Study Guide for Anatomy and Physiology I Final

53 cards

Study Guide for Anatomy and Physiology I Final


 
  
Created Jul 25, 2009
by
nycchick

 

 
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1
What is a nerve?
 
A bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons, C.T and blood vessels that lies outside the braind...
2
Spinal Cord
 
Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
3
Ganglia
 
"Swelling or knot"

Small masses of nervous tissue, mostly body cells of neurons, outside...
4
`Enteris plexuses
 
The extensive networks of neurons in walls of organs and GI tract.
5
Sensory receptors
 
Dendrites of sensory neurons, or separate, specialized cells that monitor chainges in internal,...
6
Functions of nervous system
 
Carries out complex tasks: sensing smells, producing speech, providing signals that control...
7
Sensory function
 
Sensory receptors that detect internal stimuli:
Inc. in blood acidity
External: raindrop...
8
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
 
Carry information from lower level to higher level in spinal cord and brain.
9
Integrative function
 
Intergrates (processes) sensory information by analyzing and storing some of it and making...
10
Interneurons
 
Many neurons that participate in integration.
The axons extend only for a short distance,...
11
Motor function
 
Responding to integration decisions.
12
Effectors
 
Cells and organs contacted by motor neurons in cranial and spinal nerves.
13
Central nervous system (CNS)
 
Brain and spinal cord: Thoughts, memories and emotions.
14
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
 
All nerves, except brain and spinal cord. Include cranial, spinal nerves, their branches, ganglia...
15
Axillary nerve
 
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles.
16
Ipsilateral
 
on or relating to the same side (of the body)
17
Transverse
 
Down middle
18
Epigastric region
 
Top middle
19
Hypogastric region
 
lower middle
20
illiac region
 
lower left/right side of nines
21
Lumbar region
 
middle left/right side of nines
22
Anatomincal position
 
Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.
23
Polyunsaturated fats
 
contain more than 1 dbl covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms.
e.g: canola, linoleic,...
24
tRNA
 
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids into ribosomes and bonds with mRNA for protein production.
25
Integral protein
 
Permanently attached to the biological membrane.
26
Selective permeability
 
will allow certain  molecules or ions in via diffusion or facilitated diffusion.
27
Active transport
 
Based on size
Requires ATP
Goes against concentration gradient
28
Hypertonic solution
 
"greater than"
Higher concentration of solutes.
29
Cytoskeleton
 
Structure: proteins, microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (keratin), microtubles.
Functions:...
30
Mitochondria
 
Cellular respiration
ATP production
Self replicatin
31
Ribosomes
 
Structure: RNA, protein, lg subunit, sm subunit
Function: mRNA & tRNA, protein synthesis
32
Centrosome
 
Involved in cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
33
Cilia and Flagella
 
Aid in cell movement
34
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
 
Structure: NO RIBOSOMES, dbl membrane
Function: synthesis of non-proteins, transport, storage
35
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
 
Structure: dbl membrane, phospholipids/proteins, ribosomes
Function: site of protein synth,...
36
Golgi Apparatus
 
Structure: phospholipids, proteins
Function: packaging, concentrating, assembly, etc of...
37
Lysosome
 
Structure: H+ ion pumps, enzymes
Function: digestion, worn out membranes, worn out organelles,...
38
Microvilli
 
Structure: actin
Function: increases surface area
39
Nucleus
 
Structure: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin
Function: controls protein synthesis, Cell...
40
Plasma membrane
 
Structure: phospholipid bilayer, cholesteral, protein, carb
Function: Separation, transport,...
41
Epithelial tissue
 
Line the cavities and surfaces of structures. Most glands are formed from epitheliul tissue.
42
Serous membrane
 
A smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete serous fluid.
43
Hyaline cartilage
 
A cartilage with a homogeneous matrix. It is the most common type, occurring at the articular...
44
Collagen fibers
 
"colla = glue"
Very strong, resists pulling forces, but not stiff. Promotes tissue flexibility.
45
Exocrine glands
 
Glands that secrete their products into a duct.
46
Lacuna
 
Small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
47
Stratum basale
 
The deepest epidermal layer, where mitotic activity occurs.
48
Layers of skin
 
stratum corneum
  • stratum licidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum...
49
keratin
 
Tough and insoluble.
Hair and nails are made of keratin
50
Pacinian corpuscles
 
Sensitivity to deep pressure touch.
51
Cuticle
 
Dead layers of epidemal cells or keratinocytes
52
Acne
 
Inflammation of sebacious glands
53
Types of burns
 
1st degree - damage to epidermis
2nd degree - damage to epidermis and dermis
3rd degree...


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