Test 4 History And Systems Of Psychology


Last Test Of The Year
  
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phi phenomenon
 
a product of Max Werheimer who found it while riding in a train. He proposed that even though no motion occurs, motion is seen. This is seen thorugh the light in the circle and the stroboscope (bird and cage thing).
perceptual constancy
 
the tendency of animals and humans to see familiar objects as having standard shape, size, colour, or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, or lighting
Max Wertheimer
 
Gestalt. Studied at Unviersity of Prague. In 1904 got his PhD from Unversity of Wurzburg with Kulpe. Propsed the phi phenomenon. Cofounded journal Psychological Research, left Germany during the reign of the Nazis.
Kurt Koffka
 
Gestalt. In 1909 got his PhD from University of Berlin with Stumpf. 1910 started associating himself with Wertheimer and Kohler at University of Frankfurt. 1922 wrote "Perception: an INtroduction to Gestalt Theorie" which set the up the basics of Gestalt psychology and was the first to do it. Very difficult to read however so it was not very well taken.
Wolfgand Kohler
 
Gestalt. 1909 got his PhD from University of Berlin with Stunpf. 1913-1920 stuck in the Canary Islands during WWI and studied and wrote about behavior in chimpazees. Suceeded Stumpf at Unviversity of Berlin. Said that Gestalt was a law of nature. Fled to America because he spoke out against Nazis. 1959 became president of APA.
4 Gestalt principles of perception
 
1. We percieve wholes, not clusters of sensations.2. Perceptional organization occurs instantly and is spontaneous and inevitable.3. brain is a dynamic system; all active elements interact4. organizational principles; proximity, continuity, similarity, closure, figure/ground.
Gestalt organizational principles
 
proximity, closure, similarity, figure/ground
proximity
 
Things that are close are going to be grouped togetherDots that are grouped together and dots that are in pairs
Closure
 
We will creat figures even though they do not have a concrete figure.WWF panda
Figure/Ground
 
the faces or glass picture
Two meanings of Gestalt
 
Gestalt refers to both objects and to their characteristic forms.Gestalt psychologists include the entire province of psychology
Kohler's premise of Productive Thinking in Humans
 
1. Thinking is done in terms of wholes.the learner regards the situation as a wholethe teacher must present the situation as a wholethe whole problems must dominate the parts
Why Gestalt was not accpeted quicly in the US
 
1. behaviorism was at its peak2. a language barrier (very hard to read and understand)3. Belief that Gestalt psychology delt solely with perception4. Main innovators were at small colleges with no graduate program so there were no grad students to spread it5. Gestalt was more about speaking against Wundt which was already over in the US
Kurt Lewin
 
Gestalt. 1914 got his PhD at Univeristy of Berlin with Stumpf (coincidence?). studied human motivation. Came up with "Life Space" or the field theory.
Field Theory
 
all past present and future events that may affect a person. each prior event affects how a person reacts in a situation.
life space (aka psychological field)
 
i think its the same as field theory, all past present and future events that may affect a person. each prior event affects how a person reacts in a situation.
life space development
 
a product of the amount and type of experience accumulated
Lewin's definition of behavior
 
cycle of tension (need) states followed by activity and relief
Zeigarnik Effect
 
The tendancy to reall uncompleted tasks more easliy than completed ones
social field
 
group and its environment
Group behavior
 
result of the total field situation at a given time
Carl Jung
 
Humanist. Weird childhood. Had a very strong friendship with Freud and helped spread Freud's ideas.
Jung's Psychological Types
 
libido directly inward (introversion) or outard (extroversion).Psychological functions; thinking, feeling, sensation, intuition.
Personal Unconsciousness
 
relatively accesible repressions, surpressions, and forgotten.complexes of organized memories, thoughts, preceptions and feelings
Collective Unconsciosness
 
contents and modes similar for everyone.archetype inherited evolved predisposition.persona a role that a person assumes for public consumption.shadow the residue of animal behavior.
archetype
 
archetype inherited evolved predisposition.
persona
 
a role that a person assumes for public consumption
shadow
 
the residue of animal behavior
anima
 
female personality types
animus
 
male personality type
Carl Rogers
 
psychodynamically oriented theories but electic. had notable disagreement with U of Chicago medical department, taped all of his therapy sessions.
client centered therapy ( or perosn-centered treatment)
 
evey person has the ability to be psychologicvally healthy and self actualized.
ingredients necessary for client centered therapy
 
1. accepting environment2. unconditional positive regard3. empathetic understanding4. congruence (genuineness by therapist)
Abraham Maslow
 
Humanist. Went to Univeristy of Wisconsin. Did fellowship with Thorndike and decided to study motivation and perception. Came up with the needs heirarchy.
Needs Heirarchy
 
physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self actualization.subjective individual experience is essential to psychology's subject matter.
Self Actualization
 
The highest level of Maslow's needs heirarchy. It involves; morality, creativity, spontineity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
Lev Vygotsky
 
Coginitive. Focused on questions of structure/function in a areal world, behavioral perspective. did lots for children psychology.
play behavior
 
being able to explore the world without having to explore it. Imagination allows for development of abstract concepts. Playing house teaches children about social roles.
Jean Piaget
 
Cognitive. Studied biology. interested in psychoanalysis. Came up with child intelligence tests and the stages of cognitive development, and the schema theory.
Piaget's cognitive development stages
 
sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage.
Sensorimotor stage
 
Birth-2. Develop object permenance.
preoperational stage
 
2-7. Animism (animal thinking), egocentrism (fixation on own perspective)
concrete operational stage
 
7-12. sense of conservation of quantity.example with the tall and short cup with same water.
formal operational stage
 
12+. abstract thinking
assimilation
 
the reuse of schemas to fit the new information
accomodation
 
making the schema fit the individual situation
George Miller
 
Cognitive. Best known for study of "The Magical Number Seven". Opened the first cognitive psychology lab at Harvard in 1960.
The Magical Number Seven
 
plus or minus two. its the number of things that someone could remember over a short period of time. Digits
Four major Themes of Cognitive Psychology
 
1. Prompted the schema as the basis of cognitive psychology.2. Advocated ecological validity of experiements so that they generalize outside the lab.3. Focus of application of cognitive theories4. Reconciliation with behaviorism.
Perceptual cycle
 
Mental structures (schema) direct behavior and our experiences modify the mental representations
ecological validity
 
so that they generalize outside the labratory
Alan Turing
 
Cognitive. He came up with the Turing test and interested in congnition and intelligence.
Turing Test
 
Had a person talk to computers and a person and try to figure out which was actually a person. If you believe it is intelligent then it is.
Cognitive Sciences
 
any science that has to do with the mind. cognition, perception, memory

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