1. Collecting data (questionaires, recording numbers, surveys)

2. Describe Date (average - arithmetic mean, graphs, tables, measures of central tendency)

3. Analyze Data - what we will be doing in statistics

4. Interpret Date - How can you use this analyzed data, descisions made from it

Population

set of all individuals of interest in a particular study.

scientific research begins with a general question about a specific group of individuals.

Sample

Set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study.

Valiable

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals.

Ex: height, gender, personality

Data (plural)

are mesurements or observations

Data Set

A collection of measurements or observations

Datum (singular)

is a single measurement or observation

Commonly called: Score or raw score

What is Datum usually called?

Score or raw score

(refer to a population or samples of scores)

Parameter

is a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. A parameter may be obtained from a single measurement or it may be derived from a set of measurements from the population.

it is a known value. measure of CENTRAL TENDENCY (average) SPREAD of the data for population. BUT not exact - don't have HOLE population

How are Parameters obtained?

A parameter may be obtained from a single measurement or it may be derived from a set of measurements from the population.

StatistiC

a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample. A statistic may be obtained from a single measurement, or it may be derived from a set of measurments from the sample.

How is a Statistic obtained?

A statistic may be obtained from a single measurement, or it may be derived from a set of measurments from the sample.

Every population parameter has a corresponding______ ______.

Sample Statistic

Much of the book is concerned with...?

the relationship between sample statistics and the corresponding population parameters.

Descriptive Statistics

statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data.

The first 2 steps of statistics - 1. Collecting Date, 2. Describe Data - organize/ summerize

Inferential Statistics

constist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected

The 2 LAST steps of statistics definition. 3. Analyze data, 4. Interpret data

What are the problems with using sampling?

samples provides only limited information about the population. Although samples are generally representative of thier populations, a sample is not expected to give a perfectly accurate picture of the whole population.

Sampling Error

is the discrepancy, or amount of error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter.

What is the purpose of ingerential statistics?

to answer the question.

A characteristic that describes a population, such as the population average, is called a __________

Parameter

Relationship between a population ans a _____

parameter

relationship between a sample and a ______

Statistic

Statistical techniques are classifies into 2 general categories. What are they, what are there purpose?

Descriptive statistics - intended to organize, simplify and summarize data

Inferential techiques- use sample data to reach general conclusions about populations

correlational method

two variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them

Manipulation

the researcher manipulates one varible by changing its value from one level to another. a second variable is observed (measured) to determine whether the manipulation causes changes to occur.

Control

researcher must exercise some control over the research situation to ensure that other, extraneous variables do not influence the relationship being examined

Researchers must consider 2 general categories of variables, what are they?

Participant variables - age, gender, intelleigence ex must be the same, can not differ from one group to the other.

Environment variables - lighting, time of day, weather conditions. cannot differ from one group to the other.

3 basic techniques to control other variables.

1. Random assignment - each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions.

2. matching - to ensure equivvalet groups or equivalent environments

3. holding them constant - ex. experiement only uses 10 year old boys (holding age constant)

Independent variable

variable that is manipulated by the researcher.

Dependent variable

variable that is observed in oreder to assess the effect of the treatment.

Control condition

individuals in a control condition do not recieve the experimental treatment. they either receive no treatment or reviece a placebo.

Experimental condition

individuals in the experiemental condition do receive the experimental treatment

Quasi-independent variable

a nonexperimental study, in 'independent variable' that is used to create the different groups of scores

What 2 elements are necessary for a research study to be an expereiment?

1. the researcher must manipulate one of the two variables being studied

2. all other variables that might influence the results must be controlled

Constructs

internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are sueful for describing and explaining behaviour

Operational definition

identifies a measurement procedure for measuring an external behavior and suses the resulting measurements as a definition has 2 components, 1. it describes a set of operations for measuring a construct. 2. defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurements

Nominal Scale

NAME: consists of a set of categories that have different manes. measurments on a nominal scale label and categorize observations ut do not make any quantitative distinctions between observations. ex. You vote for, NDP, Conservatives, Liberal = NO NUMBERS

EX. Rate someone1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = if 4, this means he's a little bit perfect if 5 is perfect, BUT 4 is not a number, it is a NAME: 'little bit perfect'

Ordinal Scale

ORDER: consists of a set of categories that are organize in an ordered sequence. Measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size or magnitude

ex. Horse race, 1st, 2nd, 3rd place. you know who is ahead of who BUT Don't No by how much

Interval scale

consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. equal differences between numbers on an interval scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the cariable being measured.

ex. 20, 10, 0 degrees. No the distance between. 10 degrees is 10 degrees hoter than 0 degrees. BUT cannot no that 20 degrees is twice as hot as something. Zero point is arbitrary

Ratio scale

WEIGHT: an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point. with a ratio scale, ratios of numbers do reflect ratios of magnitude

EX. 200lb, 100lb, 0 lb. Know the distance between. Can say 200 lb man is twice as heavy as a 100 lb man because you know that 0 is the absence of weight (an absolute).

The local fast food offer small, medium and large drinks...what kind of scale is used to measure the size of the drinks?

Ordinal

_______measures the aptitude on the SAT scale...

Interval

emotional expression is measured on a ___scale.

Nominal

Researcher studies the fators that determine how many children couples decide to have. the variable, number of children is a ____variable

Discrete

discrete variable

WHOLE NUMBERS or whole responses. consists of separate indivisible categories. no values can exist between two neighbouring categories.

EX. Male or Female. Right or Left. 4 Dogs NOT 1.35 dogs. There is NOTHING inbetween these WHOLE numbers. ex. 5'2" tall NOT 5.1876899' tall

# of children in a family or # of students in a class

continuous variable

there are an infinite number of possible values that fall between any 2 observed values. it is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts

Ex. NOT 5'2" tall...5.80899 feet tall. Get VERY accurate. INFINATE - continued forever = no "true" height because it will keep changing and can keep measuring it to a more procise measure.

Real Limits

the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represeented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating two adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the scores. Each scare has two real limitis.

Upper Real Limit

is at the top of the interval.

Lower Real Limit

is at the bottom of the interval.

The concept of real limits aplies to any measurement of a ______ _______, even when the score categories are not ____________ _____.

Continuous variables, whole numbers.

What does X represent

X is the scores for a particular variable - represented by the letter X

N is...

number of scores in a population

n is...

number of scores in a sample

sideways M is...

SUMMATION, add scores, it is the sum of a set of scores

Sidways MX is....

"the sum of scores" Add all scores for variable X

EX. a set of quix scores - add them all up

Mathamatival Operations- what is the order?

1) Any calculation contained within parenthese

2) Squaring (or raising to other exponents)

3) Multiplying/dividing - a series of multiplying and dividing should be done from right to left