Western Civ Final

Western Civ  Final SJU Western Civ 1 Final
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Basil II
 
Destroyed power in Byzantine Empire
Saints Cyril and Methodius
 
Introduced Cyrillic alphabet
Emperor Alexius
 
called for help w/ W. Turks
Pope Urban II
 
called for crusade
1st Crusade
 
capture of Jerusalem
Saladin
 
muslim leader responsible for uniting Egypt and syria
Richard the Lionheart
 
english king who led the 3rd crusade
4th Crusade
 
led to the Sack of Constantinople
Emperor Frederick II
 
Negotiates with Muslims for control over Jerusalem for 10 years
Egypt & Tunis
 
Objectives of 13th century crusades
Jihad
 
holy war
Knights
 
known for Chivalry
Blanche of Castille
 
ruled in absent of son King Louis IX (st. louis)
Vassal
 
In return for property or wealth offered Homage to their lords
Feudalism
 
system in which public powers of minting, justice and taxation and defense were in the hands of private lords
King William the Conqueror
 
est power of monarchy over lords in England
King Henry I
 
created the office of Exchequer to maintain the treasury of the kingdom
King Henry II
 
expanded the use of juries in England
Thomas Becket
 
Opposed civil trials of clergymen
King John
 
was forced to sign the Magna Carta
King Edward I
 
king responsible for establishing the role of Parliament in England
King Louis VI “the Fat”
 
consolidated royal control over Paris
King Philip II
 
began administrative kingship in France
King Louis IX-St. Louis
 
Extended royal control over southern France
Emperor Frederick I -“Barbarossa”
 
proclaimed kingdom Holy Roman Empire in Germany
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
 
Financed the exploration of New World by Christopher Columbus
Diocletian
 
Attempted to strengthen rule of succession in the Roman Empire through tetrarchy
Theodosius the Great
 
made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Zealots
 
Jewish radical who believed in the violent overthrow of Roman rule and the coming of the Messiah
Sadducees
 
conservative Jewish, who believed in strict adherence to the laws of the Torah
Pharisees
 
Jewish who were devotion to religious law, but were flexible to applying it everyday life
Essenes
 
Jewish group that lived a monastic life to escape the temptations of the world
St. Paul
 
Responsible for spreading Christianity beyond the Jews
Arians
 
Christians who believed the Jesus was lesser than God, but greater than man
Athanasians
 
Christians who believed in the co-equality of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit
Council of Nicaea
 
the MEETING that established the co-equality of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit known as the true doctrine of the Church
St. Benedict of Nursia
 
Codified the rules of Monasticism
Emperor Valens
 
Lost Battle of Adrianople to the Goths
Alaric
 
leader of the Goths who sacked Rome
Romulus Augustulus
 
last emperor to rule the Western Empire
St. Jerome
 
man responsible for writing the Vulgate Bible
St. Ambrose
 
developed the concept of the Superiority of the Church over kings
St. Augustine
 
author of Confessions & On the City of God
Cassiodorus
 
Wrote Institutes which compiled all the classical works that religious teachers needed to know
Justinian
 
last emperor who tried to recover what had been the Roman Empire
The Code
 
Laws of the Roman Empire from the Emperor Hadrian to Justinian
Tribonian
 
Chosen by Justinian to collect the laws of the empire
The Novels
 
book that contained the legislation of Justinian and his successors
The Digest
 
summary of the writings of the great jurists of the Roman Empire
The Institutes
 
textbook of the legal principles reflected in the Digest and the Code
Belisarius
 
general who was chosen by Justinian to reconquer the Western empire
Leo the Isaurian
 
Started Eastern Christian reforms known as Iconoclasm
Battle of Manzikert
 
Destruction of Byzantine army by Seljuk Turks
Muhammad
 
Last in long line of God’s prophets
Quraish
 
Tribe that controlled trade in Mecca
Hijrah
 
Journey from Mecca to Medina that marks the beginning of Muslim calendar
Medina
 
City that asked for Muhammad to come there to settle conflict of tribes
The Kabah
 
sacred stone worshipped by Muslims
Mecca
 
holy city of Islam
Qur’an
 
book containing the words of God to Muhammad
Abu Bakr
 
First Caliph
Caliph
 
successor of the prophet
Umayyads
 
oriented to the west
Abbasids
 
Oriented to the east
Harun al-Rashid
 
ruler of Abbasid empire at it's height
Arabian Nights
 
Stories that describe the Abbasid Empire
Sunnis
 
Believe in the succession of Caliphs
Shiites
 
Muslim group that insists that only the descendents of Ali can rule
Al-Hakem II
 
Ruler of Umayyad kingdom of Spain. Had a library of 400,000 books
Sufis
 
Spiritual leaders of Islam
Ulama
 
rule on the meaning of Islamic law
Avicenna
 
author of the Canon of Medicine
Averroes
 
attempts to reconcile Aristotle’s philosophy with Muslim faith
Gregory of Tours
 
6th century bishop whose diary recorded life in Gaul
St. Gregory the Great (Pope Gregory I)-
 
Support of monasticism
Charles Martel
 
Second founder of Frankish state
Battle of Tours
 
Defeat of Muslim incursion into France by Charles Martel
Pepin
 
Father of Charlemagne who became first Carolingian king
Mayor of the Palace
 
Controlled affairs under Merovingian kings
Charlemagne
 
Established powerful kingdom of the Franks
Counts
 
Provincial rulers under Charlemagne
Carolingian miniscule
 
The spacing of words and letters
Pope Leo III
 
Crowns Charlemagne Roman Emperor
Louis the Pious
 
Son of Charlemagne who was unable to maintain control of empire of his father
Charles the Bald
 
Grandson of Charlemagne who gained control of France
Louis the German
 
Grandson of Charlemagne who inherited what became Germany
Lothair
 
Grandson of Charlemagne who gained control of the Middle Kingdom
Alfred the Great
 
English king who codified English Law
Medina
 
City that asked for Muhammad to come there to settle conflict of tribes
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