Zoology Midterm Prep

This Flashcard Set Is For The Purpose Of Preparing For My/our Zoology Midterms. May Contain Various Topics...be Warned!
 
Created Jan 13, 2011
by kimkakashi
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the study of animals
Zoology
this Latin term means "animal"
Zoon
this Latin term means "Discourse"
Logus
Divisions of Zoology
Structural, Developmental, Functional, Systematic/Taxonomy, Distributional, Historical and...
This division of zoology deals with the the study of structures.
Structural Zoology
Divisions of Structural Zoology
Morphology, Anatomy, Histology & Cytology
The study of structures as to form and shape especially viewed...
Morphology
The Latin word for "form"
Morpho
the study of the different structures of the organism especially revealed through dissection
Anatomy
Latin for the term "up"
Ana
Latin for "cut"
Temno
Latin for "tissue"
Histo
the study of microstructures and functions of a tissue.
Histology
Latin for "hollow"
Kytos
the study of structures and functions w/in a cell.
Cytology
The branch of zoology that deals with development.
Developmental Zoology
Branches under Developmental Zoology
Embryology & Genetics
the study of the growth and development w/in a fertilized egg.
Embryology
Latin for 'in'
Em
Latin for "swell"
Bryo
Latin for "beginning"
Genesis
the study of heredity and variation.
Genetics
Transmission of traits from parent to offspring
Heredity
2 Branches of Functional Zoology
Animal Physiology & Animal Behavior with regards to stimuli
the study of living processes or functions w/in animals.
Animal Physiology
Latin for "nature"
Physis
Latin for "arrangement"
Taxis
Latin for "law"
Nomos
the study of the systematic classification of animals
Taxonomy/Systematic Zoology
study of one-celled animals
Protozoology
Latin for "first"
Proto
the study of insects
Entomology
Latin for "insect"
Entomo
Latin for "shell"
Konche
the study of shells
Conchology
The study of mollusks or soft-bodies animals
Malacology
The study of fishes
Ichthyology 
Study of reptiles
Herpetology
Latin for "reptiles"
Harpeton
The study of birds
Ornithology 
Latin for "bird"
Ornis
Study of mammals or animals who feeds their young through the means of the mammary gland
Mammalogy
The study of worms
 Helminthology
Latin for "breast"
                          ...
The study of the distribution of animals in space (air, water or land)
Zoogeography
The study of relations of animals to their environment
Ecology
The study of fossils or remains of animals and their distribution in time
Paleontology 
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life
Phylogeny
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life through time
Evolution
The study of parasites or organisms that live and subsist on or in other animals
Parasitology
Parasites who subsist on animals
Ectoparasites 
Parasites who subsist in animals 
Endoparasites
Who are parts of the Ancient/Pre-historic Era?
Aristotle & Claudius Galen
The greatest zoologist of record; Father of Zoology
Aristotle 
The man of antiquity, a prominent physician and researched on the dissection of human beings...
Claudius Galen
Who are part o the Medieval - Renaissance Period ?
Albertus M., Mondino, Leonardo da Vinci
Known as the "Universal Doctor", noted for introducing Greek and Arabic Science as well as...
Albertus Magnus
"Restorer of Anatomy"; Due to his contribution in dissection of human cadavers 
Mondino
Drew many studies of the human skeletons and it's parts: the heart, sex organs & internal...
Leonardo da Vinci
Who were part of the Modern Era and state the specific scientific branch?
Anatomy: Konrad Gesner, Andreas Vesalius Microscopy: Janssen, Galileo, LeeuwenhoekTaxonomy:John...
Was the starting point of Modern Zoology; Wrote 5 vol. of "Historiae Animalium" 
Konrad Gesner
Father of Modern Anatomy
Andreas Vesalius
Built the first compound microscope; 
Janssen
Gave the telescope improvements; Father of Modern Science and Physics
Galileo
Father of mMicrobiology
Leeuwenhoek
First to give a biological definition of the term 'species'
John Ray
Father of Taxonomy; Classified animals and plants; laid the foundations of the modern scheme...
Carolus Linnaeus 
Father of Embryology; 1st president of the Russian Entomological Society
Karl Ernst von Baer
Founder of Evolutionary Embryology
Balfour
Father of Paleontology
George Cuvier
First saw the cell wall or cork cells
Robert Hooke
saw the first nucleus
Robert Brown
Father of Modern Histology and Pathology
Francois Marie Xavier Bichat
Introduced the cell theory
Scheiden and Schwann
Formulated the earliest theory of evolution
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
Father of Evolution; Proposed the theory that this branching patterns of Evolution resulted...
Charles Darwin
Father of Genetics; Studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants
Gregor Mendel
Scientists of the 20th Century
Montgomery, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Karl Landsteiner, A.S Weiner 
Was a major figure in the field of Cytology
Montgomery
Worked on chromosomes in the science of heredity
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Introduced the ABO blood groups
Karl Landsteiner
Introduce the Rh group
A.S Weiner
tiny units of living matter
Cell
A complex system that can exist by itself in order to maintain itself and reproduce in a medium...
                          ...
The structural and functional unit of all living things
                          ...
First to see the cell wall through cork cell (dead cells)When did this happen?
Robert Hooke (1665)
First to see the living substance in cells
Corti
Proposed the term "sarcode" for the "living substances"
Von Mohl
Proposed the term "protoplasm" 
Purkinje
How did protoplasm came to be?
Living substances -> Sarcode -> Protoplasm
First to see the nucleusWhen did this event occur?
Robert Brown (1881)
First described the nucleolusWhen did this occur?
Fontana (1781)
Formulated the 'cell theory' that all living organisms are composed of cells and cell products
Schleiden and Schwann
What composes the "Cell Theory"?
1.) All living things are made up cells2.) All cells come from pre-existing cells3.) The basic...
Stated that "Protoplasm is the physical basis of life"
Huxley
Said that "Cells come from pre-existing cells"
Virchow
Discovered DNA from pus cells he got form soldier wounds in the 1868 French War
Meischer
Made the model of the DNA
Watson and Crick
Discovered the MitochondriaWhen did this occur?
Altman (1894)
First to see the Golgi bodied in the neurons of the owl
Golgi
confirmed the Golgi bodies' presence through an electron microscope
Dalton
First saw the ribosomes
Palade
Named the endoplasmic reticulum
Porter
Describe the cell membrane as a sandwich composed of a bimolecular lipid layer with the protei...
Danielli and Davson
discovered the lysosome
De Duve
A cytoplasmic boundary/limiting membrane condensed into a peripheral film
Cell membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma
Describe the membrane of the Plasmalemma
Semi-permeable
What substance can easily pass through the Plasmalemma?
Lipid-soluble substances
What is the cell membrane's chemical composition?
2 monolayers of protein1 bilipid layer inbetween the 2 monolayers of proteinA small amount...
The more dense layer in the cell membrane's composition
Protein Layer
What is the Protein Layer responsible for?
The elastic property of the cell membrane
2 classes of membrane protein
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Proteins
Protein molecules that associate with the membrane's surface.
Extrinsic Proteins
Protein molecules that penetrate the bilayer lipid superficially or may extend all the way...
Intrinsic Protein
Which layer of the cell membrane is less dense?
Lipid layer
In the lipid layer which part is hydrophilic and which part is hydrophobic?
1st - Polar Head2nd - Non-polar Tail
What do you mean by Hydrophilic?
Water-soluble/water-loving
Functions of the lipid layer
Structural Framework of the cell membrane and anchorage for proteins 
What are the other names for this "protein-lipid-protein" theory?
Trilaminar or Unit Membrane Theory.
Who proposed the Trilaminar Theory?
Davson and Danielli
Who supported the Unit Membrane Theory?
Robertson
What are the fnxs of the cell membrane?
Holds and protects the contents of the cellA limiting membrane that serves to separate the...
The living substance w/in the cell composed of the nucleus and cytoplasm
Protoplasm
A colloidal system that undergoes the reversible sol-gel state
Protoplasm
What composed the Protoplasm?
Inorganic and Organic compounds
What are the inorganic compounds in the protoplasm?
Water, Minerals and Mineral Salts, Gases
What are the organic compounds in the protoplasm?
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Fats, Proteins
What elements does protein contain?
C, H, O, N, S and P
What is the chemical composition of Fats and Lipids?
C, H, O
These are an important source of readily available fuel to supply energy for metabolic processes
Carbohydrates
Compounds that contain carbons except in oxides and sulfides of carbon.
Organic compounds
In inorganic compounds under gases, what gases are being carried all over?
CO2 and O2
What may be in the form of cations and anions?
Minerals and Mineral Salts
Compounds which do not contain hydrocarbon, but include the oxides and sulfides of carbon
Inorganic compounds
the most abundant protoplasmic mineral
Water
How much of the water is in the protoplasm? In percent
35% - 90%
Some characteristics of water
- universal solvent-high surface tension and specific heat- vehicle to transport materials
Simple sugars
Monosaccharides
Examples of Monosaccharides
Glucose, galactose and fructose
Known as double sugars
Disaccharides/Oligosaccharides 
Examples oh Disaccharides and state each pair to form the double sugar
Glucose + Glucose = maltose (malt sugar)Galactose + Glucose = lactose (milk sugar)Fructose...
Known as multiple sugars
Polysaccharides
Examples of Polysaccharides
Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen
Which polysaccharide is present in plants
Cellulose and Starch
Which polysaccharide is found in animals
Glycogen
Other name for glycogen
Animal Starch/Emergency Sugar
Fnx of Lipids and Fats
-Provides heat and Energy- Constituent of the cell membrane
Simplest form of Lipids/Fats
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Forms of fats
-Simple Lipids-Compound Lipids-Derived Lipids
Types of Simple Lipids
►fats►oils►true fats/simple lipids►waxes►tallow (lard)
Contains a large amount of  saturated fat
Fats
Contains a large amount of  unsaturated fat
Oil
Can be called triglycerides; may be solid or liquid in room tempt.
Simple Lipids/ True Fats
Esters of long chained fatty acids and alcohol with high molecular weight
Waxes
Fatty acids with long CO2 chains
Tallow/Lard
esters of fatty acids and alcohol in combination with other compounds
Compound Lipids
The simple compounds w/c simple and compound lipids give on hydrolysis
Derived Lipids
Fnx of protein
build and repair the worn out tissues in the bodyserves as reaction acceleratorsForms other...
Simplest form of protein
Amino acids
Forms of Proteins
Simple, conjugated and derived proteins and nucleic acids
Ex. of simple Proteins 
soluble and insoluble
complex molecules larger than proteins
nucleic acid
What is the nucleic acid composed of?
nucleotides
Includes all the protoplasm except the nucleus
Cytoplasm
Known as the outer cytoplasm, which is homogeneous, rigid and non-granular
ectoplasm
Known as the inner cytoplasm, which contains granules and the cytoplasmic organelles
endoplasm
Organized living matter regarded as small internal organs of of the cell having specific fnxs....
Cytoplasmic Organelles
The Organelles in the cytoplasm:
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)- Ribosomes-Golgi Complex/Golgi Apparatus/ dictysomes- Lysosomes-...
A network of fine tube-like unit membrane micro-tunnels transversing the cytoplasm bet. the...
E.R.
2 Types of E.R.
Smooth/agranular and Rough/granular E.R.
Describe the rough E.R.
Contains ribosomes; may perform protein synthesis; serves as a transport system of materials...
Describe the smooth E.R.
tube-like appearance; no presence of ribosomes; site of steroid, lipid/fat and enzyme synthesis;...
Tiny round bodies that are either free-floating or attached to the Rough E.R.
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Ribosomes
these are several flattened tubular membrane stacked upon each other and dilated terminal areas 
Golgi Complex
Known as the stacked up flat tubular membrane
Cisternae
Dilated terminals at the end of the cisternae
Vacuoles
Fxns of the Golgi complex
Packaging of secretory materialSite of lysosome formation, new E.R. synthesizes large...
pre-formed membrane-bound, dense appearing structures
Lysosome
Known as suicide bags due to the enzyme it contains
Lysosome
Fnxs. of Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion, aurolysis and is related to aging and degenerative processes
Process of self-destruction of the cell due to its own lysosomal rupture
Aurolysis
breakdown of intracellular molecules and digest foreign organisms like bacteria
Intracellular digestion
Spherical or Sausage shaped
Mitochondria
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
Cristae
What takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
Energy production and enzyme activity
Fxns. of the mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell; responsible for the production of ATP (energy); related to cellular...
Disarms harmful free radicals, which are compounds with missing electrons
Peroxisomes
Common with lysosome
Peroxisomes
Fxns. of Peroxisomes
-involved in the production/destruction of hydrogen peroxide-active in internal metabolism...
granular structures located outside of the nucleus
Centrosome/Centriole
What is a single centrosome?
Centriole
What do you call a pair of centrioles?
Centrosome
A self-duplicating organelle
Centrosome/Centriole
A small rod-like structure
Centriole
Minute cylinders, that when x-sectioned shows evenly spaced microtubules
Centrosome/Centrioles
fnxs of centrosome/centrioles
-active in cell division-cilia formation
What protein substance is in Microtubules?
Tubulin
are smaller than microfilaments
Microtubules
Fxns. of Microtubules
- maintenance of cell shape- movement or chromosomes, cilia and organelles- formation of spindle...
Are long, thin, tiny cylindrical fibrils made up of predominantly of protein actin
Microfilament
Fxns of Microfilament
- constriction- contraction- transport- amoeboid movements
Lifeless accumulation of metabolities 
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
What are the cytoplasmic inclusions?
- cytoplasmic granules and vacuoles- secretory granules- pigments- crystals
1Minute cavities w/ a single membrane called (2) and serve as repository of substances like...
1 - Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles2 - Tonoplast
Fnxs of the Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles Which vacuole transports...a.) raw material...
- vehicle for transportationa - food vacuoleb - secretory vacuolec - storage vacuoled - excretory...
Storage depots of special substances from the Golgi Complex and E.R.
Secretory Granules
Ex. of pigments
Carotenoids, Melanin, Hemoglobin
Solid inclusions rare in animals but not in plants
Crystals
A rounded, darkly-stained structure separated from the cytoplasm
Nucleus
2 types of membranes in the nucleus
Outer and Inner
Pores in the outer membrane of the nucleus
Annuli (passage for large materials)
Spaces bet. the 2 membranes of the nucleus
Perinuclear cisternae
What is the nucleus composed of?
Membrane system, DNA, RNA and Protein
Fnx. of the Nucleus
- Control Center (directs cell division; contains all hereditary info)- Controls Protein Synthesis-...
Parts of the Nucleus
- Nuclear membrane- Nucleoplasm- Chromatin- Nucleolus
Outermost part of the nucleus; made up of protein and fatty substances
Nuclear membrane
clumps of dense granular thread-like network; a combination of Protein, DNA and RNA; contains...
Chromatin
A dense spherical object that disappears during mitosis; it's fnx is to construct ribosomes
Nucleolus
A gel-like substance where chromosomes freely float
Nuclear Sap/Nucleoplasm 
What do you call the stage wherein the RNA copies the info on the DNA?
Transcription
What do you call the RNA after it has copied the information off of the DNA?
mRNA
What do you call the stage wherein the mRNA pairs off with tRNA?
Translation
What does the mRNA carry?
Codons
What does the tRNA carry?
Anticodons
where does the mRNA wait to be paired off?
Ribosome
What is known as the start codon?
AUG (Methionine) 
What are known as the stop codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
What do you call a long chain of protein?
Polypeptide chain
State the whole process of Protein Synthesis
○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○Transcription○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○-...
What are also called the hereditary traits?
Genes/DNA
What carries the hereditary traits?
Chromosomes
Is a system of info w/c would only be transformed from generation - generation through either...
Genetic Material
It is a macromolecule made up of building blocks?
Genes/DNA
Building blocks in DNA
Nucleotides
What does the DNA contain?
- Phosphate molecules- Nucleotide
What is the Nucleotide made up of?
►Deoxyribose sugar►4 Nitrogen bases
4 nitrogen bases in DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
4 nitrogen bases in RNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
Which nitrogen base pairs off with each other? (Both DNA and RNA)
DNA:A-T //////// G-CRNA:A-U /////// G-C
3 types of RNA
mRA (messenger RNA; holds the codons)tRNA (transfer RNA; holds the anticodons)rRNA (ribosomal...
The state of dynamic equilibrium of the cell, or the maintenance of the internal...
Homeostasis
Fluids inside the cell
Intracellular Fluid
Fluids in the spaces outside the cell
Extracellular Fluid
2 major reasons for diff. concentration in ICF and ECF
1.) Utilization and production of substances2.) Selectivity of transport of substances through...
2 types of transport systems
Passive and Active transport
Characteristics of Passive Transport
- Goes along the concentration gradient- Non-energy dependent- may / may not require enzymes
Types of Passive Transport in Solutes
Solvent Drag - A frequent accompaniment of bulk flowSimple Diffusion - movement of...
Characteristics of Active Transport
- Goes against the concentration gradient- energy dependent- needs carrier enzymes (Na-K pump,...
Types of transport mechanisms for solvents
Bulk FlowOsmosisFiltration
Movement of large quantities of a given solvent in any direction
Bulk Flow
Movement of solvent in a given direction as a result of differences in hydrostatic pressure...
Filtration
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
Osmosis
2 major processes that transport substances through a semi-permeable membrane
Diffusion and Active Transport Mechanism
A movement of substances in a random fashion cause by normal kinetic motion of matter going...
Diffusion
Factors that affect the rate of Diffusion
- concentration gradient- molecular weight of substance- distance traveled - x-section...
2 types of diffusion
Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary
Simple Diffusion
Allows substances to cross membranes w/ the assistance of special transport protein.
Facilitated Diffusion
Factors that affect the rate of Facilitated Diffusion
- Concentration Gradient- Amount of carriers available- rapidity of the chemical reaction
A protein carrier molecule in facilitated diffusion
Permease 
Intake of particles
Endocytosis
Removal of particles
Exocytosis
2 Types of Endocytosis
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
Known as cell shrinking
Crenation
Known as Cell bursting
Hemolysis
Known as cell eating
Phagocytosis
Known as cell drinking
Pinocytosis
Net diffusion of water across the cell membrane, caused by concentration difference bet. 2...
Osmosis
Solutions that have a higher concentration of solute
Hypertonic
Solutions that have a lower concentration of solute
Hypotonic
There is an even distribution of solutes and solvents in the solution
Isotonic

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