LAB PRACTICAL ONE Flashcards Table View

     

Name the 3 major groups of bilogical macro molecules
PROTEIN
CARBOHYDRATE
LIPID
What chemical solution is used to test starch? IODINE
What chemical solution is used to test glucose? BENEDICT'S
How do you test oils & fats? BROWN PAPER
Example of monosaccharide... GLUCOSE

True/False
Starch is a polysaccharide?
TRUE
What chemical solution is used to test proteins? BIURET

True/False
A carbohydrate contains one or more sugars?
TRUE
Do lipids contain amino acids? NO
Does onion juice contain simple sugars? YES
What are oily or greasy compounds insoluble in water? LIPIDS
Examples of a carbohydrate
GLUCOSE
FRUCTOSE
What macromolecule is tested using Iodine solution? STARCH
Biuret reagent turns what color when it is added to Albumin? PURPLE
What is the color of the positive test for glucose? ORANGE
What type of bond joins amino acids to make peptides? PEPTIDE BONDS
What type of protein speeds chemical reactions? ENZYMES
What is the difference between types of amino acids? R GROUP
If iodine solution turnes blue-black what substance is present? STARCH
If Benedict's reagent turns red what substance is present? SUGAR
What is the function of starch in plant cells? STORES GLUCOSE
What is the function of fat in animal cells? LONG-TERM STORED ENERGY
What molecules are released when fat undergoes a hydrolysis reaction? WATER
Are fats polar or nonpolar? NONPOLAR
If Biruet reagent turns purple what substance is present? PROTEIN
Carbohydrate monomers
SIMPLE SUGARS
-GLUCOSE
-FRUCTOSE
Carbohydrate polymers
COMPLEX SUGARS
-STARCH
-GLYCOGEN
Protein monomer AMINO ACID
Protein polymer POLYPEPTIDES
Lipids monomer FATTY ACIDS
Lipids polymer
TRIGLYCERIDES
STEROLS
Type of test using a change in color COLOROMETRIC

Proteins
Reagant & Positive Results

BIURET
PURPLE- PROTEIN
PINKISH PURPLE- POLYPEPTIDE

Starch
Reagent & Positve Results

IODINE SOLUTION
BLUE/BLACK

Sugar
Reagent & Positive Results

BENEDICT'S SOL &
5 MINUTE BOIL
VERY LOW-GREEN
LOW-YELLOW
MODERATE- YELLOW/ORANGE
HIGH- ORANGE
VERY HIGH- ORANGE/RED

Lipid
Reagent & Positive Results

BROWN PAPER
OILY SPOT
Basic unit of matter ATOM
Very long chain of amino acids POLYPEPTIDE
In an experiment what is the guide and proposes a relationship between the dependent and independent variables? HYPOTHESIS
What is the outcome of interest in an experiment? DEPENDENT
What are broad, well supported explanations that are the organizers for a branch of science? THEORIES
Boiling point
212 F
100 C
Body Temperature
98.6 F
37 C
Freezing point
32 F
0 C
Temperature equations
C= (F-32)/1.8
F= 1.8(C)+32
What method is used to fugure out any natural phenomena? SCIENTIFIC THEORY
Ocular lense EYEPIECE
Nosepiece REVOLVING DEVICE THAT HOLDS OBJECTIVES
Objective lenses
SCANNING-SHORTEST 4X
LOW-POWER 10X
HIGH-POWER 40X
OIL IMMERSION
Stage HOLDS & SUPPORTS SLIDES
Coarse adjustment knob APPROX FOCUS, USED WITH LOW-POWER OBJ ONLY
Fine adjustment knob USED TO BRING OBJECT INTO FINAL FOCUS
Condenser BELOW STAGE-FOCUSES LIGHT ON OBJECT VIEWED
Diaphragm CONTROLS AMOUNT OF LIGHT USED
What magnification is the ocular lens -always? 10X
How do you find calculate total magnification? OCULAR LENS x OBJECTIVE LENS
Plasma membrane REGULATES THE MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES INTO & OUT OF CYTOPLASM
Cell wall - ONLY PLANTS PROVIDES SUPPORT AND PROTECTION
Nucleus STORAGE OF GENETIC INFO
Endoplasmic reticulum
ROUGH ER- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
SMOOTH ER-LIPID SYNTHESIS (NO RIBOSOMES)
Mitochondrion CELLULAR RESPIRATION, ATP
Chloroplast- ONLY PLANTS PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Centrioles -ONLY ANIMAL FORMATION OF BASAL BODIES
Ribosomes MANUFACTURES PROTEINS
Cytoplasm FLUID THAT OCCUPIES VOLUME OF CELL
Movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration until equilibrium is achieved DIFFUSION
Diffusion of water across the plasma membrane of a cell OSMOSIS
What solution has the same concentration of solute and water as the cell? ISOTONIC
What solution has a higher solute -lower water- concentration than a cell? HYPERTONIC
What solution has a lower solue- higher water- concentration than a cell? HYPOTONIC
What happens when a cell is put into a hypertonic solution?
WATER MOVES OUT OF CELL
ANIMAL-crenation(shrink)
PLANT-plasmolysis
What happens when a cell is put into a hypotonic solution?
WATER MOVES INTO THE CELL
ANIMAL-hemolysis (burst)
PLANT- turgor pressure
Range of pH scale
0-14
acidic 0-6
neutral 7
base 8-14
Enzymatic chemical reaction SUBSTRATE
Formula for enzymatic reaction E+S->ES->E+P
What speeds the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen? CATALASE
Effects of temperature on enzyme activity
COLD- SLOWS
WARM- SPEEDS
BOILING- DENATURES
Altering an enzyme's normal shape in a way that inactivates it is... TO DENATURE
Where on the enzyme do substrates come together? ACTIVE SITE
What product of the catalase reaction causes bubbling? OXYGEN
During this reaction, the substrate is broken down to the product DEGRADATION
During this reaction, the substrates are joined to form a product SYNTHESIS
Both cellular respiration & fermentation begin with what molecule? GLUCOSE
What reactant needed for cellular repiration is absent from the fermentation reaction? OXYGEN
What gas do organisms give off when they carry out cellular respiration? CARBON DIOXIDE
Photosynthesis equation CO2+H2O-solar energy->(CH2O) + O2
Where does the Calvin cycle occur? STROMA
What membranes absorb solar energy? THYLAKOID
Photosynthetic pigments
chlorophyll b
chlorophyll a
xanthophylls
carotenes
What procedure is used to separate plant pigments? PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY
Green plants do not absorb what color of light? GREEN
Phenol red turns what color when carbon dioxide is added? RED
What happens to carbon dioxide during photosynthesis? TURNS INTO A CARB
What two substances do plants provide for us? OXYGEN & GLUCOSE
What device is used to measure the gas given off by yeast? RESPIROMETER
The difference between aerobic and anaerobic? AEROBIC REQUIRES OXYGEN, ANAEROBIC DOESN'T
Ratio-factor formula for pigment values Rf = distance moved by pigment divided by total distance moved by solvent