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the study of animals
this Latin term means "animal"
this Latin term means "Discourse"
Divisions of Zoology
Structural, Developmental, Functional, Systematic/Taxonomy, Distributional, Historical and Medical Zoology
This division of zoology deals with the the study of structures.
Divisions of Structural Zoology
Morphology, Anatomy, Histology & Cytology
The study of structures as to form and shape especially viewed as a whole
The Latin word for "form"
the study of the different structures of the organism especially revealed through dissection
Latin for the term "up"
Latin for "cut"
Latin for "tissue"
the study of microstructures and functions of a tissue.
Latin for "hollow"
the study of structures and functions w/in a cell.
The branch of zoology that deals with development.
Branches under Developmental Zoology
Embryology & Genetics
the study of the growth and development w/in a fertilized egg.
Latin for 'in'
Latin for "swell"
Latin for "beginning"
the study of heredity and variation.
Transmission of traits from parent to offspring
2 Branches of Functional Zoology
Animal Physiology & Animal Behavior with regards to stimuli
the study of living processes or functions w/in animals.
Latin for "nature"
Latin for "arrangement"
Latin for "law"
the study of the systematic classification of animals
study of one-celled animals
Latin for "first"
the study of insects
Latin for "insect"
Latin for "shell"
the study of shells
The study of mollusks or soft-bodies animals
The study of fishes
Study of reptiles
Latin for "reptiles"
The study of birds
Latin for "bird"
Study of mammals or animals who feeds their young through the means of the mammary gland
The study of worms
Latin for "breast"
The study of the distribution of animals in space (air, water or land)
The study of relations of animals to their environment
The study of fossils or remains of animals and their distribution in time
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life through time
The study of parasites or organisms that live and subsist on or in other animals
Parasites who subsist on animals
Parasites who subsist in animals
Who are parts of the Ancient/Pre-historic Era?
Aristotle & Claudius Galen
The greatest zoologist of record; Father of Zoology
The man of antiquity, a prominent physician and researched on the dissection of human beings (remnants)
Who are part o the Medieval - Renaissance Period ?
Albertus M., Mondino, Leonardo da Vinci
Known as the "Universal Doctor", noted for introducing Greek and Arabic Science as well as Philosophy to the Medieval world.
"Restorer of Anatomy"; Due to his contribution in dissection of human cadavers
Drew many studies of the human skeletons and it's parts: the heart, sex organs & internal organs
Leonardo da Vinci
Who were part of the Modern Era and state the specific scientific branch?
Anatomy: Konrad Gesner, Andreas Vesalius Microscopy: Janssen, Galileo, LeeuwenhoekTaxonomy:John Ray, Carolus LinnaeusEmbryology: Karl Ernst von Baer, BalfourPaleontology:...
Was the starting point of Modern Zoology; Wrote 5 vol. of "Historiae Animalium"
Father of Modern Anatomy
Built the first compound microscope;
Gave the telescope improvements; Father of Modern Science and Physics
Father of mMicrobiology
First to give a biological definition of the term 'species'
Father of Taxonomy; Classified animals and plants; laid the foundations of the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature
Father of Embryology; 1st president of the Russian Entomological Society
Karl Ernst von Baer
Founder of Evolutionary Embryology
Father of Paleontology
First saw the cell wall or cork cells
saw the first nucleus
Father of Modern Histology and Pathology
Francois Marie Xavier Bichat
Introduced the cell theory
Scheiden and Schwann
Formulated the earliest theory of evolution
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
Father of Evolution; Proposed the theory that this branching patterns of Evolution resulted from a process that he called "Natural Selection"
Father of Genetics; Studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants
Scientists of the 20th Century
Montgomery, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Karl Landsteiner, A.S Weiner
Was a major figure in the field of Cytology
Worked on chromosomes in the science of heredity
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Introduced the ABO blood groups
Introduce the Rh group
tiny units of living matter
A complex system that can exist by itself in order to maintain itself and reproduce in a medium free from other living systems and cannot therefore be a parasite
The structural and functional unit of all living things
First to see the cell wall through cork cell (dead cells)When did this happen?
Robert Hooke (1665)
First to see the living substance in cells
Proposed the term "sarcode" for the "living substances"
Proposed the term "protoplasm"
How did protoplasm came to be?
Living substances -> Sarcode -> Protoplasm
First to see the nucleusWhen did this event occur?
Robert Brown (1881)
First described the nucleolusWhen did this occur?
Formulated the 'cell theory' that all living organisms are composed of cells and cell products
Schleiden and Schwann
What composes the "Cell Theory"?
1.) All living things are made up cells2.) All cells come from pre-existing cells3.) The basic and functional unit of life
Stated that "Protoplasm is the physical basis of life"
Said that "Cells come from pre-existing cells"
Discovered DNA from pus cells he got form soldier wounds in the 1868 French War
Made the model of the DNA
Watson and Crick
Discovered the MitochondriaWhen did this occur?
First to see the Golgi bodied in the neurons of the owl
confirmed the Golgi bodies' presence through an electron microscope
First saw the ribosomes
Named the endoplasmic reticulum
Describe the cell membrane as a sandwich composed of a bimolecular lipid layer with the protei absorbed on each side
Danielli and Davson
discovered the lysosome
A cytoplasmic boundary/limiting membrane condensed into a peripheral film
Cell membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma
Describe the membrane of the Plasmalemma
What substance can easily pass through the Plasmalemma?
What is the cell membrane's chemical composition?
2 monolayers of protein1 bilipid layer inbetween the 2 monolayers of proteinA small amount of carbohydrates
The more dense layer in the cell membrane's composition
What is the Protein Layer responsible for?
The elastic property of the cell membrane
2 classes of membrane protein
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Proteins
Protein molecules that associate with the membrane's surface.
Protein molecules that penetrate the bilayer lipid superficially or may extend all the way through it.
Which layer of the cell membrane is less dense?
In the lipid layer which part is hydrophilic and which part is hydrophobic?
1st - Polar Head2nd - Non-polar Tail
What do you mean by Hydrophilic?
Functions of the lipid layer
Structural Framework of the cell membrane and anchorage for proteins
What are the other names for this "protein-lipid-protein" theory?
Trilaminar or Unit Membrane Theory.
Who proposed the Trilaminar Theory?
Davson and Danielli
Who supported the Unit Membrane Theory?
What are the fnxs of the cell membrane?
Holds and protects the contents of the cellA limiting membrane that serves to separate the cell from it's surrounding environment.Regulates the internal environment of the cellTransport...
The living substance w/in the cell composed of the nucleus and cytoplasm
A colloidal system that undergoes the reversible sol-gel state
What composed the Protoplasm?
Inorganic and Organic compounds
What are the inorganic compounds in the protoplasm?
Water, Minerals and Mineral Salts, Gases
What are the organic compounds in the protoplasm?
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Fats, Proteins
What elements does protein contain?
C, H, O, N, S and P
What is the chemical composition of Fats and Lipids?
C, H, O
These are an important source of readily available fuel to supply energy for metabolic processes
Compounds that contain carbons except in oxides and sulfides of carbon.
In inorganic compounds under gases, what gases are being carried all over?
CO2 and O2
What may be in the form of cations and anions?
Minerals and Mineral Salts
Compounds which do not contain hydrocarbon, but include the oxides and sulfides of carbon
the most abundant protoplasmic mineral
How much of the water is in the protoplasm? In percent
35% - 90%
Some characteristics of water
- universal solvent-high surface tension and specific heat- vehicle to transport materials
Examples of Monosaccharides
Glucose, galactose and fructose
Known as double sugars
Examples oh Disaccharides and state each pair to form the double sugar
Glucose + Glucose = maltose (malt sugar)Galactose + Glucose = lactose (milk sugar)Fructose + Glucose = sucrose (table sugar)
Known as multiple sugars
Examples of Polysaccharides
Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen
Which polysaccharide is present in plants
Cellulose and Starch
Which polysaccharide is found in animals
Other name for glycogen
Animal Starch/Emergency Sugar
Fnx of Lipids and Fats
-Provides heat and Energy- Constituent of the cell membrane
Simplest form of Lipids/Fats
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Forms of fats
-Simple Lipids-Compound Lipids-Derived Lipids
Types of Simple Lipids
►fats►oils►true fats/simple lipids►waxes►tallow (lard)
Contains a large amount of saturated fat
Contains a large amount of unsaturated fat
Can be called triglycerides; may be solid or liquid in room tempt.
Simple Lipids/ True Fats
Esters of long chained fatty acids and alcohol with high molecular weight
Fatty acids with long CO2 chains
esters of fatty acids and alcohol in combination with other compounds
The simple compounds w/c simple and compound lipids give on hydrolysis
Fnx of protein
build and repair the worn out tissues in the bodyserves as reaction acceleratorsForms other organic constituents like "nucleoproteins"
Simplest form of protein
Forms of Proteins
Simple, conjugated and derived proteins and nucleic acids
Ex. of simple Proteins
soluble and insoluble
complex molecules larger than proteins
What is the nucleic acid composed of?
Includes all the protoplasm except the nucleus
Known as the outer cytoplasm, which is homogeneous, rigid and non-granular
Known as the inner cytoplasm, which contains granules and the cytoplasmic organelles
Organized living matter regarded as small internal organs of of the cell having specific fnxs. in the maintenance of the cell
The Organelles in the cytoplasm:
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)- Ribosomes-Golgi Complex/Golgi Apparatus/ dictysomes- Lysosomes- Mitochondria- Peroxisomes- Centrosomes/Centrioles- Microtubules- Microfilaments
A network of fine tube-like unit membrane micro-tunnels transversing the cytoplasm bet. the nuclear membrane and the outer plasma membrane
2 Types of E.R.
Smooth/agranular and Rough/granular E.R.
Describe the rough E.R.
Contains ribosomes; may perform protein synthesis; serves as a transport system of materials synthesized by the cell; translocation of solutes into and across the cytoplasm
Describe the smooth E.R.
tube-like appearance; no presence of ribosomes; site of steroid, lipid/fat and enzyme synthesis; rapid transport of metabolism in muscular contraction
Tiny round bodies that are either free-floating or attached to the Rough E.R.
Site of protein synthesis
these are several flattened tubular membrane stacked upon each other and dilated terminal areas
Known as the stacked up flat tubular membrane
Dilated terminals at the end of the cisternae
Fxns of the Golgi complex
Packaging of secretory materialSite of lysosome formation, new E.R. synthesizes large polysaccharides
pre-formed membrane-bound, dense appearing structures
Known as suicide bags due to the enzyme it contains
Fnxs. of Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion, aurolysis and is related to aging and degenerative processes
Process of self-destruction of the cell due to its own lysosomal rupture
breakdown of intracellular molecules and digest foreign organisms like bacteria
Spherical or Sausage shaped
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
What takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
Energy production and enzyme activity
Fxns. of the mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell; responsible for the production of ATP (energy); related to cellular respiration; gives energy in protein, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis
Disarms harmful free radicals, which are compounds with missing electrons
Common with lysosome
Fxns. of Peroxisomes
-involved in the production/destruction of hydrogen peroxide-active in internal metabolism of the cell such as: purine metabolism, breakdown of nucleic acids, conversion of fat ->...
granular structures located outside of the nucleus
What is a single centrosome?
What do you call a pair of centrioles?
A self-duplicating organelle
A small rod-like structure
Minute cylinders, that when x-sectioned shows evenly spaced microtubules
fnxs of centrosome/centrioles
-active in cell division-cilia formation
What protein substance is in Microtubules?
are smaller than microfilaments
Fxns. of Microtubules
- maintenance of cell shape- movement or chromosomes, cilia and organelles- formation of spindle fibers
Are long, thin, tiny cylindrical fibrils made up of predominantly of protein actin
Fxns of Microfilament
- constriction- contraction- transport- amoeboid movements
Lifeless accumulation of metabolities
What are the cytoplasmic inclusions?
- cytoplasmic granules and vacuoles- secretory granules- pigments- crystals
1Minute cavities w/ a single membrane called (2) and serve as repository of substances like granules; present in protozoans; very rare in higher animals
1 - Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles2 - Tonoplast
Fnxs of the Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles Which vacuole transports...a.) raw material from the cell surface to interior processing centersb.) finished products like secretionsc.)...
- vehicle for transportationa - food vacuoleb - secretory vacuolec - storage vacuoled - excretory vacuole- helps maintain rigidity
Storage depots of special substances from the Golgi Complex and E.R.
Ex. of pigments
Carotenoids, Melanin, Hemoglobin
Solid inclusions rare in animals but not in plants
A rounded, darkly-stained structure separated from the cytoplasm
2 types of membranes in the nucleus
Outer and Inner
Pores in the outer membrane of the nucleus
Annuli (passage for large materials)
Spaces bet. the 2 membranes of the nucleus
What is the nucleus composed of?
Membrane system, DNA, RNA and Protein
Fnx. of the Nucleus
- Control Center (directs cell division; contains all hereditary info)- Controls Protein Synthesis- Controls other metabolic activities
Parts of the Nucleus
- Nuclear membrane- Nucleoplasm- Chromatin- Nucleolus
Outermost part of the nucleus; made up of protein and fatty substances
clumps of dense granular thread-like network; a combination of Protein, DNA and RNA; contains the genes necessary for replication
A dense spherical object that disappears during mitosis; it's fnx is to construct ribosomes
A gel-like substance where chromosomes freely float
What do you call the stage wherein the RNA copies the info on the DNA?
What do you call the RNA after it has copied the information off of the DNA?
What do you call the stage wherein the mRNA pairs off with tRNA?
What does the mRNA carry?
What does the tRNA carry?
where does the mRNA wait to be paired off?
What is known as the start codon?
What are known as the stop codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
What do you call a long chain of protein?
State the whole process of Protein Synthesis
○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○Transcription○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○- RNA + DNA (copying) = mRNA- mRNA travels out to the cytoplasm and into the...
What are also called the hereditary traits?
What carries the hereditary traits?
Is a system of info w/c would only be transformed from generation - generation through either sexual/asexual means
It is a macromolecule made up of building blocks?
Building blocks in DNA
What does the DNA contain?
- Phosphate molecules- Nucleotide
What is the Nucleotide made up of?
►Deoxyribose sugar►4 Nitrogen bases
4 nitrogen bases in DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
4 nitrogen bases in RNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
Which nitrogen base pairs off with each other? (Both DNA and RNA)
DNA:A-T //////// G-CRNA:A-U /////// G-C
3 types of RNA
mRA (messenger RNA; holds the codons)tRNA (transfer RNA; holds the anticodons)rRNA (ribosomal RNA; holds to mRNA when pairing)
The state of dynamic equilibrium of the cell, or the maintenance of the internal environment of the cell
Fluids inside the cell
Fluids in the spaces outside the cell
2 major reasons for diff. concentration in ICF and ECF
1.) Utilization and production of substances2.) Selectivity of transport of substances through the cell membrane
2 types of transport systems
Passive and Active transport
Characteristics of Passive Transport
- Goes along the concentration gradient- Non-energy dependent- may / may not require enzymes
Types of Passive Transport in Solutes
Solvent Drag - A frequent accompaniment of bulk flowSimple Diffusion - movement of particles from a region of high - low concentrationFacilitated Diffusion - Diffusion that...
Characteristics of Active Transport
- Goes against the concentration gradient- energy dependent- needs carrier enzymes (Na-K pump, Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Ca pump)
Types of transport mechanisms for solvents
Movement of large quantities of a given solvent in any direction
Movement of solvent in a given direction as a result of differences in hydrostatic pressure of the 2 sides of the membrane
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
2 major processes that transport substances through a semi-permeable membrane
Diffusion and Active Transport Mechanism
A movement of substances in a random fashion cause by normal kinetic motion of matter going from high to low concentration
Factors that affect the rate of Diffusion
- concentration gradient- molecular weight of substance- distance traveled - x-section of the chamber- temperature
2 types of diffusion
Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary
Allows substances to cross membranes w/ the assistance of special transport protein.
Factors that affect the rate of Facilitated Diffusion
- Concentration Gradient- Amount of carriers available- rapidity of the chemical reaction
A protein carrier molecule in facilitated diffusion
Intake of particles
Removal of particles
2 Types of Endocytosis
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
Known as cell shrinking
Known as Cell bursting
Known as cell eating
Known as cell drinking
Net diffusion of water across the cell membrane, caused by concentration difference bet. 2 fluids
Solutions that have a higher concentration of solute
Solutions that have a lower concentration of solute
There is an even distribution of solutes and solvents in the solution