The Structure And Function Of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5

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Created Oct 17, 2012
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sawchuk_gms

 

 
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1
Polymer
 
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent...
2
Monomer
 
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
3
Enzymes
 
Protein catalysts
4
Tuber
 
A short, thick, underground plant stem (e.x. the white potato)
5
Atherosclerosis
 
A cardiovascular disease in which fatty deposits develop on the inner walls of the arteries,...
6
Essential Fatty Acid
 
An unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make
7
Catalysts
 
A chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by...
8
Peptide Bond
 
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another,...
9
Denaturation of protein
 
Disruption of the weak internal chemical bonds and interactions causes the protein to lose...
10
Gene
 
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence
11
Which of the four main classes of important large molecules of life does not consist of polymers?
 
Lipids
12
What is a dehydration reaction?
 
A reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of...
13
Why is hydrolysis the reverse of the dehydration reaction?
 
Because it breaks the bonds betweeonomers by adding water molecules. (Hydrogen attaches to...
14
What is the most common monosaccharide?
 
Glucose
15
What type of isomers are glucose and fructose?
 
Structural isomers
16
Glucose is an aldose while fructose is a ketose. If they are isomers, how do they differ?
 
Different location of a carbonyl group
17
Plants synthesize sucrose in their leaves. What happens to this carbohydrate?
 
They transport it from their leaves to roots and other nonphotosynthetic organs in the form...
18
What are the three main grasses that provide starch for humans?
 
Wheat, rice, and corn
19
In our body, where is glycogen stored?
 
Mainly in the liver and muscle cells
20
What is the most abundant organic compound on Earth?
 
Cellulose
21
Explain how the glycosidic linkages differ between starch and cellulose
 
There are 2 different ring structures for glucose. When GLUCOSE form a ring, the hydroxyl group...
22
What is the main difference in molecular shape between starch and cellulose?
 
Starch molecules are mostly helical, and cellulose molecules are straight
23
What is the reason that enzymes that can digest starch cannot digest cellulose?
 
Enzymes digest starch by hydrolizing alpha linkages but not beta linkages because of their...
24
If cows cannot digest cellulose, how can they obtain nutritive value from eating hay/grass?
 
They have cellulose digesting prokaryotes and protists in their stomach. Microbes hydrolize...
25
Draw and label the structure of glycerol
 
26
What concern does your textbook have regarding a diet rich in saturated fats?
 
Contributes to atherosclerosis (Plaque develops in blood vessels, reducing flow and resilience...
27
How is a phospholipid different from a fat?
 
Only has 2 fatty acids attached to the glycerol rather than 3
28
What is an important role of cholesterol in the body?
 
Is is the molecule from which other steroids (such as sex hormone), are synthesized. It is...
29
Draw and label the structure of an amino acid
 
30
Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein fouin serum and cerebrospinal fluid. How many amino acids...
 
It is made of 4 identical polypeptide chains, each with 127 amino acids. (508)
31
Transthyretin transports thyroxine (T4- a thyroid hormone) and retinol (vitamin A), hence its...
 
Inherited genetic information
32
TTR is a 62-kDa homotetramer that is synthesized in the liver, choroid plexus and retinal pigment...
 
The cause of secondary structure is dictated by primary structure. Result of H bonds between...
33
TTR is rich in beta sheet structure. What is the other type of secondary structure available...
 
Alpha helix (delicate coild held together by H bonding between every 4th amino acid)
34
What are the 5 different types of interactions that shape the TTR polypeptide. What are they?
 
1)Hydrogen bond
2) Disulfide Bridge
3) Polypeptide backbone
4) Hydrophobic...
35
What gives collagen its great strength?
 
It is a fibrous protein with 3 identical helical polypeptides intertwined into a triple helix
36
Describe the quaternary structure of hemoglobin
 
Has 2 alpha particles and 2 beta particles. Molecules don't associate with each other,...
37
How many amino acids in one Beta chain are changed to cause sickle-cell disease?
 
1
38
What is it about protein structure that explains why excessively high fevers can be fatal?
 
High temperature denatures a protein, causing it to be biologically inactive. Proteins in blood...
39
Where in the cytoplasm are polypeptides synthesized?
 
ribosome
40
Which (type of) molecule conveys genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?
 
MRNA
41
If you were given a sequence of nitrogenous bases, how could you determine whether you were...
 
-Thymine is fund in only DNA and uracil is only found in RNA
-In DNA, sugar is deoxyribose...
42
How did deoxyribose get its name?
 
Deoxyribose got its name because deoxyribose lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the...
43
How do we distinguish the numbers of the sugar carbons from those used for the ring atoms to...
 
We can distinguish it because sugar carbon numbers of a nucleoside/nucleotide have a (1) after...
44
What holds the two strands of DNA together?
 
Hydrogen bonds between paired bases
45
What accounts for each of the daughter cells (after cellular division) being genetically identical...
 
DNA's 2 strands are complementary. When cell divides, copies are distributed to daughter...
46
What is the role of tRNA?
 
Brings amino acids to the ribosome during the synthesis of a polypeptide
47
The architecture of a large biological molecule helps explain how that molecule (blank)
 
works
48
The molecular logic od life is simple but elegant: Small (blank) common to all organisms are...
 
molecules, macro-molecules)
49
Carbohydrates include both sugars and (blank) of sugar
 
polymers
50
Most names for sugars end in - (blank)
 
ose
51
Sugars that have 6 carbons are called (blank)
 
hexoses
52
Sugars that have 5 carbons are called (blank)
 
pentoses
53
Sugars that haved 3 carbons are called (blank)
 
trioses
54
A disaccharide consists of 2 (blank) joined by a glycosidic linkage
 
monosaccharides
55
The monomers comprising sucrose are (blank) and (blank)
 
glucose, fructose
56
Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand (blank) joined...
 
monosaccharides
57
Plants store sucrose in the form of (blank), a polymer of (blank) monomers
 
starch, glucose
58
Potato tubers and grains are foods rich in (blank)
 
starch
59
Plants store glucose as starch; vertebrates store glucose as (blank)
 
glycogen
60
A cellulose molecule is an unbranched (blank)-glucose polymer
 
beta
61
The exoskeleton of arthropods is composed of (blank)
 
chitin
62
The chemical formula for glucose is C(blank)H(blank)O(blank)
 
6, 12, 6
63
A fat is constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: (blank) and (blankX2)
 
glycerol, fatty acids
64
Another name for a fat is triaglycerol. Still another name is (blank)
 
triglyceride
65
A fat made from saturated fatty acids, is called a (blank) fat
 
saturated
66
Saturated animal fats are (blank) at room temperature
 
solid
67
Unsaturated plant fats are (blank) at room temperature
 
liquid
68
The major function of fats is (blankX2)
 
energy storage
69
The hydrocarbon tails of a phospholipid are (blank) toward water
 
hydrophobic
70
The phospholipid bilayer forms a (blank) between the cell and its external environment
 
boundary
71
In vertebrates, cholesterol is synthesized in the (blank) and obtained from the (blank)
 
liver, diet
72
A high level of cholesterol in the blood may contribute to (blank)
 
atherosclerosis
73
All proteins are constructed from a set of (blank) amino acids
 
20
74
Polymers of amino acids are called (blank)
 
polypeptides
75
Casein, the protein of milk, is the major source of amino acids for baby (blank)
 
mammals
76
Ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for the developing avian...
 
embryo
77
Hemoglobin transports (blank)
 
oxygen
78
The proteins actin and myosin are responsible (along with other molecules) for the contraction...
 
muscles
79
The chemical nature of the protein molecule as a whole is determined by the kind and sequence...
 
side chains
80
It is the amino acid sequence of each polypeptide that determines what three-dimensional structure...
 
protein
81
A protein's specific structure determines how it (blank)
 
works
82
Within the backbone of the repeating constituents of a polypeptide, the oxygen atoms have a...
 
hydrogen
83
Some fibrous proteins, such as alpha-keratin, the structural protein of hair, have the (blank)...
 
alpha helix
84
(blankX2) form when two cyteine monomer, which have sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on their side chains,...
 
Disulfide bridges
85
The complete globular transthyretin protein is made up of (blank) polypeptides
 
4
86
The complete globular transthyretin protein is made up of (blank) polypeptides
 
4
87
The complete globular hemoglobin protein is made up of (blank) polypeptides
 
4
88
Each polypeptide of hemoglobin has a component, called heme, with an iron atom that binds (blank)
 
oxygen
89
Crucial to the folding process are (blank), protein molecules that assist the proper folding...
 
chaperonins
90
Nucleic acids are polymers made of monomers called (blank)
 
nucleotides
91
Unique among molecules, (blank) provides direction for its own replication
 
DNA
92
DNA also directs (blank) synthesis and, through (blank), controls protein synthesis
 
RNA, RNA
93
Each chromosome contains one long (blank) molecule, usually carrying several hundred or more...
 
DNA
94
The portion of a nucleotide without any phosphate groups is caclled a (blank)
 
nucleoside
95
There are 2 families of nitrogenous bases: (blank) and (blank)
 
pyrimidines, purines
96
The sequence of bases along a DNA or mRNA polymer is (blank) for each gene
 
unique
97
In DNA, adenine always pairs with (blank) and guanine always pairs with (blank)
 
thymine, cytosine
98
The four main classes of large biological molecules
 
1) carbohydrates
2) proteins
3) nucleic acids
4) lipids
99
4 diseases that are the result of misfolded proteins
 
1) Parkinson's
2) Alzheimer's
3) Huntington's
4) Cancer
100
Diagram and Label the Structure and function of a phospholipid
 
101
The structure formed when phospholipids self assemble
 
102
The flow of genetic information
 
103
Explain how digestion (within our bodies) illustrates hydrolysis
 
The bulk of the organic material in our food is in the form of polymers that are much too large...
104
Describe the four levels of protein structure
 
  • Primary structure: the linear arrangment of amino acids in a protein...


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