World War I - Freshman Year (9th Grade)

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the policy of gloryfying military power & keeping an army prepared for war
Triple Alliance
an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Kaiser Wilhelm
ruler of Germany, & forced Bismarck to resign
Triple Entente
Didn't bind Britain to fight with Russia but it did almost certainly ensue that Britain wouldn't go against them
What were 3 forces @ work that helped set the stage for war.
1 force was the growth of nationalism, or a deep devotion to ones country. 2- imperialsim. 3-militarism
What event help set in motion WWI?
The killing of the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife by the Black Hand
Central Powers?
Germany & austria- Hungary. Known as this because of their location in Europe. Bulgaria & Ottoman Empire
Great Britain, France, and Russia. Joining later would be Japan, Italy, and eventually the U.S.
Western Front

A deadlock Region in northern France.....
Fighting zone on the Franco- Germany Border
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan to attack France , then Russia because they were slow
Trench Warfare
parrallel trenches to protect themeselves from enemy. Soldiers fought each other from these trenches
Eastern Front
was a stretch of battlefield along the German & Russian border ( and part of Austria- Hungary)
What were some of the conditions that soldiers in trenches had to face? Characteristics?
Life in trenches was pure misery. Mud was everywhere, rats swarmed, and fresh food was nonexistent. sleep was nearly impossible. You lived in Filth.
What factors contributed to Russia's war difficulties?
Russia was not yet an industrialized country. The army was continually short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, and blankets.
Uunrestricted submarine warefare
policy German's made: their submarines would sink w/o warning any ship in the waters around britain
total war
countries devote all their rescources to the war effort
system: people could buy only small amounts of those items that were also needed for the war effort
governments used one-sided info designed to persude, to keep up moral and support for the war
Germany and France met, sighned this, an agreement to stop fighting
What was a factor that prompted The U.S. to join the war w/ the allies
Geman's sunk a ship that had U.S. citizens on it
What role did woment play in the war?
Women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops
what was the significance of the Second Battle of Marne
The Central Powers began to crumble. It prompted armistice.
September 1914
Alliies stopped Germans from entering France
How many miles of Trenches?
500 miles
Germans tried to get _______, France
Verdun, though Verdun was saved
year 1915
Allies plannes to pull germans apart (military wise)
countries make alliances because...

-because of common enemy
-economic ties
-pick the better of 2 evils
disadvantages and advanteges of an alliance

-stronger economy
-forced to be with others you may not like
Causes of war

~weapons better
~created a feeling of superiority
-Imperial Tensions
~Europe competed 4 colonies
-System of alliances
othere peoples torn by ethnic tensions
The Slavic
Woodrow Wilson
Part of the Bif 4- represented U.S>
Georges Clemenceau
Part of big 4 - represented France
Fourteen Points
Series of peace proposels. they outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace... written by W. Wilson
guiding idea for 14 points, this meant allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live
Treaty of Versailles
between Germany and the Allied powers
League of Nations
Treaty of V. created this. The league was to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations
What was the "war guilt" clause in the Traty of V. ?
Article 231, it placed sole responsibility for the war on germany's shoulders
When and who people atacked 1st to last

Austria - Hungary atacked serbia
Russia attacked Austria Hungary
Germany attacked France, then Russia because they were slow
Great Britain attacked Germany

Western Front
Eastern Front
Balkan Front
Italian Front
New Weopons

-Machine Gun
-Artillery (got better than in past)
-Weopons of the Industrial age
~75 types of poison gas bombs
~flame throwers'
U.s. declared war on germany in
The U.s wasnt for german win because
The u.s. economically waged much money on britain winning that if germany won the u.s. stock market would crash
Russia withdraws from war because
due to related shortages of food and fuel
# of dead and wounded after war

8.5 million died
21 milliion wounded
Allies who had most deaths from 1st to last

1-Russian Empire
3-British empire
7-U.S. (2%)
8- Others (Japan, Canada...)
Central power deaths?

3-Ottoman Empire
some of the 14 points

-league of nations
-no secret treaties
-lessen military/navy
-end colonialism
-freedom of the seas
-reduction of trade barriers among nations
-main point was to just let everything be-
why did france, italy, and britain not like 14 points

france pissed because the war was fought in france nand wanted to make germany pay. italy didnt get more land. britain wanted to keep colonies
britain and france lost the most and felt that they had the right to determine peace agreemant
Why did Italy and U.S. leave first? (in treaty of V.)

italy didnt get what they wanted
u.s. leftwith no peace of justice (didnt get what they wanted)
what was the treaty of v do

attempted to humiliate and cripple germany
wanted security against future german aggression.
name 5 points of treaty

-no navy
-army with no mare than 100,000 soldiers
-return land to france
-guilt clause
-league of nations
how did the traty affect germany
damaged germany economically, militarily, and hurt their pride. fueled another world war, allowed crazies like hitler to rise
what happend to europe after war?
changed countries borders, new countries pop up
did the u.s. sighn the treaty

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