Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final

Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final
Created Jul 25, 2009
by nycchick
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Side ASide B
What is a nerve?
A bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons, C.T and blood vessels that lies outside the braind...
Spinal Cord
Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Ganglia
"Swelling or knot"Small masses of nervous tissue, mostly body cells of neurons, outside the...
`Enteris plexuses
The extensive networks of neurons in walls of organs and GI tract.
Sensory receptors
Dendrites of sensory neurons, or separate, specialized cells that monitor chainges in internal,...
Functions of nervous system
Carries out complex tasks: sensing smells, producing speech, providing signals that control...
Sensory function
Sensory receptors that detect internal stimuli:Inc. in blood acidityExternal: raindrop landing...
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
Carry information from lower level to higher level in spinal cord and brain.
Integrative function
Intergrates (processes) sensory information by analyzing and storing some of it and making...
Interneurons
Many neurons that participate in integration. The axons extend only for a short distance, contact...
Motor function
Responding to integration decisions.
Effectors
Cells and organs contacted by motor neurons in cranial and spinal nerves.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord: Thoughts, memories and emotions.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
All nerves, except brain and spinal cord. Include cranial, spinal nerves, their branches, ganglia...
Axillary nerve
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles.
Ipsilateral
on or relating to the same side (of the body)
Transverse

Down middle
Epigastric region

Top middle
Hypogastric region

lower middle
illiac region

lower left/right side of nines
Lumbar region

middle left/right side of nines
Anatomincal position
Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.
Polyunsaturated fats
contain more than 1 dbl covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms. e.g: canola, linoleic,...
tRNA
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids into ribosomes and bonds with mRNA for protein production.
Integral protein
Permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Selective permeability
will allow certain  molecules or ions in via diffusion or facilitated diffusion.
Active transport
Based on sizeRequires ATPGoes against concentration gradient
Hypertonic solution
"greater than"Higher concentration of solutes.
Cytoskeleton
Structure: proteins, microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (keratin), microtubles.Functions:...
Mitochondria
Cellular respirationATP productionSelf replicatin
Ribosomes
Structure: RNA, protein, lg subunit, sm subunitFunction: mRNA & tRNA, protein synthesis
Centrosome
Involved in cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Cilia and Flagella
Aid in cell movement
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Structure: NO RIBOSOMES, dbl membraneFunction: synthesis of non-proteins, transport, storage
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Structure: dbl membrane, phospholipids/proteins, ribosomesFunction: site of protein synth,...
Golgi Apparatus
Structure: phospholipids, proteinsFunction: packaging, concentrating, assembly, etc of cell...
Lysosome
Structure: H+ ion pumps, enzymesFunction: digestion, worn out membranes, worn out organelles,...
Microvilli
Structure: actinFunction: increases surface area
Nucleus
Structure: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatinFunction: controls protein synthesis, Cell...
Plasma membrane
Structure: phospholipid bilayer, cholesteral, protein, carbFunction: Separation, transport,...
Epithelial tissue
Line the cavities and surfaces of structures. Most glands are formed from epitheliul tissue.
Serous membrane
A smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete serous fluid.
Hyaline cartilage
A cartilage with a homogeneous matrix. It is the most common type, occurring at the articular...
Collagen fibers
"colla = glue"Very strong, resists pulling forces, but not stiff. Promotes tissue flexibility.
Exocrine glands
Glands that secrete their products into a duct.
Lacuna
Small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
Stratum basale
The deepest epidermal layer, where mitotic activity occurs.
Layers of skin
stratum corneum
  • stratum licidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum...
keratin
Tough and insoluble.Hair and nails are made of keratin
Pacinian corpuscles
Sensitivity to deep pressure touch.
Cuticle
Dead layers of epidemal cells or keratinocytes
Acne
Inflammation of sebacious glands
Types of burns
1st degree - damage to epidermis2nd degree - damage to epidermis and dermis3rd degree - damage...


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