US History And Government Regents Review

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US History And Government Regents Review

Review For The US History And Government Regents Exam.

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French and Indian War
 
(1754 - 1763) War erupted between France and England when the English challenged the French for control of the land that is now Ohio and western Pennsylvania.
Indentured servants
 
Servants who contracted to work as many as seven years to repay the cost of their passage
Triangular trade
 
Slave trade in the 1700s was triangular trade. New England merchants traded rum for slaves in West Africa. The slaves were sold in the West Indies for molasses or sugar, which was shipped to New England to make more rum.
The Enlightenment
 
An intellectual movement that held that reliance on reason and experience would lead to social progress.
Natural Rights
 
John Locke believed that people are born free with these rights: Right to life, liberty, and property.
Magna Carta
 
(1215) A document that placed limits on King John of Englands power to rule.
House of Burgesses
 
As early as 1619, Virginia colonists took the first step toward republican government when they instituted the colonies' first representative lawmaking body.
Causes of the American Revolution
 
Britain and France were involved in a rivalry for power, and only in Europe, but wherever the nation had colonies.
Salutary neglect
 
A healthy ignoring of the colonies. While preoccupied with France during the American Revolution, Britain governed the colonies under this policy.
The Treaty of Paris of 1763
 
Marked Britain's victory over France in the Seven Years' (or French and Indian) War. It also shifted the way power was distributed in North America.
Proclamation of 1763
 
Prohibited movement into the lands gained from France, which was resented by the English colonists yet ignored due to France's defeat.
Mercanitilism
 
Held that colonies existed to provide raw materials and markets for the economic benefit of the home country. Was in result to the British government believing that the colonies should pay for their own defense.
Stamp Act
 
(1765) An act passed by Parliament which required a tax stamp on printed materials.
Townshend Acts
 
Taxed imported goods
Tories/Loyalists
 
Those who supported the king and obedience to English laws
Economic Causes of the American Revolution
 
After the French and Indian War, Britain was left with a large debt. The British gov't believed that the colonies should pay for their own defense. Parliament began to enforce the policy of mercantilism. Parliament passed several new tax laws (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts)
Political Causes of the American Revolution
 
Colonists reacted to the new taxes with petitions, boycotts, and other more violent protests. Samuel Adams helped create the Sons of Liberty and the Massachusetts Committee of Correspondence. Colonists charged that Britain had violated their natural rights as British citizens in creating the taxes. Because they had no representation in Parliament, colonists reasoned that taxation could only come from the colonial legislatures. Britain insisted that Parliament represented all of its subjects.
Social/Ideological Causes of the American Revolution
 
Natural rights, abundance of available land held enough land to qualify white males the right to vote, population grew as well as the number of immigrants, the Great Awakening (a religious movement.)
Boston Tea Party
 
When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists protested by destroying three shiploads of British tea.
Intolerable Acts
 
(1774) The British government reacted to the Boston Tea Party with these acts. They punished MA by closing the port of Boston, forbidding town meetings, and reducing the powers of the legislature.
First Continental Congress
 
(1774) Twelve of the colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to plan a response to the British actions (Boston Tea Party/Intolerable Acts)
Second Continental Congress
 
After the start of the American Revolution (1775), they met and took charge of the war effort.
Declaration of Independence
 
In June 1776, Richard Henry Lee of VA presented a resolution to the Second Continental Congress calling for independence from Great Britain. The Congress appointed a committee (including Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams) to draft a formal declaration.
Key Facts of the Declaration of Independence
 
To announce that the colonies were now a new, independent nation; to explain and justify why the colonies had become the USA; stated: a theory of gov't, a list of grievances against the king, a formal resolution declaring independence
Treaty of Paris of 1783
 
A peace treaty ending the American Revolution negotiated by John Adams, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin and signed in 1783.
Effects of the American Revolution
 
Opposition of slavery, Iroquois League is destroyed and Native Americans are pushed farther west, some reexamine traditional ideas about women's roles in society, US' independence
Articles of Confederation
 
Reflected the colonists' fear of a strong central government and the desire of the individual states to protect their powers. The Articles created a weak national government.
Land Ordinance of 1785
 
Set the pattern by which new states could join the nation
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
 
Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory
Constitutional Convention
 
The problems plaguing the national government led to a call for this. It was for the "sole and express purpose of amending the Articles of Confederation."

 

Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise
 
Major compromise of the Constitutional Convention. Issue of representation in Congress.The Virginia Plan called for a bicameral legislature. A state's representation in each house would be based on its population. Larger states supported this plan. The smaller states supported the New Jersey Plan. It called for a unicameral legislature in which each state had equal representation. The matter of representation was settled by the Great Compromise which gave something to both small and large states. It created the Congress, a bicameral legislature. The states had equal representation in the upper house (Senate.) In the lower house (House of Representatives) representation was based on population.
Three-Fifths Compromise
 
Southerners wanted slaves to be counted for purposes of deciding representation in the House, but not for purposes of determining taxes. The compromise reached that three-fifths of the enslaved African Americans in a state were counted for both representation and taxation purposes.
Federalists
 
Favored ratification of the Constitution
Anti-Federalists
 
Opposed ratification of the Constitution
Popular sovereignty
 
The source of all power or authority to govern is the people. This type of government is considered a democracy.
Separation of powers
 
Power to govern is divided among the legislative, executive, and judiciary brances to ensure that no single branch can dominate the government.
Checks and balances
 
A system which gives each branch of the national government ways to block or control the other branches in order to prevent any one branch from gaining too much power.
Elastic clause
 
States that Congress can make all laws "necessary and proper" for carrying out the tasks listed in the Consitution.
Delegated powers
 
Certain powers of the nat'l gov't are spelled out in the Constitution. (Power of the nat'l gov't to declare war.)
Implied powers
 
Certain powers of the nat'l gov't are not stated in writing. Their existence is implied by the Elastic clause. (Regulation of child labor.)
Denied powers
 
Certain powers are denied to the nat'l gov't. (Power to pass an export tax.)
Concurrent powers
 
Certain powers belong to both nat'l and state gov'ts. (Power to tax.)
Reserved powers
 
Neither delegated to the nat'l gov't nor denied to the states. (Power to make divorce laws.)
Legislative Branch
 
Congress' two houses: Senate, House of Representatives
Executive Branch
 
President, Cabinet (Electoral College)
Judicial Branch
 
Supreme Court
Judicial review
 
Power of the supreme court to determine the constitutionality of acts of the legislative and executive branches of the gov't.
First amendment
 
Freedom of religion, speech, press; the right to assemble peacefully; the right to petition the gov't.
Second amendment
 
The right to bear arms.
Third amendment
 
Declares that the gov't may not require people to house soldiers during peacetime.
Fourth amendment
 
Protecs from unreasonable searches and seizures.
Fifth amendment
 
No one may be deprived of their natural rights without dur process of law.

 


 

Eighth amendment
 
Prohibits excessive bails, fines, and punishments.
Thirteenth amendment
 
Abolition of slavery
Fourteenth amendment
 
Citizenship and civil rights
Fifteenth amendment
 
Voting rights for African American men
Eighteenth amendment
 
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages.
Nineteenth amendment
 
Voting rights for women
Twentieth amendment
 
Terms of the President, VP, and Congress
Twenty-first amendment
 
Repeal of the eighteenth amendment
Twenty-second amendment
 
President limited to two terms
Twenty-fourth amendment
 
Abolition of poll taxes
Monroe Doctrine
 
Foreign policy after War of 1812. It called for an end to European colonization in the W. Hem., no intervention by Europe in existing nations in this hemisphere, a declaration that European interference was "dangerous to our peace and safety", a promise of noninterference by the US in European affairs and colonies
Industrial Revolution
 
The use of new technologies in manufacturing - particularly in steam engines and machines to spin thread and weave cloth - gave rise to the revolution.
Potato famine
 
Reason for immigration (1845-1850.) Millions of Irish people came to the US because of a period of mass starvation caused by failure of the potato crop.
Spoils system
 
A system developed in which gov't jobs were given to loyal supporters of the political party that won the election.
Sectionalism
 
Strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country
Federalism
 
A system of gov't in which authority is divided between nat'l and state gov'ts
Indian Removal Policy
 
Andrew Jackson forced all Native American's to move west of the Mississippi.
Trail of Tears
 
The US army forced the Cherokee to leave in a forced march.
Abolition Movement
 
Antislavery movement which grew as cotton production became more profitable and slavery spread.
Underground Railroad
 
A series of safe houses where escaping slaves could rest safely as they made their way north and into Canada.
Manifest Destiny
 
The conviction that the US had a divine mission to expand in order to spread the ideals of freedom and democracy.
Missouri Compromise
 
Banned slavery in the part of the Louisiana Purchase.
Fugitive Slave Law
 
Required that escaped slaves be returned to their owners.
Emancipation Proclamation
 
Freed all slaves in those areas still in rebellion against the Union
Reconstruction
 
The effort to rebuild the southern states and restore the Union. It required the rebuilding of the nation's economy as well as it's gov't.
Poll taxes
 
A tax imposed on every voter.
Freedmen's Bureau
 
To aid former slaves
Sharecroppers
 
Gave part of each year's crop to the landowner and received the rest as payment
Andrew Carnegie
 
Sought to control all aspects of steel-making and built his company into the world's largest steelmaker. He sold his company for a quarter billion dollars. He believed the wealthy had a duty to society and gave hundreds of millions to charities. He also underwrote the founding of free public libraries all across the country.
John D. Rockefeller
 
Entered the oil-refining business during the Civil War. He believed competition was wasteful and used ruthless methods to eliminate competitors. By 1882, his Standard Oil Company controlled over 90 percent of American oil refining. In 1882, he formed the Standard Oil Trust to control more aspects of oil production. He also gave away hundreds of millions to society.
JP Morgan
 
Profited by making loans to growing businesses. He took control of many bankrupt railroads in the late 1800s, reorganized them, and made a profit. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel in 1901, merged it with other companies, and created the US Steel Corporation.
Henry Ford
 
Revolutionized auto making by using a moving assembly line.
Laissez-faire
 
Noninterference of gov't.
Free enterprise system
 
Where private individuals make the economic decisions most efficient
Robber barons
 
Those who gained their wealth by ruthless methods in their dealings with competitors at the expense of the poor and working class.
Sherman Antitrust Act
 
Prohibited monopolies by declaring illegal any business combinations or trust "in restraint of trade or commerce."
Collective bargaining
 
Union members representing workers negotiated labor issues with management.
American Federation of Labor
 
Samuel Gompers formed the AFL. It was a collection of many different craft unions, unions of skilled workers in similar trades.
Political machines
 
Took control of many city gov'ts, partly by providing help to the growing number of poor immigrant voters and thereby gaining their support.
Dawes Act
 
Aimed at Americanizing the Native Americans
Grange
 
Originally meant to develop social ties.
Populist party
 
Farmers own political party.
Progressive presidents
 
Taft, Wilson, Roosevelt
Open Door Policy
 
To ensure that the US would have fair access to the Chinese market.
Causes of the Spanish-American War
 
Yellow journalism, the De Lome letter, sinking of the Maine.
Imperialism
 
The policy of expanding a nation's power by foreign acquisitions.
Roosevelt Corollary
 
If a nation in the Western Hemisphere is guilty of consistently behaving wrongly, Roosevelt said, the Monroe Doctrine requires that the US step in and act "as an int'l police power."
"Big Stick" Policy
 
The US would use peaceful methods to protect its interests whenever possible, but that it would use military force if necessary.
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