Theories Final    


Theories Final 
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Evidenced-based practices:a. are broadly designed to treat a wide variety of symptoms.b. are tailored to address specific problems and symptoms.c. are founded on empirical research.d. are generally lengthy.e. both (are tailored to address specific problems and symptoms) and (are founded onempirical research)
 
e. both (are tailored to address specific problems and symptoms) and (are founded onempirical research)
A person experiencing persistent feelings of inadequacy has probably had difficulty attaining a sense of ____during the____ stage.a. intimacy; young adulthoodb. identity; adolescentc. integrity; later lifed. initiative; preschool agee. industry; school age
 
e. industry; school age
Which of the following is not typically a standard psychoanalytic technique?a. free associationb. interpretationc. exploration of one's position in the familyd. exploration of patterns of resistancee. analysis of transference
 
c. exploration of one's position in the family
Which of the following is not one of the five basic tasks Adler says we must master?a. acceptanceb. achieving intimacyc. intellectual developmentd. worke. the spiritual dimension
 
c. intellectual development
All of the following are stages in Adlerian counseling except:a. reorientation.b. insight.c. establishing a therapeutic relationship.d. analysis and assessment.e. analysis of resistance.
 
e. analysis of resistance.
Reorientation, the fourth phase of Adlerian therapy, involves:a. putting insights into action.b. helping clients see new alternatives.c. helping clients come to understand their own part in creating their problems.d. both (putting insights into action) and (helping clients see new alternatives)e. both (helping clients see new alternatives) and (helping clients come to understand theirown part in creating their problems)
 
d. both (putting insights into action) and (helping clients see new alternatives)
The central issue in existential therapy is:a. freedom and responsibility.b. resistance.c. transference.d. examining irrational beliefs.
 
a. freedom and responsibility.
The existential approach is particularly well-suited to clients who:a. are dealing with grief and loss.b. are victims of oppression.c. have limited intellectual capacities.d. suffer from severe mental illness.e. all of these options
 
a. are dealing with grief and loss.
The person-centered view of human nature:a. views people as basically competitive.b. states that humans are driven by irrational forces.c. affirms a person's capacity to direct his or her own life.d. assumes that, while humans have the potential for growth, we tend to remain stagnant.e. both (views people as basically competitive) and (states that humans are driven byirrational forces)
 
c. affirms a person's capacity to direct his or her own life.
In a person-centered view, the actualizing tendency implies that humans:a. have an innate desire to move toward health and fulfillment.b. can achieve their goals with proper motivation.c. need a growth promoting climate to move forward.d. all of these optionse. both (have an innate desire to move toward health and fulfillment) and (need a growthpromoting climate to move forward) are true
 
e. both (have an innate desire to move toward health and fulfillment) and (need a growthpromoting climate to move forward) are true
Which of the following personal characteristics of the therapist is most important, according to Carl Rogers?a. unconditional positive regardb. acceptancec. genuinenessd. accurate empathic understandinge. accurate active listening
 
c. genuineness
According to Natalie Rogers, external conditions that nurture creativity include:a. psychological safety.b. psychological freedom.c. simulating and challenging experiences.d. all of these optionse. both (psychological safety) and (simulating and challenging experiences)
 
d. all of these options
Which of the following is not considered one of the six methodological components of Gestalt therapy?a. assessmentb. the here and nowc. the authentic encounterd. process-oriented diagnosise. the paradoxical theory of change
 
a. assessment
Gestalt-therapy techniques are designed to help the client:a. expand awareness of the here-and-now.b. intensify feelings and experiences.c. make a value judgment of his or her behavior.d. free himself or herself of specific behavioral symptoms.e. both (expand awareness of the here-and-now) and (intensify feelings and experiences)
 
e. both (expand awareness of the here-and-now) and (intensify feelings and experiences)
From a multicultural perspective, a limitation of Gestalt therapy is that:a. it does not specify techniques.b. it tends to produce high levels of intense feelings.c. it is highly focused on direct expression of feelings.d. it dwells too much on the past.e. both (it tends to produce high levels of intense feelings) and (it is highly focused ondirect expression of feelings)
 
e. both (it tends to produce high levels of intense feelings) and (it is highly focused ondirect expression of feelings)
Gestalt therapists say that clients resist contact by means of:a. retroflection.b. projection.c. introjection.d. all of these optionse. both (retroflection) and (introjection)
 
d. all of these options
Which of the following aspects of a client's use of language would a Gestalt therapist not focus on?a. "it" talkb. "you" talkc. questionsd. language that denies powere. semantics
 
e. semantics
A teenage girl is angry with her parents and cuts on her arm. In Gestalt terms, she is most likely engaging in:a. introjection.b. projection.c. retroflection.d. confluence.
 
c. retroflection.
Because of his need to be liked, Jose makes careful efforts to get along with everyone and minimizeinterpersonal conflicts. Which boundary disturbance is Jose exhibiting?a. introjection.b. projection.c. retroflection.d. confluence.
 
d. confluence.
Which of the following is not one of the Gestalt group leader's roles?a. designing experiments for group membersb. evoking group catharsis.c. engaging in self-disclosured. facilitating contact in the group setting
 
b. evoking group catharsis.
Behavior therapy is suited for:a. individual therapy.b. group therapy.c. institutions and clinics.d. classroom learning situations.e. all of these options
 
e. all of these options
Who has done most of the work in the area of modeling?a. Joseph Wolpeb. Hans Eysenckc. E. Jacobsond. Arnold Lazaruse. Albert Bandura
 
e. Albert Bandura
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective self-management program?a. External reinforcement is essential in maintaining behavioral changes.b. Consistent use of self-management strategies is essential.c. Realistic goals must be set and consistently evaluated.d. The use of self-reinforcement is important.e. Environmental support is important in maintaining changes.
 
a. External reinforcement is essential in maintaining behavioral changes.
What is not a part of the steps in a self-directed change program?a. exploration of one's family constellationb. selection of specific goalsc. self-monitoringd. self-reinforcement procedurese. working out a plan for change
 
a. exploration of one's family constellation
Which of the following is true about "technical eclecticism" in multimodal therapy?a. It is discouraged.b. It is encouraged.c. The client is fit into a predetermined treatment.d. It is considered confusing to the client.e. both (It is discouraged) and (It is considered confusing to the client)
 
b. It is encouraged.
Behavior therapists tend to:a. be active and directive.b. function as consultants.c. function as problem solvers.d. all of these options
 
d. all of these options
The main therapeutic goal of REBT is:a. to teach clients how to recognize which ego state they are in.b. to make the unconscious conscious.c. to assist the client in becoming aware of his or her "being-in-the-world."d. to challenge the client in making both a value judgment and moral decision about thequality of his or her behavior.e. none of these options
 
e. none of these options
An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:a. unresolved issues of the past.b. inadequate ego-defense mechanisms.c. the internal repetition of irrational sentences.d. a normal human condition that should be accepted.e. none of these options
 
c. the internal repetition of irrational sentences.
Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of "what peoplemight think?"a. role playingb. desensitizationc. cognitive homeworkd. shame-attacking exercisese. changing one's language
 
d. shame-attacking exercises
In Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification, what is given primary importance?a. using a Socratic dialogue to get clients thinkingb. collaborative empiricismc. automatic thoughtsd. inner speeche. a multimodal approach to changing one's thinking and behaving
 
d. inner speech
Beck's cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of:a. stress symptoms.b. anxiety reactions.c. phobias.d. depression.e. cardiovascular disorders.
 
d. depression.
In working with diverse clients, CBT therapists:a. are wise to refrain from disputing the client's beliefs until the therapists fully grasps theclient's cultural context.b. are encouraged to be aware of the role of dependency in collectivistic cultures.c. need not adapt their techniques as distorted thinking is a universal phenomenon.d. both (are wise to refrain from disputing the client's beliefs until the therapists fullygrasps the client's cultural context) and (are encouraged to be aware of the role ofdependency in collectivistic cultures)e. all of these options
 
d. both (are wise to refrain from disputing the client's beliefs until the therapists fullygrasps the client's cultural context) and (are encouraged to be aware of the role ofdependency in collectivistic cultures)
All of the following are key characteristics of contemporary reality therapy except for:a. There is a focus on talking about symptoms that bring a client into therapy.b. Emphasis is on choice and responsibility.c. There is a rejection of the notion of transference.d. Therapy is kept in the present.e. Clients are helped to get connected or reconnected with the people they have chosen toput in their quality world.
 
a. There is a focus on talking about symptoms that bring a client into therapy.
Which of the following feminist principles recognizes the importance of working against oppression anddiscrimination on the basis of race, class, culture, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, age, and disability?a. The person is political.b. The counseling relationship is egalitarian.c. Women's ways of knowing are valued and their experiences are honored.d. A focus on strengths and a reformulated definition of psychological distress.e. All types of oppression are recognized.
 
e. All types of oppression are recognized.
Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore?a. messages received in growing upb. critically evaluating social dictates and expectationsc. power and controld. transference reactions toward their therapiste. external forces influencing behavior
 
d. transference reactions toward their therapist
All of the following are reasons many feminist therapists do not use diagnostic labels, or use themreluctantly, except:a. Diagnostic labels reinforce gender role stereotypes.b. Diagnostic labels reflect the inappropriate application of power in the therapeuticrelationship.c. Diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.d. Diagnostic labels encourage adjustment to the norms of the status quo.
 
c. Diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.
A defining theme in the practice of feminist therapy is:a. the inclusion of the client in the assessment process.b. the inclusion of the client in the treatment process.c. the therapist conducting a lifestyle analysis early during the therapy process.d. expecting clients to be willing to engage in long-term therapy.e. both (the inclusion of the client in the assessment process) and (the inclusion of theclient in the treatment process)
 
e. both (the inclusion of the client in the assessment process) and (the inclusion of theclient in the treatment process)
Feminist therapists take issue with the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder due to its:a. Freudian origins.b. clear implication of deep personality pathology.c. tendency to be given to female victims of domestic abuse.d. tendency to blame the victim for his or her illness.e. both (tendency to be given to female victims of domestic abuse) and (tendency to blamethe victim for his or her illness)
 
e. both (tendency to be given to female victims of domestic abuse) and (tendency to blamethe victim for his or her illness)
The constructs of feminist theory, in contrast to traditional theories, include all of the following except forwhich characteristic?a. intrapsychic orientationb. gender-fair stancec. flexible-multiculturald. life-span orientede. interactionist perspective
 
a. intrapsychic orientation
Which of the following principles of feminist psychology is most aimed at advancing a transformation insociety?a. The person is political.b. Commitment to social change.c. Women's ways of knowing are valued and their experiences are honored.d. A focus on strengths and a reformulated definition of psychological distress.e. All types of oppression are recognized
 
b. Commitment to social change.
Feminist therapists reject:a. the interactionist view.b. the androcentric view.c. the life-span perspective.d. the relational-cultural theory.
 
b. the androcentric view.
All of the following are ways narrative therapy differs from traditional therapy except for:a. viewing problems in a sociopolitical and cultural context.b. assisting clients in developing an alternative life story.c. accepting the premise that diagnosis is a basic prerequisite for effective treatment.d. creating a therapeutic relationship that is collaborative.e. recognition that clients know what is best for their life and are experts in their own life.
 
c. accepting the premise that diagnosis is a basic prerequisite for effective treatment.
A limitation of the postmodern approaches is:a. therapists require extensive training in providing brief therapy.b. inexperienced therapists may over rely on techniques and appear mechanistic.c. the use of open-ended questioning.d. its lack of applicability to group counseling.
 
b. inexperienced therapists may over rely on techniques and appear mechanistic.
A major contribution of Bowen's theory is the notion of:a. birth order as a determinant of personality.b. differentiation of the self.c. family rules and communication patterns.d. spontaneity, creativity, and play as therapeutic factors in family therapy.
 
b. differentiation of the self.
A couple directs the focus of their energy toward a problematic son as a way to avoid facing or dealing withtheir own conflicts. This is an example of:a. enmeshment.b. normal love.c. displacement.d. triangulation.e. diffusion.
 
d. triangulation.
Structural family therapy includes all of the following goals except for bringing about structural change by:a. modifying the family's transactional rules.b. developing more appropriate boundaries.c. creating an effective hierarchical structure.d. reducing symptoms of dysfunction.e. the therapist taking a not-knowing stance with a family.
 
e. the therapist taking a not-knowing stance with a family.
A limitation of person-centered therapy is:a. the possible danger of the therapist remaining passive and inactive.b. the emphasis on complex ideas and concepts.c. the lack of research to support the theory.d. neglect of the value of the therapeutic relationship.e. the overemphasis on unconscious factors.
 
a. the possible danger of the therapist remaining passive and inactive.
What technique(s) from behavior therapy might help Stan with his fear of women?a. systematic desensitizationb. assertion trainingc. modelingd. social skills traininge. all of these options
 
e. all of these options
According to rational emotive behavior therapy, what will bring about actual changes in Stan's life?a. doing the hard work of challenging and changing irrational beliefsb. recognizing ways his faulty beliefs affect what he does and how he feelsc. understanding the A-B-C theoryd. acknowledging the "shoulds" and "oughts" he has acceptede. all of these options
 
e. all of these options
Stan's reality therapist would:a. explore Stan's quality world.b. ask him to engage in the process of self-evaluation of his behavior.c. encourage Stan explore past experiences that might have contributed to his presentproblems.d. none of these optionse. both (explore Stan's quality world) and (ask him to engage in the process ofself-evaluation of his behavior)
 
e. both (explore Stan's quality world) and (ask him to engage in the process ofself-evaluation of his behavior)
Freud postulated the concepts of both life instincts and death instincts.
 
True
Freud postulated the theory of infantile sexuality.
 
True
The major developmental task of the anal stage is acquiring a sense of trust.
 
False
Brief psychodynamic therapists tend to assume an active role in the therapy process.
 
True
Psychodynamic group leaders do not interpret their client's transferences.
 
False
"Fictional finalism" is a term that Adlerians use to describe our attitude in dealing with the social world.
 
False
According to existential thinking, effective therapy does not stop with awareness, for clients are challengedto take action based on their insights.
 
True
The existential vacuum represents a place of reflection and solace.
 
True
Therapists are encouraged to use positive regard for clients only as a means of shaping their behavior.
 
False
Both contact and withdrawal are necessary and important to healthy functioning.
 
True
Gestalt therapy relies mainly on psychoanalytic techniques.
 
False
In Gestalt therapy, a client's resistance is welcomed and used to deepen their therapeutic work.
 
True
In Gestalt terms, awareness refers to our connectedness to out external an internal worlds.
 
True
Both Linehan and Lazurus emphasize the importance of the therapeutic relationship in behavioral treatments
 
True
There is little empirical support for ACT.
 
False
Part of Ellis's motivation for developing REBT was to deal with his own problems
 
True
Reality therapy is not well-suited to group counseling.
 
False
Reality therapy is often used in treating drug and alcohol abusers.
 
True
Feminist therapists do not tend to engage in self-disclosure because of their concern over unduly influencingthe client.
 
False
While most feminist therapists believe that gender is always an important factor, they realize that ethnicity,sexual orientation, and class may be more important factors in certain situations for many women.
 
True
Solution-oriented therapy differs from both strategic and traditional models by eschewing the past in favor offocusing on the future.
 
True
The narrative approach is part of the social construction model.
 
True
Because Bowen's multigenerational approach looks at families from a three-generational perspective, thetherapist is mainly interested in past happenings and does not pay much attention to present issues.
 
False
Strategic therapists do not rely on therapy techniques to bring about change but instead give more stress tothe therapist's relationship with a family.
 
False
Assessment is not considered useful in the family systems perspective.
 
False

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