Herpaticophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts) and Bryophyta (mosses)
Specialized groups of cells that conduct water from one part of the plant body to another.
Seedless Vascular Plants includes...
Include Lycophyta (lycophytes or club mosses), Psilotophyta (whisk ferns), Sphenophyta (horsetails), and Pteridophyta (ferns). They have vascular tissue but do not make seeds.
Seed plants include...
Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (ginkgo), Other conifers (redwoods, junipers, yews), Gnetophyta (gnetophytes), Pinophyta (pines, spruces, firs), Anthophyta (angiosperms or flowering plants). They have vascular tissue and make seeds.
An embryo and a store of nutritive tissue, surrounded by a tough protective layer.
Naked seeds or seeds that do not develop and enclosed structure (non-flowering seed plants)
Encased seeds (flowering plants)
Microscopic reproductive cells with sheetlike coating
Sheet of waxy coating making a watertight barrier
Encases spores and pollen from modern land plants and helps them resist drying
sister group to land plants (closest living relative to land plants)
Sequence of lineages that are not monophyletic
Opening surrounded by guard cells. When guard cells become soft, stomata closes. When guard cells are taut, stomata opens to allow CO2 to diffuse in, and O2 to diffuse out.
Complex polymer built from six-carbon rings allowing erect stems that are resilient and capable of water-conduction.
Long, thin, tapering cells that have (1) a thickened, lingin-containing secondary cell wall in addition to a cellulose-based primary cell wall; and (2) gaps in the secondary cell wall, in the sides and ends of the cell, where water can flow efficiently from one tracheid to the next.
Shorter and wider than tracheids. Ends have gaps through primary and secondary cell walls.