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French and Indian War
(1754 - 1763) War erupted between France and England when the English challenged the French for control of the land that is now Ohio and western Pennsylvania.
Servants who contracted to work as many as seven years to repay the cost of their passage
Slave trade in the 1700s was triangular trade. New England merchants traded rum for slaves in West Africa. The slaves were sold in the West Indies for molasses or sugar, which was shipped...
An intellectual movement that held that reliance on reason and experience would lead to social progress.
John Locke believed that people are born free with these rights: Right to life, liberty, and property.
(1215) A document that placed limits on King John of Englands power to rule.
House of Burgesses
As early as 1619, Virginia colonists took the first step toward republican government when they instituted the colonies' first representative lawmaking body.
Causes of the American Revolution
Britain and France were involved in a rivalry for power, and only in Europe, but wherever the nation had colonies.
A healthy ignoring of the colonies. While preoccupied with France during the American Revolution, Britain governed the colonies under this policy.
The Treaty of Paris of 1763
Marked Britain's victory over France in the Seven Years' (or French and Indian) War. It also shifted the way power was distributed in North America.
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited movement into the lands gained from France, which was resented by the English colonists yet ignored due to France's defeat.
Held that colonies existed to provide raw materials and markets for the economic benefit of the home country. Was in result to the British government believing that the colonies should...
(1765) An act passed by Parliament which required a tax stamp on printed materials.
Taxed imported goods
Those who supported the king and obedience to English laws
Economic Causes of the American Revolution
After the French and Indian War, Britain was left with a large debt. The British gov't believed that the colonies should pay for their own defense. Parliament began to enforce the policy...
Political Causes of the American Revolution
Colonists reacted to the new taxes with petitions, boycotts, and other more violent protests. Samuel Adams helped create the Sons of Liberty and the Massachusetts Committee of Correspondence....
Social/Ideological Causes of the American Revolution
Natural rights, abundance of available land held enough land to qualify white males the right to vote, population grew as well as the number of immigrants, the Great Awakening (a religious...
Boston Tea Party
When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists protested by destroying three shiploads of British tea.
(1774) The British government reacted to the Boston Tea Party with these acts. They punished MA by closing the port of Boston, forbidding town meetings, and reducing the powers of the...
First Continental Congress
(1774) Twelve of the colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to plan a response to the British actions (Boston Tea Party/Intolerable Acts)
Second Continental Congress
After the start of the American Revolution (1775), they met and took charge of the war effort.
Declaration of Independence
In June 1776, Richard Henry Lee of VA presented a resolution to the Second Continental Congress calling for independence from Great Britain. The Congress appointed a committee (including...
Key Facts of the Declaration of Independence
To announce that the colonies were now a new, independent nation; to explain and justify why the colonies had become the USA; stated: a theory of gov't, a list of grievances against...
Treaty of Paris of 1783
A peace treaty ending the American Revolution negotiated by John Adams, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin and signed in 1783.
Effects of the American Revolution
Opposition of slavery, Iroquois League is destroyed and Native Americans are pushed farther west, some reexamine traditional ideas about women's roles in society, US' independence
Articles of Confederation
Reflected the colonists' fear of a strong central government and the desire of the individual states to protect their powers. The Articles created a weak national government.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Set the pattern by which new states could join the nation
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory
The problems plaguing the national government led to a call for this. It was for the "sole and express purpose of amending the Articles of Confederation."
Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise
Major compromise of the Constitutional Convention. Issue of representation in Congress.The Virginia Plan called for a bicameral legislature. A state's representation in each house...
Southerners wanted slaves to be counted for purposes of deciding representation in the House, but not for purposes of determining taxes. The compromise reached that three-fifths of...
Favored ratification of the Constitution
Opposed ratification of the Constitution
The source of all power or authority to govern is the people. This type of government is considered a democracy.
Separation of powers
Power to govern is divided among the legislative, executive, and judiciary brances to ensure that no single branch can dominate the government.
Checks and balances
A system which gives each branch of the national government ways to block or control the other branches in order to prevent any one branch from gaining too much power.
States that Congress can make all laws "necessary and proper" for carrying out the tasks listed in the Consitution.
Certain powers of the nat'l gov't are spelled out in the Constitution. (Power of the nat'l gov't to declare war.)
Certain powers of the nat'l gov't are not stated in writing. Their existence is implied by the Elastic clause. (Regulation of child labor.)
Certain powers are denied to the nat'l gov't. (Power to pass an export tax.)
Certain powers belong to both nat'l and state gov'ts. (Power to tax.)
Neither delegated to the nat'l gov't nor denied to the states. (Power to make divorce laws.)
Congress' two houses: Senate, House of Representatives
President, Cabinet (Electoral College)
Power of the supreme court to determine the constitutionality of acts of the legislative and executive branches of the gov't.
Freedom of religion, speech, press; the right to assemble peacefully; the right to petition the gov't.
The right to bear arms.
Declares that the gov't may not require people to house soldiers during peacetime.
Protecs from unreasonable searches and seizures.
No one may be deprived of their natural rights without dur process of law.
Prohibits excessive bails, fines, and punishments.
Abolition of slavery
Citizenship and civil rights
Voting rights for African American men
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages.
Voting rights for women
Terms of the President, VP, and Congress
Repeal of the eighteenth amendment
President limited to two terms
Abolition of poll taxes
Foreign policy after War of 1812. It called for an end to European colonization in the W. Hem., no intervention by Europe in existing nations in this hemisphere, a declaration that...
The use of new technologies in manufacturing - particularly in steam engines and machines to spin thread and weave cloth - gave rise to the revolution.
Reason for immigration (1845-1850.) Millions of Irish people came to the US because of a period of mass starvation caused by failure of the potato crop.
A system developed in which gov't jobs were given to loyal supporters of the political party that won the election.
Strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country
A system of gov't in which authority is divided between nat'l and state gov'ts
Indian Removal Policy
Andrew Jackson forced all Native American's to move west of the Mississippi.
Trail of Tears
The US army forced the Cherokee to leave in a forced march.
Antislavery movement which grew as cotton production became more profitable and slavery spread.
A series of safe houses where escaping slaves could rest safely as they made their way north and into Canada.
The conviction that the US had a divine mission to expand in order to spread the ideals of freedom and democracy.
Banned slavery in the part of the Louisiana Purchase.
Fugitive Slave Law
Required that escaped slaves be returned to their owners.
Freed all slaves in those areas still in rebellion against the Union
The effort to rebuild the southern states and restore the Union. It required the rebuilding of the nation's economy as well as it's gov't.
A tax imposed on every voter.
To aid former slaves
Gave part of each year's crop to the landowner and received the rest as payment
Sought to control all aspects of steel-making and built his company into the world's largest steelmaker. He sold his company for a quarter billion dollars. He believed the wealthy had...
John D. Rockefeller
Entered the oil-refining business during the Civil War. He believed competition was wasteful and used ruthless methods to eliminate competitors. By 1882, his Standard Oil Company controlled...
Profited by making loans to growing businesses. He took control of many bankrupt railroads in the late 1800s, reorganized them, and made a profit. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel in 1901,...
Revolutionized auto making by using a moving assembly line.
Noninterference of gov't.
Free enterprise system
Where private individuals make the economic decisions most efficient
Those who gained their wealth by ruthless methods in their dealings with competitors at the expense of the poor and working class.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Prohibited monopolies by declaring illegal any business combinations or trust "in restraint of trade or commerce."
Union members representing workers negotiated labor issues with management.
American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers formed the AFL. It was a collection of many different craft unions, unions of skilled workers in similar trades.
Took control of many city gov'ts, partly by providing help to the growing number of poor immigrant voters and thereby gaining their support.
Aimed at Americanizing the Native Americans
Originally meant to develop social ties.
Farmers own political party.
Taft, Wilson, Roosevelt
Open Door Policy
To ensure that the US would have fair access to the Chinese market.
Causes of the Spanish-American War
Yellow journalism, the De Lome letter, sinking of the Maine.
The policy of expanding a nation's power by foreign acquisitions.
If a nation in the Western Hemisphere is guilty of consistently behaving wrongly, Roosevelt said, the Monroe Doctrine requires that the US step in and act "as an int'l police power."
"Big Stick" Policy
The US would use peaceful methods to protect its interests whenever possible, but that it would use military force if necessary.