Urinalysis

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Urinalysis study guide


 
  
Created Mar 12, 2012
by
daniej3

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
Substances that show a diurnal variation in their urinary excretion pattern are best evaluated...
 
d) Timed Collection
2
Which of the following will NOT cause erroneous results in a 24-hr timed urine collection? a)...
 
A
3
A 25 y.o. woman complains of painful urination & is suspected of having a UTI. Which of...
 
C
4
An unpreserved urine specimen collected at midnight is kept at room temp until the morning...
 
C
5
Which of the following is the most common form of urine preservation? a) boric acid b) sodium...
 
D
6
If refrigeration is used to preserve a urine specimen, which of the following may occur? a)...
 
C
7
Beginning w/ the glomerulus, number the following structures in the order the ultrafiltrate...
 
1-11
8
bladder, calyces, collecting tubule, distal tubule, glomerulus, juxaglomerular apparatus, loop...
 
10, 7, 6, 5, 1, 4, 3, 2, 8, 9, 11
9
How many nephrons are found in an average kidney? a0 13,000 b) 130,000 c) 1.3 million d) 13...
 
C 1.3 million
10
Which component of the nephron is located exclusively in the renal medulla? a) the collecting...
 
C
11
The formation of the utlrafiltrate in the glomerulus is driven by the a) hydrostatic blood...
 
A
12
The ability of a solute to cross the glomerular membrane is determined by its 1. molecular...
 
a) 1, 2, 3
13
The kidney plays an important role in the 1) excretion of waste products 2) regulation of H2O...
 
D
14
During tubular transport, the movement of a solute against a gradient a) is called passive...
 
C
15
When too much protein is presented to the renal tubules for reabsorption, it is excreted in...
 
B
16
ADH hormone regulates the reabsorption of a) H2O in the collecting tubules b) Na in the collecting...
 
A
17
The final conc of the urine is determined w/in the a) collecting ducts b) distal convoluted...
 
A
18
Which of the following solutes are present in the largest molar amts in urine? a) urea, Cl...
 
A
19
Renal excretion is NOT involved in the elimination of a) electrolytes & H2O b) normal by-products...
 
B
20
The conc of which substances provides the best means of distinguishing urine from other body...
 
A
21
What is the definition of the osmolality of a solution? a) the density of solute particles...
 
C
22
Serum osmolality remains relatively constant, whereas the urine osmolality ranges from a) 1/3...
 
C
23
Another name for excessive thirst is a) polydipsia b) polyuria c) hydrophilia d) hydrostasis
 
A
24
Osmolality is a measure of solute a) density b) mass c) # d) weight
 
C
25
Occasionally the specific gravity of a urine specimen exceeds that physiologically possible...
 
D
26
The excretion of large volumes of urine (greater than 3 L/day) is called a) glucosuria b) hyperuria...
 
D
27
The daily volume of urine excreted normally ranges from a) 100-500 ml/day b) 100-1800 ml/day...
 
C
28
All of the following conditions may produce nocturia EXCEPT a) anuria b) pregnancy c) chronic...
 
A
29
Which of the following is an endogenous substance used to measure glomerular filtration rate?...
 
C
30
Renal clearance is defined as a) volume of urine cleared of a substance per min b) volume of...
 
B
31
Creatinine is a good substance to use for a renal clearance test because it a) is exogenous...
 
D
32
Creatinine clearance results are 'normalized' using an individual's body surface area to account...
 
D
33
A 24-hr urine collection is preferred for the determination of creatinine clearance because...
 
A
34
The color of normal urine is due to the pigment: a) bilirubin b) urobilin c) uroerthrin d)...
 
D
35
Which of the following urine characteristics provides the best rough indicator of urine conc...
 
A
36
Which of the following pigments will deposit on urate & uric acid crystals to form a precipitate...
 
C
37
Select the urine specimen that does NOT indicate the possible presence of blood or hgb a) a...
 
D
38
Which of the following substances will change the color of both the urine & its foam? a)...
 
A
39
The clarity of a well-mixed urine specimen that has visible particulate matter & through...
 
A
40
Classify each substance that can be present in urine as indicating a pathologic or nonpathologic...
 

1. pathologic

2. nonpathologic

41
bacteria (fresh urine), bacteria (old urine), fat, powder, radiographic contrast media, RBCs,...
 
1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1
42
Which of the following urine specimens is considered normal? a) a freshly voided urine that...
 
D
43
A white precipitate in a normal alkaline urine is most likely caused by: a) amorphous phosphates...
 
A
44

Match the urine odor to the conditions or substance that can cause it

 

diabetes...

 

1 ammonia-like

2 bleach

3 faintly aromatic

4 pungent, fetid

5...

45

Diabetes mellitus

normal urine

old, improperly stored urine

specimen...

 

5

3

1

1&2

5

1&4

46
Which of the following specific gravity values is physiologically impossible? a) 1.000 b) 1.010...
 
A
47
The principle of the rgt strip method for measuring specific gravity is based on: a) the pKa...
 
A
48
Which of the following will NOT influence the volume of urine produced? a) diarrhea b) exercise...
 
D
49
To preserve the integrity of rgt strips, it is necessary that they are: a) humidified adequately...
 
C
50
Using QC materials, rgt strip performance should be checked: 1. at least once daily 2. when...
 
A
51
Which of the following is NOT checked by QC materials? a) the technical skills of the personnel...
 
B
52
Which of the following is NOT a source of erroneous results when using rgt strips? a) testing...
 
D
53
Urine pH normally ranges from : a) 4.0-9.0 b) 4.5-7.0 c) 4.5-8.0 d) 5.0-6.0
 
C
54
Urine pH can be modified by all of the following EXCEPT: a) diet b) increased ingestion of...
 
B
55
The "double indicator system" employed by commercial rgt strips to determine urine pH uses...
 
B
56
Which of the following aids in the differentiation of hemoglobinuria & hematuria? a) urine...
 
D
57
On the rgt strip test for blood, any hgb present in the urine catalyzes the : a) oxidation...
 
D
58
Which of the following WBCs will NOT be detected by the leukocyte esterase pad on the rgt stip,...
 
B
59
A microscopic exam of a urine sediment revealed an avg of 2-5 WBCs per HPF, whereas the leukocyte...
 
D
60
Which of the following statements describes the chemical principle involved on the leukocyte...
 
D
61
Which of the following conditions most likely account for a neg nitrite result on the rgt strip...
 
D
62
The chemical principle of the nitrite rgt pad is based on the: a) pseudoperoxidase activity...
 
B
63
Which of the following substances can result in false positive nitrite results? a) ascorbic...
 
D
64
Which of the following statements about Bence Jones protein is correct? a) it consists of kappa...
 
A
65
Which of the following best describes the chemical principle of the protein rgt strip test?...
 
C
66
The glucose rgt strip test is more sensitive & specific for glucose than the Clinitest...
 
D
67
The "pass-through" phenomenon observed w/ the Clinitest method when Lg amts of glucose are...
 
D
68
The glucose specificity of the "double sequential enzyme rxn" employed on rgt strip tests is...
 
B
69
Which of the following ketones are NOT detected by the rgt strip or tablet (Acetest) test?...
 
C
70
The ketone rgt steip & tablet tests are based on the reactivity of ketones w/: a) ferric...
 
D
71
Which of the following statements about bilirubin is true? a) conjugated bilirubin is H2O insoluble...
 
B
72
Urobliniogen is formed from the: a) conjugation of bilirubin in the liver b) reduction of conjugated...
 
C
73
The classic Ehrlich's rxn is based on the rxn of urobilinogen w/: a) diazotized dichloroaniline...
 
D
74
Which of the following rgt strips can be affected by ascorbic acid, resulting in falsely low...
 
D
75
When urine sediment is viewed, stains & various microscopic techniques are used to: 1 enhance...
 
D
76
When a tech performs the micro exam of urine sediment, which of the following are enumerated...
 
B
77
A urine sediment could have which of the following formed elements & still be considered...
 
A
78
Which urinary sediment component can resemble RBCs? 1 yeast 2 air bubbles 3 oil droplets 4...
 
A
79
How do increased numbers of leukocytes usually get into the urine? a) through a renal bleed...
 
C
80
Urinary casts are formed in the: a) distal & collecting ducts b) distal tubules & the...
 
A
81
Urinary casts are formed w/ a core matrix of: a) albumin b) Bence Jones protein c) Tamm-Horsfall...
 
C
82
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the size, shape, or length of a urinary cast?...
 
A
83
Which of the following urinary casts are diagnostic of glomerular or renal tubular damage?...
 
B
84
Which of the following does NOT affect the formation of urinary crystals in the nephrons? a)...
 
B
85

The formation of urinary crystals is assoc w/ a specific urine pH. Match the urine pH that...

 

1 acid

2 neutral

3 alkaline

86

ammonium biurate

amorphous urates

amorphous phosphate

calcium oxalate

cholesterol

cystine

radiographic...

 

3

1 & 2

2 & 3

1 & 2

1

1

1

1

3...

87

Match the crystal composition to the microscopic description that best describes it

Microscopic...

 

Crystal composition

1. ammonium biurate

2. amorphous urates

3. amorphous...

88

colorless "coffin lid" form

colorless hexagonal plates

colorless "envelope"...

 

8. triple phosphate

6. cystine

4. calcium oxalate

5. cholesterol

1....

89
Which of the following crystals, when found in the urine sediment, most likely indicates an...
 
A
90
Mucous threads can be difficult to differentiate from: a) pigmented casts b) hyaline casts...
 
B
91
Which of the following is NOT a distinguishing characteristic of yeast in the urine sediment?...
 
A
92
The following are initial results obtained during a routine urinalysis. Which reults should...
 
C
93
Which of the following when found in the urine sediment from a female pt is NOT considered...
 
A
94
Which of the following statements about renal disease is true? a) glomerular renal diseases...
 
A
95
Clinical features that are characteristic of glomerular damage include all of the following...
 
D
96
Which of the following frequently occurs following a bacterial infection of the skin or throat?...
 
A
97
Chronic renal failure often develops in each of the following diseases EXCEPT: a) amyloidosis...
 
C
98
Which of the following characterizes nephrotic syndrome 1 proteinuria 2 edema 3 hypoalbuminemia...
 
D
99
Which of the following disorders is characterized by the urinary excretion of Lg amts of arginine,...
 
B
100
Which of the following is considered a lower UTI? a) cystitis b) glomerulonephritis c) pyelitis...
 
A
101
Most UTIs are due to: a) yeast b) gram neg rods c) gram pos rods d) gram pos cocci
 
B
102
Which of the following formed elements found in urine sediment is most indicative of an upper...
 
B
103
Yeast is considered part of the normal flora in each of the following locations EXCEPT in the:...
 
C
104
Isosthenuria, significant proteinuria, & numerous casts of all types describes the urinalysis...
 
C
105
Approximately 75% of the renal calculi that form in pts contain: a) calcium b) cystine c) oxalate...
 
A
106
The formation of renal calculi is enhanced by: a) an increase in urine flow b) the body's natural...
 
D
107
Which of the following hereditary diseases results in the accumulation & excretion of Lg...
 
A
108
Which of the following diseases can result in severe mental retardation if not detected &...
 
A
109
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of diabetes insipidus? a) polyuria b) polydipsia...
 
C
110
Porphyria is characterized by: a) increased heme degradation b) increased heme formation c)...
 
B
111
Which of the following substances is NOT a component of normal feces? a) bacteria b) blood...
 
B
112
All of the following will result in watery or diarrheal stools EXCEPT: a) decreased intestinal...
 
A
113
Which of the following conditions is characterized by the excretion of greasy, pale, foul-smelling...
 
A
114
Which of the following tests is required in order to diagnose steatorrhea? a) fecal fat b)...
 
A
115
Which of the following statements regarding feces is true? a) the normal color of feces is...
 
B
116
Fecal specimens are often tested for all of the following EXCEPT: a) fat b) blood c) bilirubin...
 
C
117
Which of the following is responsible for the characteristic color of normal feces? a) bilirubin...
 
C
118
Which of the following statements regarding fecal tests is true? a) a fecal fat determination...
 
B
119
Mass screening in adults for occult blood in the feces is primarily performed to detect: a)...
 
C
120
Which of the following dietary substances can cause a false neg fecal occult blood slide test?...
 
C
121
Which of the following is the indicator of choice in fecal occult blood slide tests? a) guaiac...
 
A
122
Which of the following conditions can result in the excretion of small amts of occult blood...
 
D
123
Which of the following statements regarding the test for fetal hgb in the feces (the Apt test)...
 
D
124
Seminal fluid analysis is routinely performed to evaluate which of the following? a) prostate...
 
B
125
Which of the following is a requirement when collecting seminal fluid specimens? a) the pt...
 
B
126
Which of the following will adversely affect the quality of a seminal fluid specimen? a) the...
 
D
127
Which of the following statements regarding seminal fluid is true? a) seminal fluid usually...
 
C
128
Which of the following statements regarding the evaluation of spermatozoa motility is NOT true?...
 
D
129
Which of the following statements regarding sperm conc is true? a) sperm conc w/in a single...
 
C
130
The conc of which of the following substances can be used to positively ID a fluid as seminal...
 
A
131
Which of the following is NOT a fxn of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the developing fetus?...
 
C
132
Amniocentesis is usually performed at 15-18 wks gestation to determine which of the following?...
 
C
133
Through which of the following mechanisms does solute & H2O exchange occur between the...
 
D
134
Amniotic fluid is immediately protected from light to preserve which of the following substances?...
 
A
135
Which of the following is NOT a test to evaluate the surfactants present in the fetal pulmonary...
 
A
136
Which of the following causes erythroblastosis fetalis? a) immaturity of the fetal liver b)...
 
D
137
CSF is produced primarily from: a) secretions by the choroid plexus b) diffusion from plasma...
 
A
138
CSF is found between the: a) arachnoid & dura mater b) arachnoid & pia mater c) pia...
 
B
139
During a lumber puncture procedure, the 1st collected tube of CSF removed should be used for:...
 
A
140
All of the following can cause xanthochromia in CSF EXCEPT: a) high conc of protein b) high...
 
C
141
In CSF, which of the following indicates a traumatic puncture? a) the presence of erythrophagocytic...
 
C
142
How many leukocytes are normal present in the CSF obtained from an adult? a) 0-5 cells/ul b)...
 
A
143
Which of the following cells may be present in small #s in normal CSF? a) erythrocytes b) lymphocytes...
 
B
144
Which of the following cell types predominate in CSF during a classic case of viral meningitis?...
 
D
145
Which of the following cell types predominate in CSF during a classic case of viral meningitis?...
 
D
146
When choroid plexus cells & ependymal cells are present in CSF, they: a) are clinically...
 
C
147
Which of the following will NOT result in an increased CSF total protein? a) a traumatic tap...
 
C
148
Which of the following procedures frequently provides a rapid presumptive diagnosis of bacterial...
 
C
149
India ink preps & microbial antigen tests on CSF can aid in the diagnosis of: a) bacterial...
 
B
150

Which of the following is a fxn of synovial fluid? 1. providing lubrication for a joint...

 
B
151
Which of the following is NOT normally present in synovial fluid? a) fibrinogen b) neutrophils...
 
A
152
A synovial fluid specimen has a high cell count & requires dilution to be counted. Which...
 
A
153
Which of the following crystals is characteristically seen in pts w/ gout? a) cholesterol crystals...
 
C
154
Which of the following mechanisms is responsible for the formation of serous fluid in body...
 
A
155
The pathologic accumulation of fluid in a body cavity is called: a) an abscess b) an effusion...
 
B
156
Thoracentesis refers specifically to the removal of fluid from the: a) abdominal cavity b)...
 
D
157
Which of the following parameters best IDs a fluid as a transudate or an exudate? a) its color...
 
D
158
Each of the following will increase the chances of obtaining a pos stain or culture when performing...
 
B

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