Cultural Anthropology test 2 Flashcards Table View

     

sexual dimorphism universal differences in size and strength between males and females
gender division of labor types of work typically preformed by males or females
strength theory an explanation for the gender division of labor that suggests that men's work typically involves tasks requiring greater strength and greater aerobic capacity
compatibility-with-child-care-theory an explanation for the gender division of labor that suggests that women's work will typically involve tasks that do not take women far from home for long periods, do not place children in potential danger if they are taken along, or can be stopped and resumed if an infant needs care
economy-of-effort theory an explanation for the gender division of labor that suggests that it may be advantageous for a gender to do tasks that follow in a production sequence or that are located near each other
expendability theory an explanation for the gender division of labor that suggests that men will tend to do the dangerous work in a society because the loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than the loss of women
primary subsistence activities food-getting activities
secondary subsistence activities those that involve the preparation and processing of food
incest taboo prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between a mother and son, father and daughter, and brother and sister
inbreeding theory all human societies have recognized that interbreeding of close relatives can express harmful recessives in the offspring and have therefore banned such matings
consanguinity culturally defined blood relationship
affinity culturally defined relationship by marriage
descent group a group of people who claim descent from a common ancestor
matrilineal descent affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through females ancestors only
matrilocal residence at marriage, the couple moves to live with or near the wife's parents
avunculocal residence at marriage, the couple moves to live with or near the husband's mother's brother
patrilineal descent affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through male ancestors only
patrilocal residence at marriage, the couple moves to live with or near the husband's parents
bridewealth substantial transfer of goods or money to the bride's kin by the groom or his kin at or before marriage
polygyny marriage of one man to more than one woman at a time
lineage set of kin whose members trace descent from a common ancestor through known links
clan set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor or ancestress but cannot specify the links back to that founder
phratry a unilineal descent group composed of a number of supposedly related clans
moiety a unilineal descent group in a society that is divided into two such maximal groups
bilateral descent type of kinship system in which individuals affiliate more or less equally with their mother's and father's relatives
kindred bilateral set of close relatives
bilocal residence at marriage, the couple moves to lives with or near the husband's parents or the wife's parents
neolocal residence at marriage, the couple lives separately, and usually at some distance, from teh kin of both spouses
marriage a socially approved, realatively permanent sexual and economic union, usually between a man and a women
exogamy the rule specifying marriage to a person from outside one's own kin or community group; the culture defines the group
endogamy the rule specifying marriage to a person from outside one's own kin, caste, or community group; the culture defines the group
monogamy marriage between only one man and only one woman at a time
polygamy plural marriage; marriage to more than one spouse simultaneously
sororal polygyny marriage of a man to two or more sisters at the same time
polyandry marriage of one woman to more than one man at a time
faternal polyandry the marriage of a woman to two or more brothers at the same time
group marriage marriage in which more than one man is married to more than one woman at the same time; not customary in any known human society
bride service work preformed by the groom for his bride's family for a varying length of time either before or after the marriage
dowry substantial transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the bride or to the groom's family
cross-cousins children of siblings of the opposite sex
joking relationship relationship between two relatives of socially approved familiarity marked by informality, affection, and teasing
parallel cousins children of the siblings of the same sex
avoidance relationship relationship between two relatives of socally structured tension or authority marked by formality, respect, and reserve
levirate custom whereby a man is obligated to marry his brothers widow
sororate custom whereby a woman is obligated to marry her deceased sister's husband
joint family an extended family household whose core is two or more siblings, plus their spouses and children