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Muscle Synergists


Muscle Synergists
  
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Shoulder flexion synergists
 

Deltiod anterior fibers
Pectoralis major upper fibers
Biceps brachii
Coracobrachialis
Should extension synergists
 

Deltoid (posterior fibers)
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Infrasomatis
Teres minor
Pectoralis major (lower fibers)
Triceps brachii (long head)
Shoulder horizontal abduction synergists
 

Deltoid (posterior fibers)
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Shoulder horizontal adduction synergists
 

Deltoid (anterior fibers)
Pectoralis major (upper fibers)
Shoulder abduction synergists
 

Deltiod (all fibers)
Supraspinatus
Shoulder adduction synergists
 

Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Pectoralis major (all fibers)
Triceps brachii (long head)
Coracobrachialis

Shoulder lateral rotation
(external rotation) synergists
 

Deltoid (anterior fibers)
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Subscapularis
Pectoralis major (all fibers)

Shoulder medial rotation
(internal rotation) synergists
 

Deltoid (anterior fibers)
Latisumus dorsi
Teres major
Subscapularis
Pectoralis major (all fibers)
Scapula elevation synergists
 

Trapezius (upper fibers)
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor
Levator scapula
Scapula depression synergists
 

Trapezius (lower fibers)
Serratus anterior (with origin fixed)
Pectoralis minor

Scapula adduction
(retraction) synergist
 

Trapezius (middle fibers)
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor

Scapula abduction
(protraction) synergists
 

Serrtatus anterior (with origin fixed)
Pectoralis minor
Scapula upward rotation synergists
 
Trapezius (upper and lower fibers)
Scapula downward rotation synergists
 

Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor
Levator scapula
Elbow flexion synergists
 

Biceps Brachii
Brachialis
Brachioradialis
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi ulnaris (assists)
Palmaris longus
Pronator teres (assists)
Extensor carpi radialis longus (assists)
Extensor carpi radialis brevis (assists)
Elbow extension synergists
 

Triceps brachii
Anconeus
Forearm supination synergists
 

Biceps brachii
Supinator
Brachioradialis (assists)
Forearm pronation synergists
 

Pronator teres
Pronator quadratus
Brachioradialis (assists)
Wrist extension synergists
 

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extensor digitorum (assists)
Wrist flexion synergists
 

Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Palmaris longus
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus (assists)

Wrist abduction
(radial deviation) synergists
 

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Flexor carpi radialis

Wrist adduction
(ulnar deviation) synergists
 

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexion of the second through fifth fingers
 

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus
Flexor digiti minimi brevis (5th)
Lumbricals
Dorsal interossei (2nd-4th) (assists)
Palmar interossei (2nd, 4th, 5th) (assists)
Extension of the second through fifth fingers
 

Extensor digitorum
Extensor indicis (2nd)
Lumbricals
Dorsal interossei (2nd-4th) (assists)
Palmar interossei (2nd, 4th, 5th) (assists)
Abduction of the second through fifth fingers
 

Dorsal interossei (2nd-4th)
Abductor digiti minimi (5th)
Adduction of the second through fifth fingers
 

Palmar interossei (3nf, 4th, 5th)
Extensor indicis (2nd) (assists)
Opposition of the fifth finger
 

Opponens digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi (assists)
Flexor digiti minimi brevis (assists)Thum
Thumb flexoin synergists
 

Flexor pollicis longus
Flexor pollicis brevis
Adductor pollicis (assists)
Palmar interossei (1st) (assists)
Thumb extension synergists
 

Extensor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis brevis
Abductor pollicis longus
Palmar interossei (1st) (assists)
Thumb abduction synergists
 

Abductor pollicis longus
Abdcutor pollicis brevis
Thumb adduction synergists
 

Adductor pollicis
Palmar interossei
Thumb opposition synergists
 

Opponens pollicis
Flexor pollicis brevis (assists)
Abdcutor pollicis brevis (assists)
Vertebral column flexion synergists
 

Rectus abdominis
External oblique (bilaterally)
Internal oblique ( bilaterally)
Vertebral column extension synergists
 

Spinalis (bilaterally)
Longissimus (bilaterally)
Illiocostalis (bilaterally)
Multifidi (bilaterally)
Rotatores (bilaterally)
Semispinalis capitis
Quadratus Lumborum (assists)
Intertransversarii (bilaterally)
Interspinalis
Latissimus dorsi (when arm is fixed)
Vertebral column rotation synergists
 

(all unilaterally)
Multifide (to the opposite side)
Rotatores (to the opposite side)
External oblique (to the opposite side)
Internal oblique (to the same side)
Vertebral column lateral flexion synergists
 

(unilaterally to the same side)
Spinalis
Longissimus
Illiocostalis
Quadratus lumborum
External oblique
Internal oblique
Intertransversarii
Latissimus dorsi
Ribs/Thorax elevation/expansion synergists
 

Scalenes (all bilaterally)
Sternocleidomastoid (assists)
External intercostals (assists)
Serratus posterior superior
Pectoralis mahor (may assist if arm is fixed)
Serratus anterior (if scapula is fixed)
Subcalvius (first rib)
Rib/Thorax depression/collapse synergists
 

Internal intercostals (assists)
Serratus posterior inferior
Muscles of Inhalation
 

Diaphragm
Scalenes (all bilaterally)
Sternocleidomastoid (assists)
External intercostals (assists)
Serratus posterior superior
Quadratus lumborum
Pectoralis major (asists if arm's fixed)
Pectoralis minor (if scapula is fixed)
Serratus anterior ( if scapula is fixed)
Subclavius (first rib)
Muscles of exhalation
 

Internal intercostals (assists)
Serratus posterior inferior
External oblique (compressing abdominal contents)
Transverse abdominis (compressing ... ...)
Quadratus lumborum
Cervical Spine flexion synergists
 

Sternocleidomastoid (bilaterally)
Anterior scalene (bilaterally)
Longus capitis (bilaterally)
Longus colli (bilaterally)
Cervical Spine extension synergists
 

Upper Trapezius (bilaterally)
Levertor scapula (bilaterally
Splenius capitis (bilaterally)
Splenius cervicis (bilaterally)
Rectus capitis posterior major
Rectus capitis posterior minor
Oblique captitis superior
Semispinalis capitis
Longissimus capitis (assists)
Longissimus cervicis (assists)
Illiocostalis cervics (assists)

Cervical Spine rotation synergists
(unilaterally to the same side)
 

Levator scapula
Splenius capitis
Splenius cervicis
Rectus capitis posterior major
Oblique capitis inferior
Longus colli
Longus capitis
Longissimus capitis (assists)
Longissimus cervicis (assists)
Illiocostialis cervicis (assists)

Cervical Spine rotation synergists
(unilaterally to the opposite side)
 

Upper Trapezius
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalenes

Cervical Spine lateral flexion synergists
 

(unilaterally to the same side)
Upper Trapezius
Levator scapula
Splenius capitis
Splenius cervicis
Sternocleidomastoid
Longus capitis
Longus colli
Scalenes (all with ribs fixed)
Longissimus capitis (assists)
Longissimus cervicis (assists)
Illiocostalis cervicis (assists)
Mandible elevation synergists
 

Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid
Mandible depression synergists
 

Geniohyoid
Mylohyoid
Stylohyoid
Digastric (with hyoid bone fixed)
Platysma (assists)
Mandible protraction synergists
 

Lateral pterygoid (bilaterally)
Medical pterygoid (bilaterally)
Mandible retraction synergists
 

Temporalis
Digastric
Mandible lateral deviation synergists
 

(unilaterally)
Lateraly pterygoid (to opposite side)
Medial pterygoid (to opposite side)

Pelvis anterior tilt
(downward rotation) synergists
 
Latissimus dorsi (assists)

Pelvis posterior tilt
(upward rotation) synergists
 

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Psoas minor

Pelvis Lateraly tilt
(elevation) synergists
 

Quadratus lumborum
Latissimus dorsi (assists)
Coxal flexion synergists
 

Rectus femoris
Gleteus medius (anterior fibers)
Glute minimus
Adductor magnus (assists)
Adductor longus (assists)
Adductor brevis (assistss)
Pectineus (assists)
Tensor fasciae latae
Sartorius
Psoas major
Illiacus
Coxal extension synergists
 

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus minimus (posterior fibers)
Adducyot magnus (posterior fibers)

Coxal medial rotation
(internal rotation) synergists
 

Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Gluteus medius (anterior fibers)
Gluteus minimus
Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Gracilid
Pecteneus
Tensor fasciae latae

Coxal lateral rotation
(external rotation) synergists
 

Biceps femoris
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius (posterior fibers)
Satorius
Piriformis
Quadratus femoris
Obturator internus
Obturator externus
Gemellus superior
Gemellus inferior
Psoas major
Illiacus
Coxal abduction synergists
 

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fasciae latae
Satorius
Piriformis (when hip is flexed)
Coxal adduction synergists
 

Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Pectineus
Gracilis
Psoas major
Illiacus
Gluteus maximus (lower fibers)
Knee flexion synergists
 

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Gracilis
Sartorius
Gastrocnemius
Popliteus
Plantaris (weak)
Knee extension synergists
 

Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Knee medial rotation of flexed knee synergists
 

Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Fracilis
Sartorius
Popliteus
Knee lateral rotation of flexed knee synergists
 
Biceps femoris
Ankle plantar flexion synergists
 

Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Tibialis posterior
Peroneus longus (assists)
Peroneus brevis (assists)
Flexor digitorum longus (weak)
Flexor halliucis longus (weak)
Plantaris (weak)
Ankle dorsiflexion synergists
 

Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Foot/Toes inversion synergists
 

Tibialis anteror
Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Foot/Toes eversion synergists
 

Peroneus longus
Peroneus brevis
Extensor digitorum longus
Flexion of second through fifth toes
 

Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor digitorum brevis
Lumbricals
Quadratus plantae (assists)
Dorsal interossei (2nd - 4th)
Plantar interossei (3rd - 5th)
Abductor digiti minimi (5th)
Flexor digiti minimi (5th)
Extension of second through fifth toes
 

Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor digitorum brevis (2nd - 4th)
Lumbricals
Adduction of second through fifth toes
 
Plantar interossei (3rd - 5th)
Abduction of second through fifth toes
 

Dorsal interossei (2nd - 4th)
Abductor digiti minimi (5th) (assists)
Flexion of first toe
 

Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor hallucis brevis
Abductor hallucis (assists)
Extension of first toe
 

Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor hallucis brevis
Adduction of first toe
 
Adductor hallucis
Abduction of first toe
 
Abductor hallucis

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