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Side ASide B
A major function of urinary system is excretion of:
Urinary system regulates plasma concentrations of:
Urinary system regulates blood volume and thus:
Regulates blood volume by adjusting the volume of H2O in the urine using:
ADH and Aldosterone.
Regulates blood volume by releasing ______ to increase RBC production.
Renin-Angiotensin I-Angiotensin II-__________.
If the blood is too acidic, kidneys release ______ in urine.
If the blood is to alkaline, kidneys release ______in urine.
Activation of vitamin D occurs under the regulation of:
The kidneys assist the liver in:
Covers the entire surface of the kidney.
Surrounds the renal capsule.
Anchors the kidneys to the abdominal wall.
Urine is made in the:
Filtration occurs in the:
Reabsorption occurs in the:
PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT and collecting duct.
Secretion occurs in the:
DCT and other areas.
Filtering in the kidneys is done on the basis of:
Important nutrients like ____, ______ and _____ are reabsorbed back into the blood.
amino acids, glucose and vitamins
Almost all of the H2O in the nephron will be:
Capillary network across which filtration occurs.
Force of _________ forces out H2O and other small molecules in the glomerulus.
About _____ L of filtrate enter the nephrons each day.
Filtrate enters the tubule at the:
Inner, visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is composed of special cells called ______ that aid in filtering process.
MUCH reclaiming of H2O and nutrients occurs here.
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
_____% of the H2O and _____% of the nutrients are reabsorbed in the PCT.
60 and 65
PCT are lined with _____ that aid in absorption.
Na+ and H2O are regulated here.
Loop of Henle
Na+ is actively pumped out of the thick, ________ loop.
H2O moves out by osmosis in the thin,________ loop.
The high _________ pulls water out of the tubule and into the peritubular capillaries following Na+.
______% of the H2O entering the nephron is reclaimed in Henle's Loop.
The arrangement of the opposite flow in the tubule and the peritubular capillaries is called _________.
H2O absorption occurs in the DCT and collecting duct only if _____ is present.
ADH is released by the __________.
In _______, no ADH is present.
ADH makes the tubule _______ to water so it can be drawn out.
Promotes Na+ retention of the kidney.
In order to have H2O leave the nephron _____ must be present.
Aldosterone turned on by _______ and _______.
high K+ and angiotensin II
If aldosterone pumps are not working, urine _______.
K+ secretion is controlled by _________.
Aldosterone regulates both the retention of ____ and excretion of _____.
Na+ and K+
The juxtaglomelular apparatus is an endocrine structure that secretes ________ and _______.
renin and EPO
Diuretics act to ______ urine production.