the states


  • 41. 
    John Foster Dulles’ “new look” to US foreign policy included all of the following except
    • A. 

      Taking Communist nations to the brink of war to force them to back down

    • B. 

      Threatening massive retaliation with nuclear weapons to prevent Soviet aggression

    • C. 

      Supporting the liberation of “captive” nations

    • D. 

      Recognizing the Communist government of China

    • E. 

      Reducing conventional forces of the US Army and Navy


  • 42. 
    US intervention in Iran in 1953 and in Guatemala in 1954 are examples of
    • A. 

      The use of covert action by the CIA

    • B. 

      The application of the Eisenhower Doctrine

    • C. 

      US efforts to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    • D. 

      The use of US troops to support democratic governments

    • E. 

      The policy of brinkmanship


  • 43. 
    “We declare that however acute the ideological differences between the two systems—the socialist and the capitalist—we must solve questions in dispute among states not by war, but by peaceful negotiation.” This statement by Nikita Khrushchev in 1957 expressed the idea of
    • A. 

      Massive retaliation

    • B. 

      De-Stalinization

    • C. 

      Inevitability of the triumph of communism

    • D. 

      Peaceful coexistence

    • E. 

      Cultural revolution


  • 44. 
    Which of the following represented a major crisis during Eisenhower’s presidency?
    • A. 

      Cuban missile crisis

    • B. 

      Invasion of South Korea

    • C. 

      Spirit of Camp David

    • D. 

      British, French, and Israeli invasion of Egypt

    • E. 

      Blockade of Berlin


  • 45. 
    In the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court ruled that
    • A. 

      Segregated facilities must be equal

    • B. 

      African Americans and whites must have equal access to public transportation

    • C. 

      Racially segregated schools are inherently unequal and unconstitutional

    • D. 

      Nonviolent protests are protected by the First Amendment

    • E. 

      Voting rights must apply equally to whites and African Americans


  • 46. 
    The Montgomery bus boycott and Greensboro lunch counter sit-ins are examples of
    • A. 

      Enforcement by the Justice Department of the Brown decision

    • B. 

      President Eisenhower’s use of federal troops to end segregation

    • C. 

      Court-initiated efforts to end racial discrimination

    • D. 

      Failures of nonviolent direct action by the NAACP

    • E. 

      Protests against segregation coming from the African American community


  • 47. 
    During the 1950s, all of the following contributed to a more homogeneous culture except
    • A. 

      Building of the interstate highway system

    • B. 

      The Beat generation

    • C. 

      Television programming

    • D. 

      Spread of franchise operations

    • E. 

      Growth of the suburbs


  • 48. 
    The United States during the Eisenhower years was characterized by
    • A. 

      Decreased spending for defense

    • B. 

      Breakup of conglomerates

    • C. 

      Increased tension between Protestants, Catholics, and Jews

    • D. 

      Increased middle-class affluence

    • E. 

      Radical protests on college campuses


  • 49. 
    All of the following represented a criticism of the society and conformity of the 1950s except
    • A. 

      David Reisman’s "The Lonely Crowd"

    • B. 

      William Whyte’s "The Organization Man"

    • C. 

      John Kenneth Galbraith’s "The Affluent Society"

    • D. 

      David Halberstam’s "The Best and the Brightest"

    • E. 

      C. Wright Mills’ "The Power Elite"


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