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Hapsburg King and HRE, devout Catholic, Peace of Augsburg, divides empire, Ferdinand (brother) gets Austria and HRE, Philip II (son) gets Spain, Netherlands + American colonies
Son of Charles V, inherits Spain, the Spanish Netherlands and the American colonies. Adds Portugal, Spain's wealth expands, religious conflicts.
Artist in the Golden Age of Spanish Art, "The Greek" from Crete
By Miguel de Cervantes, the birth of the modern European novel
Decline of Spain
Inflation, population growth, silver bullion floods the market, expelled Muslims and Jews, Nobles didn't pay taxes, less developed manufacturing.
Taxed more to make up for Spain's debt. Heavily Catholic population.
Dutch has a good economy, levies taxes and crushes Protestantism
William of Orange
Leader of Dutch revolt, gets independence from Spain
United Provinces of Netherlands
1579, seven nothern provinces, Republic=Stability=Economic Growth. Exports diamonds, linens, pottery, not much inflation, lowest shipping rates in Europe
Dutch artist, used shadows and light
Kings (or Queens) who wanted total power and to control every aspect of society
God created the monarch and so the monarch represented god on earth- Monarch answered only to God, not subjects