a perceptual filtering process based on interests, background, and attitude. May allow observers to draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.
What is the halo effect?
drawing a general impression based on a single characteristic.
What are contrast effects?
our reaction is influenced by others we have recently encountered (the context of the observation)
What is stereotyping?
judging someone on the basis of the perception of the group to which they belong.
T or F: Attributions of success for women usually attributed to external factors (luck, easy task) more so than men.
T or F: attributions of failure for women usually attributed to internal factors (ability, effort) more so than men.
If the attribution is external/unstable it is ________.
If the attributions are external/stable, then it is _____________________.
If the attributions are internal/unstable it is ____________.
If the attributions are internal/stable it is ____________/__________.
Decision making occurs as a ___________ to a perceived problem.
What are the three things that perception influences?
1. awareness that a problem exists.2. the interpretation and evaluation of information.3. bias of analysis and conclusions
Name the six steps in the rational decision-making model.
1. define the problem2. identify the decision criteria3. allocate weights to the criteria4. develop the alternatives5. evaluate the alternatives6. select the best alternative
What are the three assumptions of the rational model?
1. complete knowledge of the situation2. all relevant options are known in an unbiased manner3. the decision-maker seeks the highest utility
What is bounded rationality?
is constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
What does it mean to "satisfice?"
the limited information-processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize, so people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient, rather than optimal.
What are the three steps of decision making using bounded rationality?
1. limited search for criteria and alternatives - familiar criteria and easily found alternatives2. limited review of alternatives - focus alternatives, similar to those already in affect.3. satisficing - selecting the first alternative that is "good enough"
The taxicab problem was an example of what?
base rate fallacy
What is an overconfidence bias?
as managers and employees become more knowledgeable about an issue, the less likely they are to display overconfidence.
What is an anchoring bias?
A tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
What is a confirmation bias?
Seeking out information that reaffirms our past choices and discounting information that contradicts past judgements.
What is an availability bias?
the tendency to base judgements on information that is readily available.
What is an escalation of commitment?
staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong.
What is a hindsight bias?
the tendency to believe falsely that we could have accurately predicted the outcome of an event after that outcome is already known.
What are the three types of ethical frameworks for decision making?
1. Utilitarian2. Rights3. Justice
What is the utilitarian framework for decision making?
provide the greatest food for the greatest number
What is the Rights framework for decision making?
make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges.
What is the Justice framework for decision making?
Impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially so that there is equal distribution of benefits and costs.
What are the five steps to the ethical decision making model?
1. Recognize the ethical issue2. Get the Relevant Facts3. Evaluate the alternative actions from various ethical perspectives4. Make a decision and test it5. Act, then reflect on the decision later
Our perceptions create the ____________ reality that we react to - we need to become better ______________ scientists.
1. social2. intutive
What do we need to do with shortcuts that we use to judge others?
We need to ground and correct them.
T or F: decision making is always a rational process.
False - not always. For example: bounded rationality is great in principle, but not used as frequently as it should.
What type of decision making model should be used for a decision in the grey zone?
an ethical decision making model because it is a conscious and deliberate decision making process.
What is intuition?
the "gut feeling" explanation of behavior .
How do we develop our "intuitive theories" we hold?
T or F: Systematic study improves our ability to accurately predict behavior.
What does a systematic study do?
1. Examines Relationships2. Attempts to attribute causes and effects3. Bases conclusions on scientific evidence
What are the three base assumptions of systematic study?
1. assumes behavior is NOT random2. fundamental consistencies underlie behavior3. these can be identified and modified to reflect individual differences.
What is OB?
organizational behavior studies the influence that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations.
What is the chief goal of OB?
to apply that knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
Comparing current practice and evidence based management, what is the difference of how old theories are treated?
In common standards, old theories are treated like brand new theories while evidence based management treats old theories like old theories.
Comparing current practice and evidence based management, what is the difference in how breakthrough ideas are treated?
In current practice, breakthrough ideas are glorified and celebrated whereas evidence based management would be suspicious of breakthrough ideas and studies because they almost never happen.
Comparing current practice and evidence based management, what is the difference in the use of success and failure stories?
In current practice, success and failure stories about companies, teams and people are used to uncover the best and worse practices whereas with evidence based management, success and failure stories are used to illustrate practices supported by other evidence not necessarily valid evidence.
T or F: with evidence based management, you celebrate individuals like management gurus.
False - with current practice, the individual is celebrated, but with evidence based management, it is team work and collective communities that are celebrated.
What underlie behavior?
What is personality?
the sum total ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
How is personality usually described?
in terms of measureable traits that a person exhibits.
What type of personality tests are most common?
self report surveys, but they are prone to error.
T or F: observer-ratings surveys are less accurate than self report surveys.
False - they are more accurate because they are independent assessments.
What is the most dominant factor in personality determinants?
What are the three personality determinants?
1. heredity2. environmental factors3. aging
T or F: basic personality is constant.
true - aging cannot affect that.
What is a core self-evaluation?
determines self like/dislike
What is a Type A personality?
competitive, urgent, and driven
What is self monitoring?
Adjusts behavior to meet external, situational factors
What is a proactive personality?
identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action and perseveres
What are the five personality traits to the big five model?
1. extraversion2. agreeableness 3. conscientiousness4. emotional stability5. openness to experience
T or F: the big five model does not have a strongly supported relationship to job performance.
False - it does have a strong relationship (especially conscientiousness)
What personality trait is the strongest link to job performance from the big five model?
T or F: the MBTI predicts performance related outcomes.
FALSE!!! the MBTI DOES NOT!
T or F: the MBTI assesses psychological health.
T or F: the MBTI does not "tell" the client what to do or be.
Does the MBTI include scaling or value.
Are there any "bad" descriptions in the MBTI?
nope - descriptions feel reasonably accurate to those taking it!
T or F: words to describe MBTI dichotomies mean what they do in everyday life.
FALSE - they do not!
S or N: "I like to learn facts"
Sensing - they emphasize the pragmatic, value realism, and are oriented to present realities.
S or N: " I like to imagine the possibilities"
Intuition - they emphasize the theoretical, are oriented to future possibilities, and move quickly to conclusions because they follow hunches with their "sixth" sense.
Thinking or Feeling: "i like to decide logically"
Thinking - they are analytical, solve problems with logic, and search for flaws in an argument
Thinking or Feeling: "I like to consider people."
Feeling - they are empathetic, strive for harmony and positive interactions, they are fair and want everyone treated as an individual.
Who would want everyone treated equally when it comes to fairness between a Thinking or Feeling person.
J or P: "I like to organize my schedule"
Judging - are scheduled/organized, try to limit surprises, like to have many things decided.
J or P: "I like to adapt to changes"
Perceiving: are spontaneous, like things looks and open to change, feel energized by last minute pressures, and enjoy surprises.
How does the MBTI give us individual benefits?
We gain insight into our personality, and we can reduce our defensiveness while increasing our openness to feedback from what is going on around us. We can enhance our ability to appreciate differences in ourselves and others.
What are the staff benefits of understanding the MBTI?
they learn to appreciate others and can make constructive use of individual approaches because they understand and can adapt to leadership's management style. You are able to respect people's work preferences and can improve communications among supervisors, peers, employees, and customers.
What are values?
represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state existence"
What is the dominant work value of a veteran?
hard working, conservative, conforming, loyalty to the organization
What is the dominant work value of a boomer?
success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to the career.
What is the dominant work value of an Xer?
work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules, loyalty to relationships.
What is the dominant work value of a Nexter?
confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships.
T or F: when it comes to the hierarchy of value systems, it tends to be unstable.
False - the hierarchy is relatively stable.
T or F: value systems can influence perception and cloud objectivity.
True! values are the foundation for attitudes, motivation, and behavior.
What two things help us to represent a prioritizing of individual values?
1. Content - importance to the individual2. Intensity - relative importance with other values
What is Holland's Hexagon?
It is a personality-job fit
In a Holland's Hexagon, what do adjacent fields represent?
In a Holland's Hexagon, what do opposite fields represent?
When using a Holland's Hexagon, job satisfaction and turnover depend on what?
congruency between personality and task
T or F: it is more important that employees' personalities fit with the organizational culture than with the characteristics of the specific job.
What three things does the Holland hexagon predict?
job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover
The Big Five personality test is best used by managers to do what?
The MBTI is best used by managers to do what?
development and training
According to Buckingham, what three things do great managers do?
1. Continuously tweak roles to capitalize on individual strengths2. pull the triggers that activate the employees' strengths3. Tailor coaching to unique learning styles
What is the myth that Mintzberg proves false?
Management is like orchestra conducting - MAYBE LIKE DURING REHEARSALS,
According to Mintzberg, there is too much management through what?
T or f: Before using any of the instruments for selection, placement, or promotion purposes, you need to VALIDATE them for that use.
TRUE: you and your HR team can do it or you can hire outside HR professionals to do it! don't wing it!
What creates the lenses that we see through?
What is self censorship?
Controlling of what you say or do in order to avoid annoying or offending others, but without being told officially that such control is necessary (like at a cocktail party)
______________ guide behavior.
What you see depends on...
Where you see it from - Perspective!
How is out intuition born?
knowledge base, implicit theories, culture, habits (cognitive shortcuts), biases, etc. - fundamental beliefs
T or F: not everyone has lenses.
False - through our experiences, our lenses form, but they may restrict our "sight"
What are the benefits of putting on different lenses?
- we "see" things more clearly- we understand why others see things the way they do
T or F: it is easy to change lenses.
False - it may be difficult to change or give up your lenses because they are so deeply embedded.
What does Professor Nagao mean when he says, are we "psycho" logical?
what are the premises in which we are logical, why are we interested in the things we are interested in?
What are implicit theories?
the general expectations that we build about a person after we know something of their central traits.
What is the point of the checkerboard/ladder picture?
It is to show how strong our implicit theories are. Because of our understanding of the checkerboard pattern, we are seeing an illusion, but the squares are all the same shade.
What are the three parts of Emotional Intelligence Self Management?
1. self awareness (understanding your emotions)2. self regulation (managing your emotions)3. motivating yourself
What are the two components of Emotional Intelligence Relationship Management?
1. empathy (recognizing and understanding other people's emotions2. social skill (managing the emotions of others)
What is self awareness?
understanding your emotions
"Seek first to understand then _____________________".
then to be understood - from The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
T or F: we should avoid self censoring.
True we need to understand it in order to be able to avoid it.
We often function as ____________ _______________. We need to improve our ____________.
Intuitive scientists, and we need to improve our rigor
We seek ______________ information, and discredit ______________ information.
We seek confirmatory evidence, and discount disconfirmatory information.