The Nineteenth Century

144 cards


 
  
Created Nov 7, 2012
by
lisaywchang

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
Beethoven's roots were 
 
Classical
2
Beethoven was a student of
 
Haydn
3
what is the symphony that goes DUN DUN DUN DUN 
 
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor 
4
scherzo
 
fast, rushing movement in triple meter in the basic minuet-trio form ABA
5
what did Beethoven replace the traditional minuet with
 
scherzo
6
fragmentation
 
two middle pitches of the bridge theme are isolated and echoed between high wind instruments...
7
Beethoven's years
 
1770-1827
8
who named the Romantics
 
themselves
9
what dominated the presentation of music in the 19th century
 
concert hall and opera house 
10
lieder
 
german song
11
rubato
 
rhythm is handled flexibly; the meter itself may waver, or else the beat is maintained strictly...
12
describe romantic melody
 
more irregular in rhythm and phrase structure, more spontaneous, range more widely than the...
13
describe romantic harmony
 
great technical advances, go hand in hand with melody to bring out emotionality
14
chromaticism
 
style that liberally employs all twelve notes of the chromatic scale- expand the expressive...
15
describe Romantic tone color
 
new combinations of instruments, blended orchestra sound, instruments went through major technical...
16
what is program music
 
instrumental music written in association witha poem, a story, or some other literary source
17
what's a nocturne
 
type of program music that attemps to capture the general flavor of a mood with an extramusical...
18
 miniatures
 
pieces lasting only a few minutes or less- convey a particularly pointed emotion, momentary...
19
what's an importnat general principle developed by Romantic composers
 
thematic unity, tendency to maintain some of the same thematic material throughough the work
20
difference between classical variation form and romantic variation
 
theme is much more fragmentary than a tune and the new versions of the theme appear at irregular...
21
thematic transformation
 
short themes are freely varied at relatively wide and unpredictable intervals of time
22
lied
 
particular type of German song that evolved in the late 18th century and flourished in the...
23
accompaniment of lied
 
a lied is nearly always accompanied by piano alone
24
poetry of lied
 
text of a lied is usually a Romantic poem
25
mood of lied 
 
intimate... composers intended lieder for the intimacy of a living room
26
earliest and great master of the lied
 
Franz Schubert
27
who wrote the poem of the Erlking
 
Johann Wolfgag von Goethe
28
through-composed
 
song with later stanzas with different or modified music. 
29
strophic
 
song that repeats the same music over and over for all its stanzas
30
song cycle
 
group of songs associated by a common poetic theme or an actual story
31
Name Schubert's two great song cycles
 
Die schone Mullerin (The Fair Maid of the Mill) and Winterreise (Winter Journey)
32
advantage of song cycle
 
extended lied into larger impressive unit- individual songs can be sung separately as well...
33
Schumann's famous song cycle
 
Dichterliebe
34
Whose wife was a great piano virtuoso
 
Robert Schumann- Clara Schumann
35
name some simple genre titles for character pieces for piano that Chopin preferred
 
nocturne, waltz, scherzo, etude
36
what's a character piece
 
short Romantic piano pieces
37
what did Schubert prefer for his character pieces
 
descriptive titles
38
concert overture
 
never intended to be followed by a stage play or an opera, not intended for the theater
39
what did Hector Berlioz write
 
overtures to literary works of various kinds- plays, long poems, novels etc
40
writer of best known and best loved concert overtures
 
Felix Mendelssohn
41
program symphonies
 
entire symphonies with programs spelle dout movement by movement 
42
idee fixe
 
obsession- single theme recur in all the movements as a representation of the musician's...
43
who was the greatest of Italian opera composer and dominant figure in 19th century opera houses?
 
Giuseppe Verdi
44
what was Verdi most committed to in his operas?
 
human voice
45
what was Rossini's famous opera buffa
 
Barber of Seville
46
bel canto opera
 
serious operas- glorification of beautiful singing
47
who was the most refined of the three early bel canto composers
 
Vincenzo Bellini
48
who was the founder of German Romantic opera
 
Carl Maria von Weber
49
who dominated Italian bel canto opera after Rossini's sudden retirement?
 
Gaetano Donizetti
50
Who wrote Rigoletto
 
Giuseppe Verdi
51
Start of Romantic opera
 
1820s
52
what was the source of the Verdi's opera Rigoletto
 
a play by Victor Hugo (The King Amuses Himself)
53
center of musical life in Italy
 
Milan's opera house, La Scala
54
whose name became a patriotic acronym for the popular choice of king during the Italian revolution
 
VERDI
55
what did Verdi do after he retire
 
fine country estate near his birthplace and spent his later years hunting and raising livestock
56
when did Verdi retire
 
after the premiere of Aida in Cairo, Egypt
57
when did Verdi write his two greatest operas- Othello and Falstaff
 
after his publisher coaxed him out of retirement 
58
who developed a special operative technique and what was it
 
Wagner; guiding motive- leitmotiv: musical motive associated with some person, thing, idea,...
59
what word did Wagner coin
 
gesamtkunstwek- total work of art
60
who was the main italian opera composer after Verdi that is said to have brought an end to...
 
Giacomo Puccini
61
what did Puccini specialize in
 
intimate portraits of helpless women in hopeless situations
62
there was a move toward _____ in opera at the end of the 19th century
 
realism
63
symphonic poems 
 
one-movement orchestral composition with a program in a free musical form
64
who composed the symphonic poems
 
Franz Liszt
65
name some of Liszt's symphonic poems
 
Hamlet, Orpheus, Prometheus, Les Preludes
66
Who wrote the overture-fantasy Romeo and Juliet
 
Tchaikovsky
67
Was Tchaikovsky a nationalist?
 
no. although his peices may sometimes sound Russian, he was not as devoted a nationalist as...
68
who was Tchaikovsky's patron
 
wealthy reclusive widow named Nadezhda von Meck- never met
69
What was the close group of five Russian nationalist composers
 
kuchka- Mighty Five
70
which German composer turned back to the classicism of the Viennese masters
 
Johannes Brahms
71
Did Brahms compose gradiose works
 
no- the only typical romantic genre he cultivated was the miniature- lied and charactersistic...
72
who was the Romantic nostalgia- explain
 
Mahler- ambivalent about Romantic traiditon although he embraced all of it rather than Brahm,...
73
Theater an de Wein
 
new concert hall in center of city- The first public performance of Beethoven’s newest...
74
Symphony No. 3
 
The Eroica Symphony 
75
Went to Vienna to study with Haydn in 1793
 
Beethoven 
76
When did Beethoven start losing his hearing
 
As early as 1800 near age of 30
77
What did Beethoven write during his retreat in 1802
 
Heiligenstadt Testament
78
What form is Symphony No.5 in C Minor in
 
-        Double Variation Form
79
-        Double Variation Form
 
o   second, non-varied theme is interpolated within the first theme’s variation
80
-        Beethoven’s Form
 
o   Five sections followed by a coda
o   Each section contains at...
81
  Beethoven’s Form
 
o   First two sections each contain all of the main materials
82
Third movement of Symphony No.5 in C Minor
 
o   A scherzo replaces the minuet of the earlier classical era
Formally like...
83
fourth movement of Symphony No.5 in C Minor
 
o   Standard sonata form with 4 themes
84
Beethoven’s Third Period
 
-        Music loses some of its heroic nature and urgency
85
Name of Beethoven's huge mass
 
Missa Solemnis
86
Beethoven's focus
 
o   Piano sonata and string quartets 
87
Beethoven's -        String Quartet, Op. 135
 
o   One of his last compositions, o  performed not during his lifetime...
88
-        During _____ last years, Europe was changing from...
 
Beethoven
89
Rossini, Wagner
 
opera composers
90
Brahms
 
o   instrumental music and lieder
91
Chopin: Liszt
 
o   piano music
92
Schumann
 
piano music and lieder
93
Berlioz
 
orchestral music
94
Tchaikovsky
 
ballet and instrumental music 
95
PLURAL of lied
 
lieder
96
o   Erlkonig
 
-        Franz Schubert
97
o   The Odeon
 
opera house where Harriet Smithson played Ophelia in Hamlet
98
Hector Berlioz's loveeeee
 
Harriet Smithson
99
Marie (Camille) Moke 
 
Hector Berlioz's first wife 
100
Marie Recio Berlioz 
 
Hector Berlioz's mistress when he was married to Harriet Smithson
101
The Dies Irae
 
Gregorian Chant “Day of Wrath”
102
Col Legno
 
using the wood of the bow instead of the hair 
103
Sul Ponticello 
 
(bowing on the bridge of a string instrument) with bass trill 
104
Wind Glissando
 
overblowing
105
·        Developed many orchestral effects- found...
 
Hector Berlioz
106
former law student 
 
Robert Schumann
107
well established musical journalist -Particularly good about identifying promising new compositional...
 
 Robert Schumann
108
who were the famous artists that Schumann discovered 
 
Chopin and Brahms
109
Schumann ruined his piano-playing career with a gizmo 
 
o   called a chiroplast
§  Wound up with a nearly useless left hand...
110
Composer that quit
 
Gioachino Rossini
111
o   Tended to recycle bits and pieces of failed shows into later ones- especially...
 
Gioachino Rossini
112
o   Bel canto opera
 
§  Singing and singers were everything
§  Meant to be entertaining...
113
Bel canto opera- Arias
 
§  Arias consisted of two parts
n  Cavatina- slow and lyric shows off...
114
§  Total failure at its premiere 1816
 
o   The Barber of Seville- Gioachino Rossini
115
o   Also retired from composing but went back to it later and produced two supreme...
 
-        Giusepe Verdi 
116
·        Specialty of Schumann
 
Character Piece for Piano
117
Schumann's Carnaval:Three selections
 
Eusebius, Florestan, Chiarina
118
Carnival Eusebius
 
The dreamy, poetic side
119
Carnival Florestan
 
Impetuous and dynamic
120
Carnival Chiarina
 
A portait of teenaged Clara Wieck
121
sotto voce
 
under voice
122
Schumann’s Dichterliebe
 
A Poet's Love -love to love lost -unrequited love :'[
123
Attempted suicide and stuff
 
Schumann’s bipolar disorder
124
Saw himself as a classicist. His pieces were all abstract
 
Chopin
125
Chopin’s Nocturnes form
 
The form is usually a simple A-B-A
126
Blood vessel bursting in his brain from working too hard
 
Felix Mendelssohn
127
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
 
Felix Mendelssohn
128
Established the model of the supervirtuoso celebrity performer
 
Franz Liszt
129
became a monk..
 
Franz Liszt
130
composer of extremes
 
Gustav Mahler
131
Very bitterly criticized when it first came out Random- funeral march- happy dance music-...
 
Symphony No.1 Funeral March
132
It was based on a children's song 
 
Mahler's Symphony No.1 Funeral March
133
first composer to talk to us 
 
Brahms
134
had all the techniques of different composers 
 
Brahms
135
everyone expected him to be the next Beethoven and wanted him to write a symphony
 
Brahms
136
Sometimes said to be indifferent to the orchestra- indifferent to gratuitous effects
 
Brahms
137
destroyed any second rate works and unfinished pieces  cared about the quality of...
 
Brahms
138
He really liked cymbals.
 
Tchaikovsky
139
Tended to “recycle” bits and pieces of failed shows into later ones.
 
GIOACHINO ROSSINI
140
Legendary for his laziness 
 
GIOACHINO ROSSINI
141
ACT I FINALE of THE BARBER OF SEVILLE
 
Typical opera buffa finale, with massive confusion and everybody onstage
142
Who was Rigoletto
 
the court jester to the Duke of Mantua
143
David Belasco
 
native San Franciscan who became one of the giants of the Broadway stage
144
They wrote two operas together: Madama Butterfly and The Girl of the Golden West,
 
PUCCINI AND BELASCO

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