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Side ASide B
What is a nerve?
A bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons, C.T and blood vessels that lies outside the braind and spinal cord.
Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
"Swelling or knot"Small masses of nervous tissue, mostly body cells of neurons, outside the brain and spinal cord.Associated with cranial, spinal nerves.
The extensive networks of neurons in walls of organs and GI tract.
Dendrites of sensory neurons, or separate, specialized cells that monitor chainges in internal, external environments.Photoreceptors in retina of eye.
Functions of nervous system
Carries out complex tasks: sensing smells, producing speech, providing signals that control body movments, etc.
Sensory receptors that detect internal stimuli:Inc. in blood acidityExternal: raindrop landing on arm.
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
Carry information from lower level to higher level in spinal cord and brain.
Intergrates (processes) sensory information by analyzing and storing some of it and making decisions.
Many neurons that participate in integration. The axons extend only for a short distance, contact nearby neurons in brain, spinal cord or ganglion.
Responding to integration decisions.
Cells and organs contacted by motor neurons in cranial and spinal nerves.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord: Thoughts, memories and emotions.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
All nerves, except brain and spinal cord. Include cranial, spinal nerves, their branches, ganglia and sensory receptors.
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles.
on or relating to the same side (of the body)
lower left/right side of nines
middle left/right side of nines
Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.
contain more than 1 dbl covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms. e.g: canola, linoleic, corn, safflower and soybean oil.
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids into ribosomes and bonds with mRNA for protein production.
Permanently attached to the biological membrane.
will allow certain molecules or ions in via diffusion or facilitated diffusion.
Based on sizeRequires ATPGoes against concentration gradient
"greater than"Higher concentration of solutes.
Structure: proteins, microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (keratin), microtubles.Functions: support, transport (secratory granules, organelles)
Cellular respirationATP productionSelf replicatin
Structure: RNA, protein, lg subunit, sm subunitFunction: mRNA & tRNA, protein synthesis
Involved in cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Cilia and Flagella
Aid in cell movement
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Structure: NO RIBOSOMES, dbl membraneFunction: synthesis of non-proteins, transport, storage
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Structure: dbl membrane, phospholipids/proteins, ribosomesFunction: site of protein synth, transport, temp storage
Structure: phospholipids, proteinsFunction: packaging, concentrating, assembly, etc of cell products.
Structure: H+ ion pumps, enzymesFunction: digestion, worn out membranes, worn out organelles, microorganisms, autophagy, heterophagy
Structure: actinFunction: increases surface area
Structure: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatinFunction: controls protein synthesis, Cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Structure: phospholipid bilayer, cholesteral, protein, carbFunction: Separation, transport, reception, recognition, enzyme location
Line the cavities and surfaces of structures. Most glands are formed from epitheliul tissue.
A smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete serous fluid.
A cartilage with a homogeneous matrix. It is the most common type, occurring at the articular ends of bones.
"colla = glue"Very strong, resists pulling forces, but not stiff. Promotes tissue flexibility.
Glands that secrete their products into a duct.
Small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
The deepest epidermal layer, where mitotic activity occurs.
Layers of skin
- stratum licidum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum spinosum
- stratum basale
Tough and insoluble.Hair and nails are made of keratin
Sensitivity to deep pressure touch.
Dead layers of epidemal cells or keratinocytes
Inflammation of sebacious glands
Types of burns
1st degree - damage to epidermis2nd degree - damage to epidermis and dermis3rd degree - damage to epidermis, dermis and hypodermis