Theories Of Leadership And Management - Exam 1

Theories Of Leadership And Management - Exam 1
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Evolution of Management Theory
Fayol identified management functions, Gulick expanded them.  Now there are 5 POSDC - planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling
1900-1930 Scientific managementIf we were taught the one best way to do the job we would be most efficient.  Match the worker with the jobPeople are motivated by money- give financial incentivesBelieved the managers planned, prepared, supervised work and workers did it. Productivity and Profits INCREASEDDidn't take worker into consideration
what makes some workers more efficient than others? He decided that workers needed a hierarchyNeed for rules and regulations
1925 Management Functions like:PlanningOrganizingStaffingDirectingControlling
Activities Management- 7 things- plan, budget, etc 
Managers should not dominate but work as a team
Hawthorn Effect- effects of lightThe more attn given to employees = inc productivityinformal groups > productivity
Theory X and Theory Yattitudes toward employees determines productivityX managers think employees are lazy and need direction Y managers think employees enjoy work & are self motivated
Employee Participation- agreed the manager domination causes worker frustrationThey need self confidence
Great Man Theory
Some people are born with special traits/ qualities that make them good leaders
Human Relations Era
1930-1970 considered the worker
Behavioral Theories
Styles of Leadership were defined - laissez-faire, democratic, authoritarian 
Situational Theory
Leaders change their leadership style according to a situation
Transactional Leadership
focuses on mgmt tasks (day to day)is a caretaker- gives directions/ set goalsuses trade-offs to meet goalsdoes not identify shared values- focuses on own/ org'sexamines causesuses contingency reward to reinforce behavior
Transformational Leadership
identifies common values-gets to know employees and common valuesis committed to profession and organizationinspires others with visionhas long term visionlooks at effectsempowers otherswant employee to be the best they can be**considered best 
Interactional theory
Leadership behavior is determined by the relationship between leader's personality and the specific situation
Servant Leadership
Greenleaf - 1977 - must serve employees, customers, etc
Howatson- Jones - 2004 - serve the needs of follower, empower them, not the organization
**Need feedback and trust
Leadership Styles:Laissez- faire
Permissive with little to no control, little or no direction, upward communication, upward communication and between members of the group, decision making throughout group, emphasis on the group, no criticizing Positives: If highly motivated it's good, brainstorming helpfulNegatives: can become frustrated and disinterested 
Leadership Styles:Autocratic
strong control over workers, communication flows downward, decisions made by leader, difference between leader and followerPositives -predictable work group behavior, productivity incNegatives -creativity not fostered, not self motivatin*Best for crisis or military
Leadership Styles: Democratic 
Leader has less control, $ rewards used to motivate, others directed through direction and guidance, communication flows up and down, decision making involves othersPositives: appropriate for mature, self-motivated workersNegatives: Less efficient, less productive, takes more time
Principle Agent Theory 
Not all followers and motivated to act in accord with leadersFollowers may have informational advantageFollowers have own goals/ preferencesMay lead to misalignment of goalsPrinciple=leader Agent=follower 
Human  and Social Capital Theory
Human capital represents the capability of the individualSocial capital represents what the group can accomplish togetherInvesting in human capital results in increased productivity and financial benefitex. classes, edu, workshops
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to use emotions effectively and are critical to accomplish goalsnecessary to be successful leader/ managerit develops with age5 components1. self awareness- enhanced by self care- sleep eat 2. self regulation- stay calm in crisis, maintain control3. motivation- not just $ status, must have energy and motivation to work toward a goal4. empathy-active listening5. social skills
Authentic Leadership
Leaders must be true to themselves and their valuesWilliams Transparent Integrity---willingness to stick to one's values and principles about work and ppl despite pressure to deliver results
Thought Leadership
Leaders with innovative ideas, confidence to promote those ideasConvince others to look at new ideaAlways challenging status quoattract followers by risk taking vision, not rewardmust choose ideas that make significant changes 
Quantum Leadership 
the environment and work context is complex and dynamicLeaders must work with followers work environment has a direct impact on org. productivityCHANGE IS CONSTANTChaos theory suggests that we can't predict changeLeader must see what issues might arise and teach the followers 
Cultural Bridging
Leader helps integrate diverse employees into work groupLeader must appreciate both ethic and generational diversity
Which theory did Weber develop?
Bureaucratic functions
T/F Team Building is an aspect of the staffing function of management
What is the definition of transparent integrity?
standing by one's values in the face of pressure
T/F Thought leaders attract followers by the promise of representation or empowerment.
False--- new innovations
The Management Process
1. planning- determine goals, rules, objectives, carrying out projects2. organizing - est. structure to carry out plans, determine best pt care delivery, 3. staffing - recruiting, hiring, interviewing, orienting staff.  scheduling, staff development, team building.4. directing - motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, facilitating collaboration 5. controlling - performance appraisals, fiscal accountability, quality control, legal and ethical control.

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