Zoology Midterm Prep

272 cards

This flashcard set is for the purpose of preparing for my/our Zoology midterms. May contain various topics...be warned!


 
  
Created Jan 13, 2011
by
kimkakashi

 

 
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1
the study of animals
 
Zoology
2
this Latin term means "animal"
 
Zoon
3
this Latin term means "Discourse"
 
Logus
4
Divisions of Zoology
 

Structural,...

5
This division of zoology deals with the the study of structures.
 

Structural...

6
Divisions of Structural Zoology
 

Morphology,...

7
The study of structures as to form and shape especially viewed...
 

Morphology


8
The Latin word for "form"
 

Morpho


9
the study of the different structures of the organism especially revealed through dissection
 

Anatomy


10
Latin for the term "up"
 

Ana


11
Latin for "cut"
 

Temno


12
Latin for "tissue"
 

Histo

13
the study of microstructures and functions of a tissue.
 

Histology


14
Latin for "hollow"
 

Kytos


15
the study of structures and functions w/in a cell.
 

Cytology


16
The branch of zoology that deals with development.
 

Developmental...

17
Branches under Developmental Zoology
 

Embryology...

18
the study of the growth and development w/in a fertilized egg.
 

Embryology


19
Latin for 'in'
 

Em


20
Latin for "swell"
 

Bryo


21
Latin for "beginning"
 

Genesis


22
the study of heredity and variation.
 

Genetics


23
Transmission of traits from parent to offspring
 

Heredity


24
2 Branches of Functional Zoology
 

Animal...

25
the study of living processes or functions w/in animals.
 

Animal...

26
Latin for "nature"
 
Physis
27
Latin for "arrangement"
 

Taxis


28
Latin for "law"
 

Nomos


29
the study of the systematic classification of animals
 

Taxonomy/Systematic...

30
study of one-celled animals
 

Protozoology


31
Latin for "first"
 

Proto


32
the study of insects
 
Entomology
33
Latin for "insect"
 
Entomo
34
Latin for "shell"
 
Konche
35
the study of shells
 
Conchology
36
The study of mollusks or soft-bodies animals
 
Malacology
37
The study of fishes
 
Ichthyology 
38
Study of reptiles
 
Herpetology
39
Latin for "reptiles"
 
Harpeton
40
The study of birds
 
Ornithology 
41
Latin for "bird"
 
Ornis
42
Study of mammals or animals who feeds their young through the means of the mammary gland
 
Mammalogy
43
The study of worms
 
 Helminthology
44
Latin for "breast"
 
                          ...
45
The study of the distribution of animals in space (air, water or land)
 
Zoogeography
46
The study of relations of animals to their environment
 
Ecology
47
The study of fossils or remains of animals and their distribution in time
 
Paleontology 
48
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life
 
Phylogeny
49
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life through time
 
Evolution
50
The study of parasites or organisms that live and subsist on or in other animals
 
Parasitology
51
Parasites who subsist on animals
 
Ectoparasites 
52
Parasites who subsist in animals 
 
Endoparasites
53

Who are parts of the Ancient/Pre-historic Era?
 

Aristotle & Claudius Galen
54
The greatest zoologist of record; Father of Zoology
 
Aristotle 
55
The man of antiquity, a prominent physician and researched on the dissection of human beings...
 
Claudius Galen
56

Who are part o the Medieval - Renaissance Period ?
 

Albertus M., Mondino, Leonardo da Vinci
57
Known as the "Universal Doctor", noted for introducing Greek and Arabic Science as well as...
 
Albertus Magnus
58
"Restorer of Anatomy"; Due to his contribution in dissection of human cadavers 
 
Mondino
59
Drew many studies of the human skeletons and it's parts: the heart, sex organs & internal...
 
Leonardo da Vinci
60
Who were part of the Modern Era and state the specific scientific branch?
 
Anatomy: Konrad Gesner, Andreas Vesalius Microscopy: Janssen, Galileo, LeeuwenhoekTaxonomy:John...
61
Was the starting point of Modern Zoology; Wrote 5 vol. of "Historiae Animalium" 
 
Konrad Gesner
62
Father of Modern Anatomy
 
Andreas Vesalius
63
Built the first compound microscope; 
 
Janssen
64
Gave the telescope improvements; Father of Modern Science and Physics
 
Galileo
65
Father of mMicrobiology
 
Leeuwenhoek
66
First to give a biological definition of the term 'species'
 
John Ray
67
Father of Taxonomy; Classified animals and plants; laid the foundations of the modern scheme...
 
Carolus Linnaeus 
68
Father of Embryology; 1st president of the Russian Entomological Society
 
Karl Ernst von Baer
69
Founder of Evolutionary Embryology
 
Balfour
70
Father of Paleontology
 
George Cuvier
71
First saw the cell wall or cork cells
 
Robert Hooke
72
saw the first nucleus
 
Robert Brown
73
Father of Modern Histology and Pathology
 
Francois Marie Xavier Bichat
74
Introduced the cell theory
 
Scheiden and Schwann
75
Formulated the earliest theory of evolution
 
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
76
Father of Evolution; Proposed the theory that this branching patterns of Evolution resulted...
 
Charles Darwin
77
Father of Genetics; Studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants
 
Gregor Mendel
78
Scientists of the 20th Century
 
Montgomery, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Karl Landsteiner, A.S Weiner 
79
Was a major figure in the field of Cytology
 
Montgomery
80
Worked on chromosomes in the science of heredity
 
Thomas Hunt Morgan
81
Introduced the ABO blood groups
 
Karl Landsteiner
82
Introduce the Rh group
 
A.S Weiner
83
tiny units of living matter
 
Cell
84
A complex system that can exist by itself in order to maintain itself and reproduce in a medium...
 

                        ...
85
The structural and functional unit of all living things
 

                        ...
86
First to see the cell wall through cork cell (dead cells)When did this happen?
 
Robert Hooke (1665)
87
First to see the living substance in cells
 
Corti
88
Proposed the term "sarcode" for the "living substances"
 
Von Mohl
89
Proposed the term "protoplasm" 
 
Purkinje
90
How did protoplasm came to be?
 
Living substances -> Sarcode -> Protoplasm
91
First to see the nucleusWhen did this event occur?
 
Robert Brown (1881)
92
First described the nucleolusWhen did this occur?
 
Fontana (1781)
93
Formulated the 'cell theory' that all living organisms are composed of cells and cell products
 
Schleiden and Schwann
94
What composes the "Cell Theory"?
 
1.) All living things are made up cells2.) All cells come from pre-existing cells3.) The basic...
95
Stated that "Protoplasm is the physical basis of life"
 
Huxley
96
Said that "Cells come from pre-existing cells"
 
Virchow
97
Discovered DNA from pus cells he got form soldier wounds in the 1868 French War
 
Meischer
98
Made the model of the DNA
 
Watson and Crick
99
Discovered the MitochondriaWhen did this occur?
 
Altman (1894)
100
First to see the Golgi bodied in the neurons of the owl
 
Golgi
101
confirmed the Golgi bodies' presence through an electron microscope
 
Dalton
102
First saw the ribosomes
 
Palade
103
Named the endoplasmic reticulum
 
Porter
104
Describe the cell membrane as a sandwich composed of a bimolecular lipid layer with the protei...
 
Danielli and Davson
105
discovered the lysosome
 
De Duve
106
A cytoplasmic boundary/limiting membrane condensed into a peripheral film
 
Cell membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma
107
Describe the membrane of the Plasmalemma
 
Semi-permeable
108
What substance can easily pass through the Plasmalemma?
 
Lipid-soluble substances
109
What is the cell membrane's chemical composition?
 
2 monolayers of protein1 bilipid layer inbetween the 2 monolayers of proteinA small amount...
110
The more dense layer in the cell membrane's composition
 
Protein Layer
111
What is the Protein Layer responsible for?
 
The elastic property of the cell membrane
112
2 classes of membrane protein
 
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Proteins
113
Protein molecules that associate with the membrane's surface.
 
Extrinsic Proteins
114
Protein molecules that penetrate the bilayer lipid superficially or may extend all the way...
 
Intrinsic Protein
115
Which layer of the cell membrane is less dense?
 
Lipid layer
116
In the lipid layer which part is hydrophilic and which part is hydrophobic?
 
1st - Polar Head2nd - Non-polar Tail
117
What do you mean by Hydrophilic?
 
Water-soluble/water-loving
118
Functions of the lipid layer
 
Structural Framework of the cell membrane and anchorage for proteins 
119
What are the other names for this "protein-lipid-protein" theory?
 
Trilaminar or Unit Membrane Theory.
120
Who proposed the Trilaminar Theory?
 
Davson and Danielli
121
Who supported the Unit Membrane Theory?
 
Robertson
122
What are the fnxs of the cell membrane?
 
Holds and protects the contents of the cellA limiting membrane that serves to separate the...
123
The living substance w/in the cell composed of the nucleus and cytoplasm
 
Protoplasm
124
A colloidal system that undergoes the reversible sol-gel state
 
Protoplasm
125
What composed the Protoplasm?
 
Inorganic and Organic compounds
126
What are the inorganic compounds in the protoplasm?
 
Water, Minerals and Mineral Salts, Gases
127
What are the organic compounds in the protoplasm?
 
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Fats, Proteins
128
What elements does protein contain?
 
C, H, O, N, S and P
129
What is the chemical composition of Fats and Lipids?
 
C, H, O
130
These are an important source of readily available fuel to supply energy for metabolic processes
 
Carbohydrates
131
Compounds that contain carbons except in oxides and sulfides of carbon.
 
Organic compounds
132
In inorganic compounds under gases, what gases are being carried all over?
 
CO2 and O2
133
What may be in the form of cations and anions?
 
Minerals and Mineral Salts
134
Compounds which do not contain hydrocarbon, but include the oxides and sulfides of carbon
 
Inorganic compounds
135
the most abundant protoplasmic mineral
 
Water
136
How much of the water is in the protoplasm? In percent
 
35% - 90%
137
Some characteristics of water
 
- universal solvent-high surface tension and specific heat- vehicle to transport materials
138
Simple sugars
 
Monosaccharides
139
Examples of Monosaccharides
 
Glucose, galactose and fructose
140
Known as double sugars
 
Disaccharides/Oligosaccharides 
141
Examples oh Disaccharides and state each pair to form the double sugar
 
Glucose + Glucose = maltose (malt sugar)Galactose + Glucose = lactose (milk sugar)Fructose...
142
Known as multiple sugars
 
Polysaccharides
143
Examples of Polysaccharides
 
Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen
144
Which polysaccharide is present in plants
 
Cellulose and Starch
145
Which polysaccharide is found in animals
 
Glycogen
146
Other name for glycogen
 
Animal Starch/Emergency Sugar
147
Fnx of Lipids and Fats
 
-Provides heat and Energy- Constituent of the cell membrane
148
Simplest form of Lipids/Fats
 
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
149
Forms of fats
 
-Simple Lipids-Compound Lipids-Derived Lipids
150
Types of Simple Lipids
 
►fats►oils►true fats/simple lipids►waxes►tallow (lard)
151
Contains a large amount of  saturated fat
 
Fats
152
Contains a large amount of  unsaturated fat
 
Oil
153
Can be called triglycerides; may be solid or liquid in room tempt.
 
Simple Lipids/ True Fats
154
Esters of long chained fatty acids and alcohol with high molecular weight
 
Waxes
155
Fatty acids with long CO2 chains
 
Tallow/Lard
156
esters of fatty acids and alcohol in combination with other compounds
 
Compound Lipids
157
The simple compounds w/c simple and compound lipids give on hydrolysis
 
Derived Lipids
158
Fnx of protein
 
build and repair the worn out tissues in the bodyserves as reaction acceleratorsForms other...
159
Simplest form of protein
 
Amino acids
160
Forms of Proteins
 
Simple, conjugated and derived proteins and nucleic acids
161
Ex. of simple Proteins 
 
soluble and insoluble
162
complex molecules larger than proteins
 
nucleic acid
163
What is the nucleic acid composed of?
 
nucleotides
164
Includes all the protoplasm except the nucleus
 
Cytoplasm
165
Known as the outer cytoplasm, which is homogeneous, rigid and non-granular
 
ectoplasm
166
Known as the inner cytoplasm, which contains granules and the cytoplasmic organelles
 
endoplasm
167
Organized living matter regarded as small internal organs of of the cell having specific fnxs....
 
Cytoplasmic Organelles
168
The Organelles in the cytoplasm:
 
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)- Ribosomes-Golgi Complex/Golgi Apparatus/ dictysomes- Lysosomes-...
169
A network of fine tube-like unit membrane micro-tunnels transversing the cytoplasm bet. the...
 
E.R.
170
2 Types of E.R.
 
Smooth/agranular and Rough/granular E.R.
171
Describe the rough E.R.
 
Contains ribosomes; may perform protein synthesis; serves as a transport system of materials...
172
Describe the smooth E.R.
 
tube-like appearance; no presence of ribosomes; site of steroid, lipid/fat and enzyme synthesis;...
173
Tiny round bodies that are either free-floating or attached to the Rough E.R.
 
Ribosomes
174
Site of protein synthesis
 
Ribosomes
175
these are several flattened tubular membrane stacked upon each other and dilated terminal areas 
 
Golgi Complex
176
Known as the stacked up flat tubular membrane
 
Cisternae
177
Dilated terminals at the end of the cisternae
 
Vacuoles
178
Fxns of the Golgi complex
 
Packaging of secretory materialSite of lysosome formation, new E.R. synthesizes large...
179
pre-formed membrane-bound, dense appearing structures
 
Lysosome
180
Known as suicide bags due to the enzyme it contains
 
Lysosome
181
Fnxs. of Lysosomes
 
Intracellular digestion, aurolysis and is related to aging and degenerative processes
182
Process of self-destruction of the cell due to its own lysosomal rupture
 
Aurolysis
183
breakdown of intracellular molecules and digest foreign organisms like bacteria
 
Intracellular digestion
184
Spherical or Sausage shaped
 
Mitochondria
185
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
 
Cristae
186
What takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
 
Energy production and enzyme activity
187
Fxns. of the mitochondria
 
Powerhouse of the cell; responsible for the production of ATP (energy); related to cellular...
188
Disarms harmful free radicals, which are compounds with missing electrons
 
Peroxisomes
189
Common with lysosome
 
Peroxisomes
190
Fxns. of Peroxisomes
 
-involved in the production/destruction of hydrogen peroxide-active in internal metabolism...
191
granular structures located outside of the nucleus
 
Centrosome/Centriole
192
What is a single centrosome?
 
Centriole
193
What do you call a pair of centrioles?
 
Centrosome
194
A self-duplicating organelle
 
Centrosome/Centriole
195
A small rod-like structure
 
Centriole
196
Minute cylinders, that when x-sectioned shows evenly spaced microtubules
 
Centrosome/Centrioles
197
fnxs of centrosome/centrioles
 
-active in cell division-cilia formation
198
What protein substance is in Microtubules?
 
Tubulin
199
are smaller than microfilaments
 
Microtubules
200
Fxns. of Microtubules
 
- maintenance of cell shape- movement or chromosomes, cilia and organelles- formation of spindle...
201
Are long, thin, tiny cylindrical fibrils made up of predominantly of protein actin
 
Microfilament
202
Fxns of Microfilament
 
- constriction- contraction- transport- amoeboid movements
203
Lifeless accumulation of metabolities 
 
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
204
What are the cytoplasmic inclusions?
 
- cytoplasmic granules and vacuoles- secretory granules- pigments- crystals
205
1Minute cavities w/ a single membrane called (2) and serve as repository...
 
1 - Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles2 - Tonoplast
206
Fnxs of the Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles Which vacuole transports...a.) raw material...
 
- vehicle for transportationa - food vacuoleb - secretory vacuolec - storage vacuoled - excretory...
207
Storage depots of special substances from the Golgi Complex and E.R.
 
Secretory Granules
208
Ex. of pigments
 
Carotenoids, Melanin, Hemoglobin
209
Solid inclusions rare in animals but not in plants
 
Crystals
210
A rounded, darkly-stained structure separated from the cytoplasm
 
Nucleus
211
2 types of membranes in the nucleus
 
Outer and Inner
212
Pores in the outer membrane of the nucleus
 
Annuli (passage for large materials)
213
Spaces bet. the 2 membranes of the nucleus
 
Perinuclear cisternae
214
What is the nucleus composed of?
 
Membrane system, DNA, RNA and Protein
215
Fnx. of the Nucleus
 
- Control Center (directs cell division; contains all hereditary info)- Controls Protein Synthesis-...
216
Parts of the Nucleus
 
- Nuclear membrane- Nucleoplasm- Chromatin- Nucleolus
217
Outermost part of the nucleus; made up of protein and fatty substances
 
Nuclear membrane
218
clumps of dense granular thread-like network; a combination of Protein, DNA and RNA; contains...
 
Chromatin
219
A dense spherical object that disappears during mitosis; it's fnx is to construct ribosomes
 
Nucleolus
220
A gel-like substance where chromosomes freely float
 
Nuclear Sap/Nucleoplasm 
221
What do you call the stage wherein the RNA copies the info on the DNA?
 
Transcription
222
What do you call the RNA after it has copied the information off of the DNA?
 
mRNA
223
What do you call the stage wherein the mRNA pairs off with tRNA?
 
Translation
224
What does the mRNA carry?
 
Codons
225
What does the tRNA carry?
 
Anticodons
226
where does the mRNA wait to be paired off?
 
Ribosome
227
What is known as the start codon?
 
AUG (Methionine) 
228
What are known as the stop codons?
 
UAA, UAG, UGA
229
What do you call a long chain of protein?
 
Polypeptide chain
230
State the whole process of Protein Synthesis
 
○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○Transcription○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○-...
231
What are also called the hereditary traits?
 
Genes/DNA
232
What carries the hereditary traits?
 
Chromosomes
233
Is a system of info w/c would only be transformed from generation - generation through either...
 
Genetic Material
234
It is a macromolecule made up of building blocks?
 
Genes/DNA
235
Building blocks in DNA
 
Nucleotides
236
What does the DNA contain?
 
- Phosphate molecules- Nucleotide
237
What is the Nucleotide made up of?
 
►Deoxyribose sugar►4 Nitrogen bases
238
4 nitrogen bases in DNA
 
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
239
4 nitrogen bases in RNA
 
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
240
Which nitrogen base pairs off with each other? (Both DNA and RNA)
 
DNA:A-T //////// G-C
RNA:A-U /////// G-C
241
3 types of RNA
 
mRA (messenger RNA; holds the codons)tRNA (transfer RNA; holds the anticodons)rRNA (ribosomal...
242
The state of dynamic equilibrium of the cell, or the maintenance of the internal...
 
Homeostasis
243
Fluids inside the cell
 
Intracellular Fluid
244
Fluids in the spaces outside the cell
 
Extracellular Fluid
245
2 major reasons for diff. concentration in ICF and ECF
 
1.) Utilization and production of substances2.) Selectivity of transport of substances through...
246
2 types of transport systems
 
Passive and Active transport
247
Characteristics of Passive Transport
 
- Goes along the concentration gradient- Non-energy dependent- may / may not require enzymes
248
Types of Passive Transport in Solutes
 
Solvent Drag - A frequent accompaniment of bulk flowSimple Diffusion - movement of...
249
Characteristics of Active Transport
 
- Goes against the concentration gradient- energy dependent- needs carrier enzymes (Na-K pump,...
250
Types of transport mechanisms for solvents
 
Bulk FlowOsmosisFiltration
251
Movement of large quantities of a given solvent in any direction
 
Bulk Flow
252
Movement of solvent in a given direction as a result of differences in hydrostatic pressure...
 
Filtration
253
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
 
Osmosis
254
2 major processes that transport substances through a semi-permeable membrane
 
Diffusion and Active Transport Mechanism
255
A movement of substances in a random fashion cause by normal kinetic motion of matter going...
 
Diffusion
256
Factors that affect the rate of Diffusion
 
- concentration gradient- molecular weight of substance- distance traveled - x-section...
257
2 types of diffusion
 
Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
258
refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary
 
Simple Diffusion
259
Allows substances to cross membranes w/ the assistance of special transport protein.
 
Facilitated Diffusion
260
Factors that affect the rate of Facilitated Diffusion
 
- Concentration Gradient- Amount of carriers available- rapidity of the chemical reaction
261
A protein carrier molecule in facilitated diffusion
 
Permease 
262
Intake of particles
 
Endocytosis
263
Removal of particles
 
Exocytosis
264
2 Types of Endocytosis
 
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
265
Known as cell shrinking
 
Crenation
266
Known as Cell bursting
 
Hemolysis
267
Known as cell eating
 
Phagocytosis
268
Known as cell drinking
 
Pinocytosis
269
Net diffusion of water across the cell membrane, caused by concentration difference bet. 2...
 
Osmosis
270
Solutions that have a higher concentration of solute
 
Hypertonic
271
Solutions that have a lower concentration of solute
 
Hypotonic
272
There is an even distribution of solutes and solvents in the solution
 
Isotonic

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