Muscle Synergists

Muscle Synergists
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Shoulder flexion synergists
Deltiod anterior fibersPectoralis major upper fibersBiceps brachiiCoracobrachialis
Should extension synergists
Deltoid (posterior fibers)Latissimus dorsiTeres majorInfrasomatisTeres minorPectoralis major (lower fibers)Triceps brachii (long head)
Shoulder horizontal abduction synergists
Deltoid (posterior fibers)InfraspinatusTeres minor
Shoulder horizontal adduction synergists
Deltoid (anterior fibers)Pectoralis major (upper fibers)
Shoulder abduction synergists
Deltiod (all fibers)Supraspinatus
Shoulder adduction synergists
Latissimus dorsiTeres majorInfraspinatusTeres minorPectoralis major (all fibers)Triceps brachii (long head)Coracobrachialis
Shoulder lateral rotation(external rotation) synergists
Deltoid (anterior fibers)Latissimus dorsiTeres majorSubscapularisPectoralis major (all fibers)
Shoulder medial rotation(internal rotation) synergists
Deltoid (anterior fibers)Latisumus dorsiTeres majorSubscapularisPectoralis major (all fibers)
Scapula elevation synergists
Trapezius (upper fibers)Rhomboid majorRhomboid minorLevator scapula
Scapula depression synergists
Trapezius (lower fibers)Serratus anterior (with origin fixed)Pectoralis minor
Scapula adduction(retraction) synergist
Trapezius (middle fibers)Rhomboid majorRhomboid minor
Scapula abduction (protraction) synergists
Serrtatus anterior (with origin fixed)Pectoralis minor
Scapula upward rotation synergists
Trapezius (upper and lower fibers)
Scapula downward rotation synergists
Rhomboid majorRhomboid minorLevator scapula
Elbow flexion synergists
Biceps BrachiiBrachialisBrachioradialisFlexor carpi radialisFlexor carpi ulnaris (assists)Palmaris longusPronator teres (assists)Extensor carpi radialis longus (assists)Extensor carpi radialis brevis (assists)
Elbow extension synergists
Triceps brachii Anconeus
Forearm supination synergists
Biceps brachiiSupinatorBrachioradialis (assists)
Forearm pronation synergists
Pronator teresPronator quadratusBrachioradialis (assists)
Wrist extension synergists
Extensor carpi radialis longusExtensor carpi radialis brevisExtensor carpi ulnarisExtensor digitorum (assists)
Wrist flexion synergists
Flexor carpi radialisFlexor carpi ulnarisPalmaris longusFlexor digitorum superficialisFlexor digitorum profundus (assists)
Wrist abduction(radial deviation) synergists
Extensor carpi radialis longusExtensor carpi radialis brevisFlexor carpi radialis
Wrist adduction(ulnar deviation) synergists
Extensor carpi ulnarisFlexor carpi ulnaris
Flexion of the second through fifth fingers
Flexor digitorum superficialisFlexor digitorum profundusFlexor digiti minimi brevis (5th)LumbricalsDorsal interossei (2nd-4th) (assists)Palmar interossei (2nd, 4th, 5th) (assists)
Extension of the second through fifth fingers
Extensor digitorumExtensor indicis (2nd)LumbricalsDorsal interossei (2nd-4th) (assists) Palmar interossei (2nd, 4th, 5th) (assists)
Abduction of the second through fifth fingers
Dorsal interossei (2nd-4th)Abductor digiti minimi (5th)
Adduction of the second through fifth fingers
Palmar interossei (3nf, 4th, 5th)Extensor indicis (2nd) (assists)
Opposition of the fifth finger
Opponens digiti minimiAbductor digiti minimi (assists)Flexor digiti minimi brevis (assists)Thum
Thumb flexoin synergists
Flexor pollicis longusFlexor pollicis brevisAdductor pollicis (assists)Palmar interossei (1st) (assists)
Thumb extension synergists
Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevisAbductor pollicis longusPalmar interossei (1st) (assists)
Thumb abduction synergists
Abductor pollicis longusAbdcutor pollicis brevis
Thumb adduction synergists
Adductor pollicisPalmar interossei
Thumb opposition synergists
Opponens pollicisFlexor pollicis brevis (assists)Abdcutor pollicis brevis (assists)
Vertebral column flexion synergists
Rectus abdominisExternal oblique (bilaterally)Internal oblique ( bilaterally)
Vertebral column extension synergists
Spinalis (bilaterally)Longissimus (bilaterally)Illiocostalis (bilaterally)Multifidi (bilaterally)Rotatores (bilaterally)Semispinalis capitis Quadratus Lumborum (assists)Intertransversarii (bilaterally)InterspinalisLatissimus dorsi (when arm is fixed)
Vertebral column rotation synergists
(all unilaterally)Multifide (to the opposite side)Rotatores (to the opposite side)External oblique (to the opposite side)Internal oblique (to the same side)
Vertebral column lateral flexion synergists
(unilaterally to the same side)SpinalisLongissimusIlliocostalisQuadratus lumborumExternal obliqueInternal obliqueIntertransversariiLatissimus dorsi
Ribs/Thorax elevation/expansion synergists
Scalenes (all bilaterally)Sternocleidomastoid (assists)External intercostals (assists)Serratus posterior superiorPectoralis mahor (may assist if arm is fixed)Serratus anterior (if scapula is fixed)Subcalvius (first rib)
Rib/Thorax depression/collapse synergists
Internal intercostals (assists)Serratus posterior inferior
Muscles of Inhalation
DiaphragmScalenes (all bilaterally)Sternocleidomastoid (assists)External intercostals (assists)Serratus posterior superior Quadratus lumborumPectoralis major (asists if arm's fixed)Pectoralis minor (if scapula is fixed)Serratus anterior ( if scapula is fixed)Subclavius (first rib)
Muscles of exhalation
Internal intercostals (assists)Serratus posterior inferior External oblique (compressing abdominal contents)Transverse abdominis (compressing ... ...)Quadratus lumborum
Cervical Spine flexion synergists
Sternocleidomastoid (bilaterally)Anterior scalene (bilaterally)Longus capitis (bilaterally)Longus colli (bilaterally)
Cervical Spine extension synergists
Upper Trapezius (bilaterally)Levertor scapula (bilaterallySplenius capitis (bilaterally)Splenius cervicis (bilaterally)Rectus capitis posterior majorRectus capitis posterior minorOblique captitis superiorSemispinalis capitisLongissimus capitis (assists)Longissimus cervicis (assists)Illiocostalis cervics (assists)
Cervical Spine rotation synergists(unilaterally to the same side)
Levator scapulaSplenius capitisSplenius cervicisRectus capitis posterior majorOblique capitis inferiorLongus colliLongus capitisLongissimus capitis (assists)Longissimus cervicis (assists)Illiocostialis cervicis (assists)
Cervical Spine rotation synergists(unilaterally to the opposite side)
Upper TrapeziusSternocleidomastoidScalenes
Cervical Spine lateral flexion synergists
(unilaterally to the same side)Upper TrapeziusLevator scapulaSplenius capitisSplenius cervicisSternocleidomastoidLongus capitisLongus colliScalenes (all with ribs fixed)Longissimus capitis (assists)Longissimus cervicis (assists)Illiocostalis cervicis (assists)
Mandible elevation synergists
MasseterTemporalisMedial pterygoid
Mandible depression synergists
GeniohyoidMylohyoidStylohyoidDigastric (with hyoid bone fixed)Platysma (assists)
Mandible protraction synergists
Lateral pterygoid (bilaterally)Medical pterygoid (bilaterally)
Mandible retraction synergists
Mandible lateral deviation synergists
(unilaterally)Lateraly pterygoid (to opposite side)Medial pterygoid (to opposite side)
Pelvis anterior tilt (downward rotation) synergists
Latissimus dorsi (assists)
Pelvis posterior tilt(upward rotation) synergists
Biceps femorisSemitendinosusSemimembranosusPsoas minor
Pelvis Lateraly tilt (elevation) synergists
Quadratus lumborumLatissimus dorsi (assists)
Coxal flexion synergists
Rectus femorisGleteus medius (anterior fibers)Glute minimusAdductor magnus (assists)Adductor longus (assists)Adductor brevis (assistss)Pectineus (assists)Tensor fasciae lataeSartoriusPsoas majorIlliacus
Coxal extension synergists
Biceps femorisSemitendinosusSemimembranosusGluteus maximusGluteus minimus (posterior fibers)Adducyot magnus (posterior fibers)
Coxal medial rotation (internal rotation) synergists
SemitendinosusSemimembranosusGluteus medius (anterior fibers)Gluteus minimusAdductor magnusAdductor longusAdductor brevisGracilidPecteneusTensor fasciae latae
Coxal lateral rotation(external rotation) synergists
Biceps femorisGluteus maximusGluteus medius (posterior fibers)SatoriusPiriformisQuadratus femorisObturator internusObturator externusGemellus superiorGemellus inferiorPsoas majorIlliacus
Coxal abduction synergists
Gluteus maximusGluteus mediusGluteus minimusTensor fasciae lataeSatoriusPiriformis (when hip is flexed)
Coxal adduction synergists
Adductor magnusAdductor longusAdductor brevisPectineusGracilisPsoas majorIlliacusGluteus maximus (lower fibers)
Knee flexion synergists
Biceps femorisSemitendinosusSemimembranosusGracilisSartoriusGastrocnemiusPopliteusPlantaris (weak)
Knee extension synergists
Rectus femoris Vastus lateralisVastus medialisVastus intermedius
Knee medial rotation of flexed knee synergists
Knee lateral rotation of flexed knee synergists
Biceps femoris
Ankle plantar flexion synergists
GastrocnemiusSoleusTibialis posteriorPeroneus longus (assists)Peroneus brevis (assists)Flexor digitorum longus (weak)Flexor halliucis longus (weak)Plantaris (weak)
Ankle dorsiflexion synergists
Tibialis anteriorExtensor digitorum longusExtensor hallucis longus
Foot/Toes inversion synergists
Tibialis anterorTibialis posteriorFlexor digitorum longusFlexor hallucis longusExtensor hallucis longus
Foot/Toes eversion synergists
Peroneus longusPeroneus brevisExtensor digitorum longus
Flexion of second through fifth toes
Flexor digitorum longusFlexor digitorum brevisLumbricalsQuadratus plantae (assists)Dorsal interossei (2nd - 4th)Plantar interossei (3rd - 5th)Abductor digiti minimi (5th)Flexor digiti minimi (5th)
Extension of second through fifth toes
Extensor digitorum longusExtensor digitorum brevis (2nd - 4th)Lumbricals
Adduction of second through fifth toes
Plantar interossei (3rd - 5th)
Abduction of second through fifth toes
Dorsal interossei (2nd - 4th)Abductor digiti minimi (5th) (assists)
Flexion of first toe
Flexor hallucis longusFlexor hallucis brevisAbductor hallucis (assists)
Extension of first toe
Extensor hallucis longusExtensor hallucis brevis
Adduction of first toe
Adductor hallucis
Abduction of first toe
Abductor hallucis

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