Hohenfelsusgovt9 Flashcards Table View


1) Which of the following was an original Cabinet department?
A) War
B) Criminal Justice
C) Housing and Urban Development
D) Peace
E) Transportation

2) President Andrew Jackson fundamentally changed the nature of the federal bureaucracy by implementing
A) the Administrative Procedures Act.
B) the merit system.
C) the Pendleton Act.
D) the spoils system.
E) the seniority system.
3) The spoils system is
A) continually promoting bureaucrats until they reach a position where they are incompetent.
B) firing officeholders of a defeated political party and replacing them with loyalists of the victorious party.
C) giving government jobs to members of the previous administration.
D) currently used to select almost all bureaucrats.
E) currently used to select about half of all bureaucrats.
4) The Pendleton Act established that civil servants would be selected on the basis of A) seniority.
B) their qualifications.
C) the spoils system.
D) patronage.
E) party affiliation.

5) Of the following positions, which is the most likely to be covered by the civil service system?
A) the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency
B) the Secretary of Labor
C) the White House chief of staff
D) a demographer at the Census Bureau
E) a policy expert working in the White House

6) Should avian flu hit the United States, which of the following agencies is given the primary responsibility for managing the crisis?
A) No one agency has been given primary responsibility. Instead, responsibility has been split among several agencies and between the federal and state governments.
B) Department of Homeland Security
C) Federal Emergency Management Administration.
D) Department of Health and Human Services.
E) Secretary of State.
7) Under the Articles of Confederation, the bureaucracy consisted of
A) only four departments: War, Treasury, Foreign Affairs, and Justice.
B) two people.
C) only two departments: War and Treasury.
D) only two departments: Domestic and Foreign Affairs.
E) only three departments: Foreign Affairs, War, and Treasury.

8) The spoils system was instituted under ________. This fundamentally changed the nature of the federal bureaucracy.
A) James Monroe
B) George Washington
C) Andrew Jackson
D) Abraham Lincoln
E) Thomas Jefferson

9) The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party, and their replacement with loyalists of the victorious political party, is called the
A) nepotism system.
B) spoils system.
C) merit system.
D) civil service.
E) replacement doctrine.

10) The ability of a victorious president to fire current executive branch employees and hire loyalists instead is known as
A) encumbrances.
B) the loyalty oath.
C) the spoils system.
D) perks.
E) a right of passage.
11) The Department of Commerce and Labor was established by Theodore Roosevelt to A) promote the rail industry.
B) promote economic development in the South.
C) regulate labor practices and employer-employee relations.
D) collect taxes from businesses and oversee mergers and acquisitions.
E) implement the rural electrification program.
12) The ________ created a merit-based civil service.
A) Pendleton Act
B) Magnum Opus Act.
C) Federal Employees Political Activities Act
D) Administrative Procedures Act.
E) Fair Labor Practices Act
13) Which bureaucracy was created to regulate the rates charged by railroads for shipping freight?
A) the Railroad Commission
B) Amtrak
C) the Northern Pacific Railroad Association
D) the Interstate Commerce Commission
E) the Agency on Shipping and Freight

14) An examination of the Analyzing Visuals feature on page 312 suggests that the number of federal executive branch employees decreased the most
A) at the end of the Great Society programs.
B) at the start of the Great Depression.
C) under the presidency of Ronald Reagan.
D) at the end of World War II.
E) at the start of the New Deal.

15) An examination of the Analyzing Visuals feature on page 312 suggests that the number of federal executive branch employees grew most rapidly during
A) the New Deal and World War II
B) the George W. Bush presidency
C) the Great Society.
D) the Bill Clinton presidency
E) World War I
16) ________ enabled the federal government to expand by giving it access to additional revenue.
A) The Supreme Court
B) The Sixteenth Amendment
C) The state governments
D) The Pendleton Act
E) The Hatch Act
17) Far-ranging government intervention in the economy best describes the philosophy of
A) Bill Clinton.
B) John McCain.
C) George W. Bush.
D) Ronald Reagan.
E) Franklin Roosevelt.
18) The Civil War led to
A) the creation of the Department of War.
B) a contraction of the bureaucracy.
C) an expansion of the bureaucracy.
D) the abolition of the Department of State.
E) the end of the spoils system.

19) Which president sought to overhaul the civil service, and whose assassination led to the Civil Service Reform Act of 1883?
A) James A. Garfield
B) William Howard Taft
C) William McKinley
D) Abraham Lincoln
E) William Henry Harrison
20) Of the following positions, which is the least likely to be covered by the civil service system?
A) a demographer at the Census Bureau
B) a ranger in Yellowstone National Park
C) a scientist for the National Institutes of Health
D) a policy expert working in the White House
E) a statistician for the Department of Labor
21) The Department of Commerce and Labor was established by ________ to oversee and regulate intolerable labor practices and employer-employee relations.
A) Franklin Delano Roosevelt
B) Abraham Lincoln
C) Teddy Roosevelt
D) Dwight Eisenhower
E) James Garfield
22) In 1883, Congress established the civil service system, which
A) eventually covered 10 percent of all federal employees.
B) eventually was replaced by executive order.
C) was governed by a partisan board appointed by the president.
D) initially covered only about a third of federal workers.
E) was eventually expanded to cover most federal appointees.

23) The reform measure that created the merit-based civil service is commonly referred to as the
A) Hatch Act.
B) Patriot Act
C) Garfield Act.
D) Anti-Patronage Act.
E) Pendleton Act.
24) The Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 was designed to reduce patronage and was also known as the
A) Anti-Patronage Act.
B) Hatch Act.
C) Pendleton Act.
D) National Reform Program.
E) Garfield Reform.
25) The first independent regulatory commission was the
A) Securities and Exchange Commission.
B) Federal Elections Commission.
C) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
D) Interstate Commerce Commission.
E) Equal Opportunity Employment Commission.
26) Why was the Interstate Commerce Commission established?
A) to create the interstate highway system
B) to assist the Northern Pacific Railroad in acquiring property through eminent domain
C) to regulate the habitat of migratory birds
D) to eliminate all trade barriers between the states
E) to regulate the rates charged by railroads for shipping freight
27) The Federal Government grew during
A) World War II.
B) the New Deal.
C) World War I.
D) The Great Society.
E) All of the above.
28) Franklin Roosevelt believed that the best way to get the country out of the Great Depression was
A) through a laissez-faire approach.
B) massive grants to private corporations so that they could afford to hire unemployed Americans.
C) through far-ranging government intervention in the economy.
D) through a hands-off approach.
E) by taxing unemployed Americans in order to provide an incentive for them to find work.
29) The ratification of the ________ Amendment in 1913 gave Congress the authority to implement a federal income tax, and thus allowed government to grow even more.
A) Tenth B) Eleventh C) Nineteenth D) Sixteenth E) Twelfth

30) Hundreds of new federal agencies were created to regulate business practices and various aspects of the economy in an attempt to mitigate the effects of the Great Depression during the administration of President
A) James Garfield.
B) Lyndon Johnson.
C) Franklin Roosevelt.
D) Herbert Hoover
E) Theodore Roosevelt.
31) President Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty
A) was primarily concerned with fighting discrimination.
B) was solely a publicity stunt to curry favor with Southern legislators.
C) created the largest bureaucracy in U.S. history.
D) produced additional growth in the bureaucracy.
E) was equal in scope to Teddy Roosevelt's New Deal.
32) According to Figure 9.2, which of the following groups is overrepresented in the federal workforce?
A) African Americans
B) Hispanics
C) Asians
D) Men
E) All of the above.
33) Which of the following statements about George W. Bush's executive appointments is true?
A) None of Bush's appointments were women or minorities.
B) Bush reduced the number of political appointees by about 33%.
C) The number of minority applicants shrank by about 50% under Bush.
D) The proportion of women appointed by Bush shrank by about 20%.
E) The number of minority appointments shrank by about 20% under Bush.
34) Under George W. Bush,
A) no minorities were appointed to the executive branch.
B) the number of political appointees shrank by about 33%.
C) the proportion of women appointed to the executive branch increased by about 20%.
D) no women were appointed to the executive branch.
E) the number of minority appointments to the executive branch increased by about 20%.

35) Higher-level civil servants are typically
A) younger.
B) uneducated.
C) men.
D) overpaid.
E) minorities.

36) How are bureaucracies similar to businesses?
A) They are both equally concerned with pleasing the customer.
B) They are both established by acts of Congress.
C) They both take risks to increase profit margins and lower costs.
D) They both rely on the profit motive.
E) None of the above.
37) Nearly one-third of all nonmilitary federal employees work for the
A) U.S. Postal Service.
B) Department of Defense.
C) Department of Homeland Security.
D) Department of State.
E) Department of Justice.
38) Which branch or government agency has the most employees?
A) the executive branch
B) the diplomatic corps
C) the U.S. Postal Service
D) the judicial branch
E) the legislative branch
39) A typical low-level federal civilian employee gets her job by
A) knowing the right person.
B) doing well enough on a civil service exam.
C) giving sufficient campaign contributions.
D) bribing the correct person.
E) helping the president win election or reelection.
40) The president directly appoints nearly ________ people.
A) 15,000 B) 300 C) 6,000 D) 10,000 E) 3,000
41) In India, the bureaucracy
A) is the central component of government power.
B) plays a large policymaking role.
C) must insure that all policies are consistent with Islamic law.
D) actively works to suppress Chinese culture.
E) answers exclusively to the judicial branch.
42) Women comprise
A) most members of the bureaucracy at the federal level.
B) a minority in each GS level.
C) a majority of employees at the lowest GS levels.
D) a majority in each GS level.
E) nearly half of those at the highest GS 13-15 levels.
43) Which of the following is a type of federal executive agency?
A) nonprofits
B) nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
C) corporations
D) department stores
E) independent executive agencies

44) According to Figure 9.3, if you lived in North Dakota and needed to visit the regional headquarters for the Federal Trade Commission, where would you most likely have to go?
A) Chicago
B) Fargo
C) Denver
D) Kansas City
E) Philadelphia
45) According to Figure 9.3, federal agencies are frequently divided into ________ regions.
A) six B) seven C) partisan D) geographic E) twelve
46) Most Cabinet departments are headed by a
B) purser.
D) ombudsman.
E) secretary.
47) The U.S. government is increasingly turning to ________ to complete military tasks in Iraq.
A) untrained soldiers
B) convicted felons who were previously ineligible for military service
C) private contractors
D) gay and lesbian soldiers
E) diplomatic immunity

48) A federal response to the graying of the bureaucracy has been
I. changing the retirement age.
II. looking to the Presidential Management Fellows Program.
III. relying on temporary workers from the military.
IV. increasing the average starting wage.
A) II B) II and IV C) I and III D) I, II, and III E) I and IV
49) Higher-level civil servants are typically
A) uneducated.
B) overpaid.
C) older.
D) younger.
E) minorities.
50) A majority of civilian federal employees work for
A) cabinet departments.
B) government corporations.
C) independent agencies.
D) state governments.
E) regulatory commissions.
51) All Cabinet departments are headed by a secretary except for the Department of
A) State.
B) Commerce.
C) Veterans Affairs.
D) Justice.
E) Defense.
52) The Constitution explicitly gives the president the power to
A) require written opinions from executive department officers.
B) veto bureaucratic rules and regulations.
C) establish the Cabinet.
D) disarm Congress.
E) establish or disband cabinet-level departments.
53) Which of the following is an independent regulatory commission?
A) the United States Post Office
B) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
C) the Securities and Exchange Commission
D) the Tennessee Valley Authority
E) the Department of Labor
54) Currently, there are ________ Cabinet-level departments.
A) five
B) thirty-seven
C) three
D) fifteen
E) nine
55) Which of the following is a government corporation?
A) Amtrak
B) Bank of America
C) Ford Motor Co.
D) American Airlines
E) All of the above.
56) Newer regulatory boards often
A) receive kick-backs from the industry they are supposed to regulate.
B) are more political than boards created earlier.
C) are headed by a large board.
D) are less concerned with public health and safety.
E) enjoy autonomy from political pressures.
57) Established by Congress to run the nation's trains, Amtrak is an example of a/an
A) government corporation.
B) independent executive agency.
C) intergovernmental regulatory council.
D) interagency council.
E) captured clientele agency.
58) Which agencies are particularly subject to lobbying from outside organized interests?
A) interagency councils
B) clientele agencies
C) Cabinet departments
D) executive agency
E) government corporations
59) Which agencies are subject to the most intense outside lobbying efforts?
A) judicial agencies
B) large agencies
C) clientele agencies
D) independent executive agencies
E) administrative agencies

60) A government corporation performing functions that could otherwise be provided by the private sector is called a(n)
A) executive agency.
B) government corporation.
C) independent regulatory commission.
D) clientele agency.
E) pluralistic agency.
61) The Tennessee Valley Authority was established to
A) help the South recover from reconstruction.
B) provide electricity to a part of the country that had not been served by private utilities.
C) promote economic development in Tennessee.
D) provide jobs to displaced Appalachian coal miners.
E) ensure the continued provision of rail transportation.
62) An example of a government corporation is
A) Federal Express.
B) the Better Business Bureau.
C) the Bureau of Land Management.
D) the Securities and Exchange Commission.
E) the Tennessee Valley Commission.
63) Which of the following is an example of an independent executive agency?
A) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
B) Secret Service
C) Federal Bureau of Investigation
D) National Aeronautical and Space Administration
E) Office of Management and Budget
64) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an example of a(n)
A) interest group.
B) government corporation.
C) independent executive agency.
D) clientele agency.
E) independent regulatory commission.
65) Newer regulatory boards often
I. are more political than boards created earlier.
II. are more concerned with public health and safety.
III. enjoy autonomy from political pressures.
IV. are headed by a large board.
A) II and III B) I and IV C) III and IV D) II and IV E) I and II
66) Federal employees are prohibited from engaging in which of the following election-related activities?
A) contributing money to a campaign
B) voting
C) engaging in political activity while on duty
D) running for office in a nonpartisan election
E) campaigning for a person in a partisan election

67) Which act generally allows federal employees to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to partisan campaigns?
A) Administrative Procedures Act
B) Hatch Act
C) Federal Employees Political Activities Act
D) Civil Service Act
E) None of the above; federal employees are prohibited from running for office or contributing to political campaigns.
68) Federal employees are generally allowed to engage in which of the following activities? A) Engaging in political activity while on the job
B) Running for office in a nonpartisan election
C) Soliciting for a particular political party
D) Campaigning from a government office
E) Running for office in a partisan election
69) The execution of a law by the bureaucracy is called policy
A) performance.
B) implementation.
C) management.
D) evisceration.
E) sequestration.

70) The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occurs among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees is called a(n)
A) issue network.
B) think tank.
C) iron triangle.
D) implementation network.
E) policy circle.

71) A close working relationship between the Department of Veteran Affairs, the House Committee on Veteran Affairs, and the American Legion would be an example of a/an
A) interagency council.
B) independent executive agency.
C) iron triangle.
D) independent regulatory commission.
E) policy coordination committee.

72) Which of the following is mostly likely to be the impetus for a new regulation?
A) a letter to the editor
B) executive privilege
C) a public opinion poll
D) a judicial decision
E) an dissatisfied constituent
73) Working groups comprised of representatives from different agencies to facilitate policymaking and implementation are called
A) issue networks.
B) policy councils.
C) political action committees.
D) interagency councils.
E) iron triangles.

74) This bureaucratic entity is created to facilitate interaction among different agencies or departments at the subcabinet level. It is often created in response to a particular incident, such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
A) political action committees
B) policy coordinating committees
C) unions of interested parties
D) internal affairs agencies
E) interstate commerce committees
75) Policy Coordinating Committees (PCCs) are created
A) to do away with iron triangles.
B) because George W. Bush viewed them as a way to stop territorial conflicts among policy makers.
C) to handle policy problems within single departments and/or agencies.
D) to do away with interagency councils.
E) to handle very complex policy processes.

76) Most bureaucrats have some leeway in their ability to make choices regarding the best way to implement congressional intentions. This is called
A) rule making.
B) selective extrapolation.
C) adjudication.
D) administrative discretion.
E) the formal hearing procedure.

77) The bureaucracy has the ability to make choices about the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions, thus giving the bureaucracy tremendous leeway to carry out its assigned tasks. This ability is called
A) administrative adjudication.
B) regulatory authority.
C) legislative override.
D) administrative discretion.
E) executive exemption.
78) Administrative discretion is exercised through two formal administrative procedures:
A) sunset review and administrative oversight.
B) casework and servicework.
C) congressional review and oversight.
D) rule-making and issue networking.
E) administrative adjudication and rule-making.
79) ________ is when an agency settles a dispute between two parties in a court-like process.
A) Administrative diplomacy
B) Administrative adjudication
C) Judicial oversight
D) Administrative meditation
E) Administrative direction

80) ________ is a quasi-legislative process that can be used to exercise administrative discretion, and which results in policies that have the effect of laws.
A) Rule making
B) Issue networks
C) Executive orders
D) Regulations
E) Administrative adjudication
81) Which of the following is not required by the Administrative Procedures Act?
A) The agency must solicit feedback through public opinion polls
B) Statement of the statutory purpose and basis of the regulation
C) Public notice in the Federal Registry
D) The chance for interested parties to submit written arguments and relevant facts
E) Public notice of time, place, and nature of all rule-making procedures

82) As established by the Administrative Procedures Act, bureaucratic rule making requires all of the following EXCEPT
A) an opportunity for written public input.
B) that the statutory purpose and basis of the proposed rule be stated.
C) a thirty-day period before the rules take effect.
D) publication in the Federal Register.
E) that Congress submit a written statement that the proposed rule complies with federal law.

83) A quasi-legislative process in which a bureaucratic agency creates regulations that determine how programs operate is called
A) discretion.
B) rule making.
C) bureaucratic arbitration.
D) justice.
E) dispute resolution.
84) The president has the power to hold agencies accountable through
A) increasing appropriations for an agency.
B) the appointment of agency heads.
C) changing the law.
D) declaring executive privilege.
E) declaring a law unconstitutional.

85) To be compliant with Title IX, universities can demonstrate that they
I. provide opportunities to women similar to the proportion of their enrollment in the student body
II. have developed programs for the underrepresented
III. have attempted to accommodate the interests of women who may want to become involved in affected programs
IV. earn more money from men's sports.
A) I or III B) II, III, or IV C) I or II D) I, III, or IV E) I, II, or III
86) Executive orders
A) obfuscate executive authority.
B) shape policy and direct the bureaucracy.
C) are primarily used to guide budget bills.
D) enact legislation that Congress can sign or veto.
E) are purely symbolic.
87) Which of the following can be an impetus for a new regulation?
A) a judicial decision
B) a new law
C) pressure from an interest group
D) an executive branch decision
E) All of the above.
88) What was the outcome of the IRS hearings conducted in the 1990s?
A) The IRS has worked to improve its relationship with the public.
B) The public had a right to challenge IRS decisions about how much citizens owe in taxes.
C) The IRS has been more aggressive in prosecuting those who cheat on their taxes.
D) Many of those who had defrauded the government by using overseas accounts were forced to pay restitution to the American taxpayers.
E) The IRS has more diligently enforced the tax code.

89) Lyndon Johnson used what presidential power over the bureaucracy to prohibit gender discrimination in awarding government contracts?
A) Power to reorganize the bureaucracy by putting people in favor of the idea in charge
B) The power to recommend to congress a change in the Civil Rights Act of 1964
C) Power to ignore legislative initiatives in a tit-for-tat action
D) An executive order to add gender to the list of groups that the government could not discriminate against
E) Power to change the annual budget by threatening to withhold funding
90) Which of the following is a check on the bureaucracy that only the Senate can exercise?
A) confirming presidential appointments
B) reducing funding for an agency
C) abolishing Cabinet-level departments
D) impeaching executive branch officials
E) holding congressional hearings
91) What is the most frequently used form of congressional oversight?
A) proactive oversight
B) "police patrol" oversight
C) "fire alarm" oversight
D) impoundment
E) impeachment

92) "Police patrol" and "fire alarm" are
A) budgetary mechanisms for restraining bureaucratic costs.
B) types of congressional oversight.
C) different types of injunctions issued through administrative adjudication.
D) types of administrative discretion.
E) judicial authorities to abolish bureaucratic functions.
93) The most effective form of congressional oversight is
A) dismantling of an agency.
B) ambulance oversight.
C) communication between congressional staff and agency personnel.
D) removal of agency heads.
E) K-9 patrol oversight.

94) The Senate's checks on the bureaucracy include
I. the power to confirm presidential appointees.
II. its investigatory powers.
III. its ability to remove presidential appointees for any reason.
IV. congressional review.
A) I and II
B) II, III, and IV
C) I, III, and IV
D) I, II, and IV
E) II and IV
95) In exercising its oversight function, Congress is most likely to
A) issue executive orders.
B) override a president's veto.
C) conduct impeachment hearings.
D) go to court to get executive documents.
E) hold hearings.
96) Which Congressional agency oversees the bureaucracy?
A) Executive Office of the President
B) Congressional Research Service
C) Internal Revenue Service
D) Office of Management and Budget
E) Joint Chiefs of Staff

97) Which branch of government has the ability to issue an injunction before a rule is promulgated?
A) All three of the branches share those responsibilities.
B) Legislative
C) Executive
D) Judicial
E) None of the abovethose actions are the responsibility of the Injunction Enforcement Division of the Department of Justice.
98) How has the war in Iraq been funded?
A) with funds donated from other democracies
B) with borrowed money
C) by cutting government spending in other areas
D) through gifts from the American people
E) by raising taxes
99) Which of the following statements about the funding for the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq is accurate?
A) The total cost has been about $752 million.
B) Congress has refused to provide funding for the war in Iraq unless the president includes a timetable for a withdrawal of troops.
C) Currently, the U.S. spends about $2 million per week in Iraq.
D) The total cost has been more than ten times the amount estimated by the Bush Administration at the start of the war.
E) The total cost of the wars has been considerably lower that estimated because revenue from Iraqi oil has significantly offset American costs.
100) Which branch of the government funds, creates, sets rules for, and provides oversight of the bureaucracy?
A) Legislative
B) Judicial
C) Presidential
D) Executive
E) All of the branches listed above share these responsibilities equally.
101) The bureaucracy is primarily part of which branch of government?
A) Judicial
B) Executive
C) Legislative
D) The bureaucracy is primarily part of the executive and legislative branches, but not the judicial branch.
E) All three branches share the bureaucracy equally.