Sociology exam#2 preparatio Flashcards Table View

     

As a part of human culture, religion would be an example of: Subculture
What is the term for beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a peoples' way of life? Culture
What is the gist of the Sapir-Whorf thesis? People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, and beautiful are called: Values
High Income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize what? Self Expression and Individualism
Industrializations brings what changes to societies? -Pushes aside traditional family values,-Makes the world seem smaller due to technological advancements like telephones and trains etc...,-Extends the human lifespan,-Weakens the human community,& causes jobs to become more specialized
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are called: Popular Culture (Pop Culture)
The perspective which recognizes the cultural diversity of the U.S., and promotes the self respect and equal standing of ALL cultural traditions is known as: Multiculturalism
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society are called: Counterculture
Cultural Integration alerts us to the fact that: Cultures change and adapt due to their shifting needs.
The practice of judging another culture on the standards of one's own is known as: Ethnocentrism
The process of judging any other culture using its own standards is called: Cultural Relativism
The theoretical approach that highlights the way any cultural pattern helps meet human needs is: The Sociobiological Approach.Darwins evolutional theories used to explain human sociological behavior.
The lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture is: Socialization
A person's fairly consistant pattern of behavior is called: Personality
Our basic drives, or needs, as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of: Id
In Freud's model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person's efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society? Superego
Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols: The Pre-Operational Stage
George Herbert Mead placed the Origin of the Self in: Socialization and role playing. (mostly the book says role playing but it hints at socialization as being a median result)
By "taking the role of the other" Mead had in mind: "Social interaction depends on understanding the intention of another, which requires taking on the role of another." pg 91
When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self", he was referring to what? He was referring to the way that people would form the view of themselves based on how they believed others perceived them.
Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization was: Individuals faced challenges at every stage of life, and depending on how they dealt with them would either react positively or negatively. He identified 8 stages.
Sociologists claim that the main reason that many young people in the U.S. experience adolescence as a time of confusion is: Teenagers are being pulled in two different directions; expected to be an adult and take responsibility for studies and perhaps to get a job like an adult on one hand, while being expected to follow rules and do chores like a child on the other.
The "graying of the United States" refers to the process by which: The average age of citizens in the U.S. is rising.
The effort to radically change someone's personality through careful control of their environment is: Resocialization
According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is: To radically change a person's personality or behavior.
Which concept defines who and what we are in relation to others? Social Interaction
At a given time, you occupy a number of statuses. Together, these form your: Status Set
Which concept refers to a social status received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life? Ascribed Status
Being an honer student is a good example of which type of status? Achieved Status
What are some likely examples of a Master Status? A persons race, profession, or disability.
Which concept do sociologists use to refer to the behavior that people expect of someone who holds a specific status? Role
Define Role Conflict The result of tension among roles linked to two or more statuses.
Define Role Strain The result of tension among roles linked to a single status.
The Thomas Theorem (a.k.a. "situational analyses" or "definition of the situation") states that: Situations defined as real are real in their consequences. (The book gives another definition; "The reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future")
Harold Garfinkel's research, called "ethnomethodology" involves: The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings. He would deliberately disrupt human norms to view the results and make assumptions.
According too Erving Goffman, our use of costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey information are all elements of a: Performance
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, helping another person to "save face" or avoid embarrassment, is called: Tact
Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the concept: Primary GroupExamples; family or very close friends.
A secondary group is a social group that: Is large, impersonal and goal-oriented, and often of shorter duration.Examples; college class or corporation.
Which type of group leader emphasizes collective well-being? Expressive
Which type of group leader supports collective decision making on an egalitarian basis? Democratic
Which type of leaders tend to downplay their position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on its own? Laissez-Faire
Solomon Ashe believed that; Many of us will compromise our beliefs, even in front of those we don't know, to avoid being different.
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a shock generator, showed that: People will follow the directions not only of legitimate authority figures, but of groups of ordinary individuals, even if it means harming someone.
The tendency for members of a group to conform, resulting in a narrow view on some issues is: Groupthink
Which type of formal organization do people typically join to make money? Utilitarian
The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves is: Bureaucratic Inertia
What are the principles of McDonaldization? Efficiency, uniformity, and control. Limiting human creativity, choice and freedom.
The term "McDonaldization of Society" refers to the fact that: Impersonal organizations concerned with efficiency, uniformity, and control are becoming more and more common.