Stomach - 8

Stomach - 8
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Gross Anatomy1. 4 regionsa. close to the heart, small circular region just below LES, near gastroesophageal jctb. blind sac on left side of stomach, extends superiorly, fcts as part of the corpus or bodyc. largest region --> incorporates most of the greater/ lesser curvaturesd. located below the corpus and is composed of 2 sections --> name 2 sections with anatomical landmarkse. very last part
1. cardiac 2. fundus3. corpus or body4. pylorus-- antrum = designated by imaginary line diagonally from angular notch to greater curvature-- pyloric canal = terminal region connects to duodenum at gastroduodenal jcte. pyloric sphincter
Glands1. cardiac glands secrete __ and __2. gastric glandsa. locationb. includes what 2 things?
1. mucous and HCO32a. fundus and corpusb. gastric pits and oxyntic glands
GASTRIC GLANDSCell Types in Oxyntic Gland1. ___ (oxyntic) cellsa. secrete what 3 things?- required for absorption of ___ in ileumb. lack of intrinsic factor causes2. Chief ( ___ ) cells secrete ___ (inactive form of enzyme __) AND __ __ (optimal pH is 6.0)-- therefore, it is not very active in __ where pH is 1-33. mucous neck cells= secrete __ and __4. enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) = ___ cells that secrete __5. D cells = secrete ___
1. parietala. H, Cl, intrinsic factor- vit B12b. pernicious anemia (Vit B12 is required for production of heme component of Hgb)2. (peptic) --> pepsinogen (pepsin)-- gastric lipase-- stomach3. mucous and HCO34. endocrine cells that secrete histamine5. somatostatin
1. gastric pit = space above __ __ __ to the surface of __ __ ANTRUM GLANDS1. 3 cell types2. 2 sub-types of the last and what they secretePYLORIC GLANDS1. 2 cells
1. mucous neck cells/ gastric epithelium~~
1. chief, mucous, endocrine2. endocrine = - G cells secrete gastrin- D cells secrete somatostatin~~1. mucous cells = secrete mucous and HCO3G cells = secrete gatrin
1. Superficial or Surface Mucous Cells (at surface of lumen throughout gastric epithelium)a. secrete __ and __b. mucous forms a layer that coats the __ __ surface for __c. 2 parts of mucous layerd. luminal pH vs mucous/ epithelial interface pH
1a. mucous and HCO3b. gastric epithelial/ protectionc. mucous gel neutralization zone (next to lumen)- region closest to surface epithelium = unstirred layerd. luminal 1-3mucous/ epithelial interface 6-7
Stimulation of Gastric HCl Secretion1. location2. ___ stimulation to ENS (___ plexus) causes:a. release of ___ (from __ fibers) that binds to ___ receptors on ___ cells to stimulate HCl secretionb. rls of __ that binds to ___ receptors on ___ cells that release ___ which binds to __ receptors on ___ cells which in turn secrete ___
1. corpus2. vagal/ submucosala. Ach (postgang)/ M3 muscarinic receptors/ parietal cellsb. Ach/ M3 muscarinic receptors/ ECL/ histamine/ H2 receptors/ parietal cells/ Hcl
Stimulation of Gastric HCl Secretion1. vagus nerve also releases ___ which combines with __ cells in the ___a. G cells secrete __ into the blood which stimulates __ cells to secrete HCl (endocrine)2. ACh binds to receptors on __ cells in antrum and does what?-- what does this substance normally do?3. 3 substances that potentiate secretion of HCl by parietal cells
1. gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)/ GPCR on G-cells/ antruma. gastrin/ parietal cells2. D cells - inhibits their secretion of somatostatin-- somatostatin normally inhibits parietal cell secretion of HCl (endocrine relationship)3. ACh, histamine, and gastrin
1. other than vagal, what is the other way that HCl secretion can be stimulated~
Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion1. Effects of ___ from __- cells in __ and __
1. partially digested Protein components in lumen can directly stim G cells in the antrum to secrete gastrin which stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl (endocrine)~1. somatostatin/ D- cells in corpus and antrum
Inhibition of Gastric Acid SecretionCORPUS1. dcrs vagal activity on ___ enhances release of ___ (in btw meals)2. incr levels of somatostatin do what?3. this results in what?4. does somatostatin directly or indirectly inhibit parietal cells from secreting HCl?
1. D-cells/ somatostatin2. inhibit ECL cells from secreting histamine (paracrine)3. lack of histamine reduces HCl secretion from parietal (paracrine)4. email sent- notes say directly PARACRINE
Inhibition of Gastric Acid SecretionANTRUM1. what stimulates somatostatin release from D-cells?2. this inhibits what cells in antrum?3. lack of this substance prevents __ cells from secreting HCl4. __ secrete somatostatin that directly/ indirectly inhibits parietal cell secretion of HCl
1. luminal acid (pH<3)2. G-cells in antrum from secreting gastrin3. parietal4. D-cells --> directly ENDOCRINE
Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion1. major mechanism = release of __ by ___ in the ___2. what enters duodenum to stimulate this secretion?3. this substance does what 2 things?
1. secretin/ S-cells/ duodenum2. fat or acid enter3. - inhibits gastrin secretion by astral G-cells (endocrine)- stimulates somatostatin secretion by antral D- cells (endocrine)
Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion1. ___ of the duodenum release ___ when what substances enter duodenum?2. what does this substance do?** Duodenal hormones more important than previous things mentioned**
1. K-cells/ gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-- when fat or acid enter duodenum2. GIP inhibits parietal cell secretion of HCl (endocrine)

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