Zoology Midterm Prep

Zoology Midterm Prep This Flashcard Set Is For The Purpose Of Preparing For My/our Zoology Midterms. May Contain Various Topics...be Warned!
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the study of animals
 
Zoology
this Latin term means "animal"
 
Zoon
this Latin term means "Discourse"
 
Logus
Divisions of Zoology
 
Structural, Developmental, Functional, Systematic/Taxonomy, Distributional, Historical and Medical Zoology
This division of zoology deals with the the study of structures.
 
Structural Zoology
Divisions of Structural Zoology
 
Morphology, Anatomy, Histology & Cytology
The study of structures as to form and shape especially viewed as a whole
 
Morphology
The Latin word for "form"
 
Morpho
the study of the different structures of the organism especially revealed through dissection
 
Anatomy
Latin for the term "up"
 
Ana
Latin for "cut"
 
Temno
Latin for "tissue"
 
Histo
the study of microstructures and functions of a tissue.
 
Histology
Latin for "hollow"
 
Kytos
the study of structures and functions w/in a cell.
 
Cytology
The branch of zoology that deals with development.
 
Developmental Zoology
Branches under Developmental Zoology
 
Embryology & Genetics
the study of the growth and development w/in a fertilized egg.
 
Embryology
Latin for 'in'
 
Em
Latin for "swell"
 
Bryo
Latin for "beginning"
 
Genesis
the study of heredity and variation.
 
Genetics
Transmission of traits from parent to offspring
 
Heredity
2 Branches of Functional Zoology
 
Animal Physiology & Animal Behavior with regards to stimuli
the study of living processes or functions w/in animals.
 
Animal Physiology
Latin for "nature"
 
Physis
Latin for "arrangement"
 
Taxis
Latin for "law"
 
Nomos
the study of the systematic classification of animals
 
Taxonomy/Systematic Zoology
study of one-celled animals
 
Protozoology
Latin for "first"
 
Proto
the study of insects
 
Entomology
Latin for "insect"
 
Entomo
Latin for "shell"
 
Konche
the study of shells
 
Conchology
The study of mollusks or soft-bodies animals
 
Malacology
The study of fishes
 
Ichthyology
Study of reptiles
 
Herpetology
Latin for "reptiles"
 
Harpeton
The study of birds
 
Ornithology
Latin for "bird"
 
Ornis
Study of mammals or animals who feeds their young through the means of the mammary gland
 
Mammalogy
The study of worms
 
Helminthology
Latin for "breast"
 
Mamma
The study of the distribution of animals in space (air, water or land)
 
Zoogeography
The study of relations of animals to their environment
 
Ecology
The study of fossils or remains of animals and their distribution in time
 
Paleontology
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life
 
Phylogeny
The study of the origin and differentiation in animal life through time
 
Evolution
The study of parasites or organisms that live and subsist on or in other animals
 
Parasitology
Parasites who subsist on animals
 
Ectoparasites
Parasites who subsist in animals
 
Endoparasites

Who are parts of the Ancient/Pre-historic Era?
 

Aristotle & Claudius Galen
The greatest zoologist of record; Father of Zoology
 
Aristotle
The man of antiquity, a prominent physician and researched on the dissection of human beings (remnants)
 
Claudius Galen

Who are part o the Medieval - Renaissance Period ?
 

Albertus M., Mondino, Leonardo da Vinci
Known as the "Universal Doctor", noted for introducing Greek and Arabic Science as well as Philosophy to the Medieval world.
 
Albertus Magnus
"Restorer of Anatomy"; Due to his contribution in dissection of human cadavers
 
Mondino
Drew many studies of the human skeletons and it's parts: the heart, sex organs & internal organs
 
Leonardo da Vinci
Who were part of the Modern Era and state the specific scientific branch?
 
Anatomy: Konrad Gesner, Andreas Vesalius Microscopy: Janssen, Galileo, LeeuwenhoekTaxonomy:John Ray, Carolus LinnaeusEmbryology: Karl Ernst von Baer, BalfourPaleontology: George CuvierHistology and Cell Theory: Robert H., Robert B., Francois M. X. B., Marcello M., Schleiden and SchwannEvolution: Jean B.P de L., Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel
Was the starting point of Modern Zoology; Wrote 5 vol. of "Historiae Animalium"
 
Konrad Gesner
Father of Modern Anatomy
 
Andreas Vesalius
Built the first compound microscope;
 
Janssen
Gave the telescope improvements; Father of Modern Science and Physics
 
Galileo
Father of mMicrobiology
 
Leeuwenhoek
First to give a biological definition of the term 'species'
 
John Ray
Father of Taxonomy; Classified animals and plants; laid the foundations of the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature
 
Carolus Linnaeus
Father of Embryology; 1st president of the Russian Entomological Society
 
Karl Ernst von Baer
Founder of Evolutionary Embryology
 
Balfour
Father of Paleontology
 
George Cuvier
First saw the cell wall or cork cells
 
Robert Hooke
saw the first nucleus
 
Robert Brown
Father of Modern Histology and Pathology
 
Francois Marie Xavier Bichat
Introduced the cell theory
 
Scheiden and Schwann
Formulated the earliest theory of evolution
 
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
Father of Evolution; Proposed the theory that this branching patterns of Evolution resulted from a process that he called "Natural Selection"
 
Charles Darwin
Father of Genetics; Studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants
 
Gregor Mendel
Scientists of the 20th Century
 
Montgomery, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Karl Landsteiner, A.S Weiner
Was a major figure in the field of Cytology
 
Montgomery
Worked on chromosomes in the science of heredity
 
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Introduced the ABO blood groups
 
Karl Landsteiner
Introduce the Rh group
 
A.S Weiner
tiny units of living matter
 
Cell
A complex system that can exist by itself in order to maintain itself and reproduce in a medium free from other living systems and cannot therefore be a parasite
 

Cell
The structural and functional unit of all living things
 

Cell
First to see the cell wall through cork cell (dead cells)When did this happen?
 
Robert Hooke (1665)
First to see the living substance in cells
 
Corti
Proposed the term "sarcode" for the "living substances"
 
Von Mohl
Proposed the term "protoplasm"
 
Purkinje
How did protoplasm came to be?
 
Living substances -> Sarcode -> Protoplasm
First to see the nucleusWhen did this event occur?
 
Robert Brown (1881)
First described the nucleolusWhen did this occur?
 
Fontana (1781)
Formulated the 'cell theory' that all living organisms are composed of cells and cell products
 
Schleiden and Schwann
What composes the "Cell Theory"?
 
1.) All living things are made up cells2.) All cells come from pre-existing cells3.) The basic and functional unit of life
Stated that "Protoplasm is the physical basis of life"
 
Huxley
Said that "Cells come from pre-existing cells"
 
Virchow
Discovered DNA from pus cells he got form soldier wounds in the 1868 French War
 
Meischer
Made the model of the DNA
 
Watson and Crick
Discovered the MitochondriaWhen did this occur?
 
Altman (1894)
First to see the Golgi bodied in the neurons of the owl
 
Golgi
confirmed the Golgi bodies' presence through an electron microscope
 
Dalton
First saw the ribosomes
 
Palade
Named the endoplasmic reticulum
 
Porter
Describe the cell membrane as a sandwich composed of a bimolecular lipid layer with the protei absorbed on each side
 
Danielli and Davson
discovered the lysosome
 
De Duve
A cytoplasmic boundary/limiting membrane condensed into a peripheral film
 
Cell membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma
Describe the membrane of the Plasmalemma
 
Semi-permeable
What substance can easily pass through the Plasmalemma?
 
Lipid-soluble substances
What is the cell membrane's chemical composition?
 
2 monolayers of protein1 bilipid layer inbetween the 2 monolayers of proteinA small amount of carbohydrates
The more dense layer in the cell membrane's composition
 
Protein Layer
What is the Protein Layer responsible for?
 
The elastic property of the cell membrane
2 classes of membrane protein
 
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Proteins
Protein molecules that associate with the membrane's surface.
 
Extrinsic Proteins
Protein molecules that penetrate the bilayer lipid superficially or may extend all the way through it.
 
Intrinsic Protein
Which layer of the cell membrane is less dense?
 
Lipid layer
In the lipid layer which part is hydrophilic and which part is hydrophobic?
 
1st - Polar Head2nd - Non-polar Tail
What do you mean by Hydrophilic?
 
Water-soluble/water-loving
Functions of the lipid layer
 
Structural Framework of the cell membrane and anchorage for proteins
What are the other names for this "protein-lipid-protein" theory?
 
Trilaminar or Unit Membrane Theory.
Who proposed the Trilaminar Theory?
 
Davson and Danielli
Who supported the Unit Membrane Theory?
 
Robertson
What are the fnxs of the cell membrane?
 
Holds and protects the contents of the cellA limiting membrane that serves to separate the cell from it's surrounding environment.Regulates the internal environment of the cellTransport substances in and out of the cellReceptor for specific stimuliAllows the transmission of impulsesResponsible for specificity: Cite of antigens (hiscompatibility) and Receptors (hormones)
The living substance w/in the cell composed of the nucleus and cytoplasm
 
Protoplasm
A colloidal system that undergoes the reversible sol-gel state
 
Protoplasm
What composed the Protoplasm?
 
Inorganic and Organic compounds
What are the inorganic compounds in the protoplasm?
 
Water, Minerals and Mineral Salts, Gases
What are the organic compounds in the protoplasm?
 
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Fats, Proteins
What elements does protein contain?
 
C, H, O, N, S and P
What is the chemical composition of Fats and Lipids?
 
C, H, O
These are an important source of readily available fuel to supply energy for metabolic processes
 
Carbohydrates
Compounds that contain carbons except in oxides and sulfides of carbon.
 
Organic compounds
In inorganic compounds under gases, what gases are being carried all over?
 
CO2 and O2
What may be in the form of cations and anions?
 
Minerals and Mineral Salts
Compounds which do not contain hydrocarbon, but include the oxides and sulfides of carbon
 
Inorganic compounds
the most abundant protoplasmic mineral
 
Water
How much of the water is in the protoplasm? In percent
 
35% - 90%
Some characteristics of water
 
- universal solvent-high surface tension and specific heat- vehicle to transport materials
Simple sugars
 
Monosaccharides
Examples of Monosaccharides
 
Glucose, galactose and fructose
Known as double sugars
 
Disaccharides/Oligosaccharides
Examples oh Disaccharides and state each pair to form the double sugar
 
Glucose + Glucose = maltose (malt sugar)Galactose + Glucose = lactose (milk sugar)Fructose + Glucose = sucrose (table sugar)
Known as multiple sugars
 
Polysaccharides
Examples of Polysaccharides
 
Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen
Which polysaccharide is present in plants
 
Cellulose and Starch
Which polysaccharide is found in animals
 
Glycogen
Other name for glycogen
 
Animal Starch/Emergency Sugar
Fnx of Lipids and Fats
 
-Provides heat and Energy- Constituent of the cell membrane
Simplest form of Lipids/Fats
 
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Forms of fats
 
-Simple Lipids-Compound Lipids-Derived Lipids
Types of Simple Lipids
 
►fats►oils►true fats/simple lipids►waxes►tallow (lard)
Contains a large amount of saturated fat
 
Fats
Contains a large amount of unsaturated fat
 
Oil
Can be called triglycerides; may be solid or liquid in room tempt.
 
Simple Lipids/ True Fats
Esters of long chained fatty acids and alcohol with high molecular weight
 
Waxes
Fatty acids with long CO2 chains
 
Tallow/Lard
esters of fatty acids and alcohol in combination with other compounds
 
Compound Lipids
The simple compounds w/c simple and compound lipids give on hydrolysis
 
Derived Lipids
Fnx of protein
 
build and repair the worn out tissues in the bodyserves as reaction acceleratorsForms other organic constituents like "nucleoproteins"
Simplest form of protein
 
Amino acids
Forms of Proteins
 
Simple, conjugated and derived proteins and nucleic acids
Ex. of simple Proteins
 
soluble and insoluble
complex molecules larger than proteins
 
nucleic acid
What is the nucleic acid composed of?
 
nucleotides
Includes all the protoplasm except the nucleus
 
Cytoplasm
Known as the outer cytoplasm, which is homogeneous, rigid and non-granular
 
ectoplasm
Known as the inner cytoplasm, which contains granules and the cytoplasmic organelles
 
endoplasm
Organized living matter regarded as small internal organs of of the cell having specific fnxs. in the maintenance of the cell
 
Cytoplasmic Organelles
The Organelles in the cytoplasm:
 
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)- Ribosomes-Golgi Complex/Golgi Apparatus/ dictysomes- Lysosomes- Mitochondria- Peroxisomes- Centrosomes/Centrioles- Microtubules- Microfilaments
A network of fine tube-like unit membrane micro-tunnels transversing the cytoplasm bet. the nuclear membrane and the outer plasma membrane
 
E.R.
2 Types of E.R.
 
Smooth/agranular and Rough/granular E.R.
Describe the rough E.R.
 
Contains ribosomes; may perform protein synthesis; serves as a transport system of materials synthesized by the cell; translocation of solutes into and across the cytoplasm
Describe the smooth E.R.
 
tube-like appearance; no presence of ribosomes; site of steroid, lipid/fat and enzyme synthesis; rapid transport of metabolism in muscular contraction
Tiny round bodies that are either free-floating or attached to the Rough E.R.
 
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
 
Ribosomes
these are several flattened tubular membrane stacked upon each other and dilated terminal areas
 
Golgi Complex
Known as the stacked up flat tubular membrane
 
Cisternae
Dilated terminals at the end of the cisternae
 
Vacuoles
Fxns of the Golgi complex
 
Packaging of secretory materialSite of lysosome formation, new E.R. synthesizes large polysaccharides
pre-formed membrane-bound, dense appearing structures
 
Lysosome
Known as suicide bags due to the enzyme it contains
 
Lysosome
Fnxs. of Lysosomes
 
Intracellular digestion, aurolysis and is related to aging and degenerative processes
Process of self-destruction of the cell due to its own lysosomal rupture
 
Aurolysis
breakdown of intracellular molecules and digest foreign organisms like bacteria
 
Intracellular digestion
Spherical or Sausage shaped
 
Mitochondria
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
 
Cristae
What takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
 
Energy production and enzyme activity
Fxns. of the mitochondria
 
Powerhouse of the cell; responsible for the production of ATP (energy); related to cellular respiration; gives energy in protein, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis
Disarms harmful free radicals, which are compounds with missing electrons
 
Peroxisomes
Common with lysosome
 
Peroxisomes
Fxns. of Peroxisomes
 
-involved in the production/destruction of hydrogen peroxide-active in internal metabolism of the cell such as: purine metabolism, breakdown of nucleic acids, conversion of fat -> glucose
granular structures located outside of the nucleus
 
Centrosome/Centriole
What is a single centrosome?
 
Centriole
What do you call a pair of centrioles?
 
Centrosome
A self-duplicating organelle
 
Centrosome/Centriole
A small rod-like structure
 
Centriole
Minute cylinders, that when x-sectioned shows evenly spaced microtubules
 
Centrosome/Centrioles
fnxs of centrosome/centrioles
 
-active in cell division-cilia formation
What protein substance is in Microtubules?
 
Tubulin
are smaller than microfilaments
 
Microtubules
Fxns. of Microtubules
 
- maintenance of cell shape- movement or chromosomes, cilia and organelles- formation of spindle fibers
Are long, thin, tiny cylindrical fibrils made up of predominantly of protein actin
 
Microfilament
Fxns of Microfilament
 
- constriction- contraction- transport- amoeboid movements
Lifeless accumulation of metabolities
 
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
What are the cytoplasmic inclusions?
 
- cytoplasmic granules and vacuoles- secretory granules- pigments- crystals
1Minute cavities w/ a single membrane called (2) and serve as repository of substances like granules; present in protozoans; very rare in higher animals
 
1 - Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles2 - Tonoplast
Fnxs of the Cytoplasmic Granules and Vacuoles Which vacuole transports...a.) raw material from the cell surface to interior processing centersb.) finished products like secretionsc.) storage materials like starch granules, fat droplets and waterd.) waste materials to points of elimination
 
- vehicle for transportationa - food vacuoleb - secretory vacuolec - storage vacuoled - excretory vacuole- helps maintain rigidity
Storage depots of special substances from the Golgi Complex and E.R.
 
Secretory Granules
Ex. of pigments
 
Carotenoids, Melanin, Hemoglobin
Solid inclusions rare in animals but not in plants
 
Crystals
A rounded, darkly-stained structure separated from the cytoplasm
 
Nucleus
2 types of membranes in the nucleus
 
Outer and Inner
Pores in the outer membrane of the nucleus
 
Annuli (passage for large materials)
Spaces bet. the 2 membranes of the nucleus
 
Perinuclear cisternae
What is the nucleus composed of?
 
Membrane system, DNA, RNA and Protein
Fnx. of the Nucleus
 
- Control Center (directs cell division; contains all hereditary info)- Controls Protein Synthesis- Controls other metabolic activities
Parts of the Nucleus
 
- Nuclear membrane- Nucleoplasm- Chromatin- Nucleolus
Outermost part of the nucleus; made up of protein and fatty substances
 
Nuclear membrane
clumps of dense granular thread-like network; a combination of Protein, DNA and RNA; contains the genes necessary for replication
 
Chromatin
A dense spherical object that disappears during mitosis; it's fnx is to construct ribosomes
 
Nucleolus
A gel-like substance where chromosomes freely float
 
Nuclear Sap/Nucleoplasm
What do you call the stage wherein the RNA copies the info on the DNA?
 
Transcription
What do you call the RNA after it has copied the information off of the DNA?
 
mRNA
What do you call the stage wherein the mRNA pairs off with tRNA?
 
Translation
What does the mRNA carry?
 
Codons
What does the tRNA carry?
 
Anticodons
where does the mRNA wait to be paired off?
 
Ribosome
What is known as the start codon?
 
AUG (Methionine)
What are known as the stop codons?
 
UAA, UAG, UGA
What do you call a long chain of protein?
 
Polypeptide chain
State the whole process of Protein Synthesis
 
○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○Transcription○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○- RNA + DNA (copying) = mRNA- mRNA travels out to the cytoplasm and into the ribosome then waits (already holding the codons)◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘Translation◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘◘- tRNA comes with the anticodon- mRNA + tRNA = Polypeptide chain
What are also called the hereditary traits?
 
Genes/DNA
What carries the hereditary traits?
 
Chromosomes
Is a system of info w/c would only be transformed from generation - generation through either sexual/asexual means
 
Genetic Material
It is a macromolecule made up of building blocks?
 
Genes/DNA
Building blocks in DNA
 
Nucleotides
What does the DNA contain?
 
- Phosphate molecules- Nucleotide
What is the Nucleotide made up of?
 
►Deoxyribose sugar►4 Nitrogen bases
4 nitrogen bases in DNA
 
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
4 nitrogen bases in RNA
 
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
Which nitrogen base pairs off with each other? (Both DNA and RNA)
 
DNA:A-T //////// G-C
RNA:A-U /////// G-C
3 types of RNA
 
mRA (messenger RNA; holds the codons)tRNA (transfer RNA; holds the anticodons)rRNA (ribosomal RNA; holds to mRNA when pairing)
The state of dynamic equilibrium of the cell, or the maintenance of the internal environment of the cell
 
Homeostasis
Fluids inside the cell
 
Intracellular Fluid
Fluids in the spaces outside the cell
 
Extracellular Fluid
2 major reasons for diff. concentration in ICF and ECF
 
1.) Utilization and production of substances2.) Selectivity of transport of substances through the cell membrane
2 types of transport systems
 
Passive and Active transport
Characteristics of Passive Transport
 
- Goes along the concentration gradient- Non-energy dependent- may / may not require enzymes
Types of Passive Transport in Solutes
 
Solvent Drag - A frequent accompaniment of bulk flowSimple Diffusion - movement of particles from a region of high - low concentrationFacilitated Diffusion - Diffusion that requires carrier enzymes
Characteristics of Active Transport
 
- Goes against the concentration gradient- energy dependent- needs carrier enzymes (Na-K pump, Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Ca pump)
Types of transport mechanisms for solvents
 
Bulk FlowOsmosisFiltration
Movement of large quantities of a given solvent in any direction
 
Bulk Flow
Movement of solvent in a given direction as a result of differences in hydrostatic pressure of the 2 sides of the membrane
 
Filtration
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
 
Osmosis
2 major processes that transport substances through a semi-permeable membrane
 
Diffusion and Active Transport Mechanism
A movement of substances in a random fashion cause by normal kinetic motion of matter going from high to low concentration
 
Diffusion
Factors that affect the rate of Diffusion
 
- concentration gradient- molecular weight of substance- distance traveled - x-section of the chamber- temperature
2 types of diffusion
 
Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary
 
Simple Diffusion
Allows substances to cross membranes w/ the assistance of special transport protein.
 
Facilitated Diffusion
Factors that affect the rate of Facilitated Diffusion
 
- Concentration Gradient- Amount of carriers available- rapidity of the chemical reaction
A protein carrier molecule in facilitated diffusion
 
Permease
Intake of particles
 
Endocytosis
Removal of particles
 
Exocytosis
2 Types of Endocytosis
 
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
Known as cell shrinking
 
Crenation
Known as Cell bursting
 
Hemolysis
Known as cell eating
 
Phagocytosis
Known as cell drinking
 
Pinocytosis
Net diffusion of water across the cell membrane, caused by concentration difference bet. 2 fluids
 
Osmosis
Solutions that have a higher concentration of solute
 
Hypertonic
Solutions that have a lower concentration of solute
 
Hypotonic
There is an even distribution of solutes and solvents in the solution
 
Isotonic
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