Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final

Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final Study Guide For Anatomy And Physiology I Final
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What is a nerve?
 
A bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons, C.T and blood vessels that lies outside the braind and spinal cord.
Spinal Cord
 
Contains 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Ganglia
 
"Swelling or knot"

Small masses of nervous tissue, mostly body cells of neurons, outside the brain and spinal cord.
Associated with cranial, spinal nerves.
`Enteris plexuses
 
The extensive networks of neurons in walls of organs and GI tract.
Sensory receptors
 
Dendrites of sensory neurons, or separate, specialized cells that monitor chainges in internal, external environments.


Photoreceptors in retina of eye.
Functions of nervous system
 
Carries out complex tasks: sensing smells, producing speech, providing signals that control body movments, etc.
Sensory function
 
Sensory receptors that detect internal stimuli:
Inc. in blood acidity
External: raindrop landing on arm.
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
 
Carry information from lower level to higher level in spinal cord and brain.
Integrative function
 
Intergrates (processes) sensory information by analyzing and storing some of it and making decisions.
Interneurons
 
Many neurons that participate in integration.
The axons extend only for a short distance, contact nearby neurons in brain, spinal cord or ganglion.
Motor function
 
Responding to integration decisions.
Effectors
 
Cells and organs contacted by motor neurons in cranial and spinal nerves.
Central nervous system (CNS)
 
Brain and spinal cord: Thoughts, memories and emotions.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
 
All nerves, except brain and spinal cord. Include cranial, spinal nerves, their branches, ganglia and sensory receptors.
Axillary nerve
 
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles.
Ipsilateral
 
on or relating to the same side (of the body)
Transverse
 

Down middle
Epigastric region
 

Top middle
Hypogastric region
 

lower middle
illiac region
 

lower left/right side of nines
Lumbar region
 

middle left/right side of nines
Anatomincal position
 
Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.
Polyunsaturated fats
 
contain more than 1 dbl covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms.
e.g: canola, linoleic, corn, safflower and soybean oil.
tRNA
 
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids into ribosomes and bonds with mRNA for protein production.
Integral protein
 
Permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Selective permeability
 
will allow certain molecules or ions in via diffusion or facilitated diffusion.
Active transport
 
Based on size
Requires ATP
Goes against concentration gradient
Hypertonic solution
 
"greater than"
Higher concentration of solutes.
Cytoskeleton
 
Structure: proteins, microfilaments (actin), intermediate filaments (keratin), microtubles.
Functions: support, transport (secratory granules, organelles)
Mitochondria
 
Cellular respiration
ATP production
Self replicatin
Ribosomes
 
Structure: RNA, protein, lg subunit, sm subunit
Function: mRNA & tRNA, protein synthesis
Centrosome
 
Involved in cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Cilia and Flagella
 
Aid in cell movement
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
 
Structure: NO RIBOSOMES, dbl membrane
Function: synthesis of non-proteins, transport, storage
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
 
Structure: dbl membrane, phospholipids/proteins, ribosomes
Function: site of protein synth, transport, temp storage
Golgi Apparatus
 
Structure: phospholipids, proteins
Function: packaging, concentrating, assembly, etc of cell products.
Lysosome
 
Structure: H+ ion pumps, enzymes
Function: digestion, worn out membranes, worn out organelles, microorganisms, autophagy, heterophagy
Microvilli
 
Structure: actin
Function: increases surface area
Nucleus
 
Structure: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin
Function: controls protein synthesis, Cell division (mitosis/meiosis)
Plasma membrane
 
Structure: phospholipid bilayer, cholesteral, protein, carb
Function: Separation, transport, reception, recognition, enzyme location
Epithelial tissue
 
Line the cavities and surfaces of structures. Most glands are formed from epitheliul tissue.
Serous membrane
 
A smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete serous fluid.
Hyaline cartilage
 
A cartilage with a homogeneous matrix. It is the most common type, occurring at the articular ends of bones.
Collagen fibers
 
"colla = glue"
Very strong, resists pulling forces, but not stiff. Promotes tissue flexibility.
Exocrine glands
 
Glands that secrete their products into a duct.
Lacuna
 
Small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
Stratum basale
 
The deepest epidermal layer, where mitotic activity occurs.
Layers of skin
 
stratum corneum
  • stratum licidum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum basale
keratin
 
Tough and insoluble.
Hair and nails are made of keratin
Pacinian corpuscles
 
Sensitivity to deep pressure touch.
Cuticle
 
Dead layers of epidemal cells or keratinocytes
Acne
 
Inflammation of sebacious glands
Types of burns
 
1st degree - damage to epidermis
2nd degree - damage to epidermis and dermis
3rd degree - damage to epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
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