Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final

Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final
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What is a nerve?
A bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons, C.T and blood vessels that lies outside the braind and spinal cord.
Spinal Cord
Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
"Swelling or knot"

Small masses of nervous tissue, mostly body cells of neurons, outside the brain and spinal cord.
Associated with cranial, spinal nerves.
`Enteris plexuses
The extensive networks of neurons in walls of organs and GI tract.
Sensory receptors
Dendrites of sensory neurons, or separate, specialized cells that monitor chainges in internal, external environments.

Photoreceptors in retina of eye.
Functions of nervous system
Carries out complex tasks: sensing smells, producing speech, providing signals that control body movments, etc.
Sensory function
Sensory receptors that detect internal stimuli:
Inc. in blood acidity
External: raindrop landing on arm.
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
Carry information from lower level to higher level in spinal cord and brain.
Integrative function
Intergrates (processes) sensory information by analyzing and storing some of it and making decisions.
Many neurons that participate in integration.
The axons extend only for a short distance, contact nearby neurons in brain, spinal cord or ganglion.
Motor function
Responding to integration decisions.
Cells and organs contacted by motor neurons in cranial and spinal nerves.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord: Thoughts, memories and emotions.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
All nerves, except brain and spinal cord. Include cranial, spinal nerves, their branches, ganglia and sensory receptors.
Axillary nerve
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles.
on or relating to the same side (of the body)

Down middle
Epigastric region

Top middle
Hypogastric region

lower middle
illiac region

lower left/right side of nines
Lumbar region

middle left/right side of nines
Anatomincal position
Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.
Polyunsaturated fats
contain more than 1 dbl covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms.
e.g: canola, linoleic, corn, safflower and soybean oil.
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids into ribosomes and bonds with mRNA for protein production.
Integral protein
Permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Selective permeability
will allow certain molecules or ions in via diffusion or facilitated diffusion.
Active transport
Based on size
Requires ATP
Goes against concentration gradient
Hypertonic solution
"greater than"
Higher concentration of solutes.
Structure: proteins, microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (keratin), microtubles.
Functions: support, transport (secratory granules, organelles)
Cellular respiration
ATP production
Self replicatin
Structure: RNA, protein, lg subunit, sm subunit
Function: mRNA & tRNA, protein synthesis
Involved in cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Cilia and Flagella
Aid in cell movement
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Structure: NO RIBOSOMES, dbl membrane
Function: synthesis of non-proteins, transport, storage
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Structure: dbl membrane, phospholipids/proteins, ribosomes
Function: site of protein synth, transport, temp storage
Golgi Apparatus
Structure: phospholipids, proteins
Function: packaging, concentrating, assembly, etc of cell products.
Structure: H+ ion pumps, enzymes
Function: digestion, worn out membranes, worn out organelles, microorganisms, autophagy, heterophagy
Structure: actin
Function: increases surface area
Structure: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin
Function: controls protein synthesis, Cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Plasma membrane
Structure: phospholipid bilayer, cholesteral, protein, carb
Function: Separation, transport, reception, recognition, enzyme location
Epithelial tissue
Line the cavities and surfaces of structures. Most glands are formed from epitheliul tissue.
Serous membrane
A smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete serous fluid.
Hyaline cartilage
A cartilage with a homogeneous matrix. It is the most common type, occurring at the articular ends of bones.
Collagen fibers
"colla = glue"
Very strong, resists pulling forces, but not stiff. Promotes tissue flexibility.
Exocrine glands
Glands that secrete their products into a duct.
Small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
Stratum basale
The deepest epidermal layer, where mitotic activity occurs.
Layers of skin
stratum corneum
  • stratum licidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum basale
Tough and insoluble.
Hair and nails are made of keratin
Pacinian corpuscles
Sensitivity to deep pressure touch.
Dead layers of epidemal cells or keratinocytes
Inflammation of sebacious glands
Types of burns
1st degree - damage to epidermis
2nd degree - damage to epidermis and dermis
3rd degree - damage to epidermis, dermis and hypodermis

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